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Goodbye My Brother by essayez et gagnez John Cheever. “Goodbye My Brother” is one of John Cheever’s best known short stories. Loss Essay Intro? In fact, it was this story which contributed to Cheever’s receiving his Guggenheim Scholarship. An uneasy relationship between two characters who are brothers is a dynamic Cheever returned to time and again throughout his writing career. When he does this, the relationship is always a metaphor for et gagnez, something bigger. Modern Day Clear Island, Massachussetts. I like the contrast between two brothers, and I prefer the essay history mathematics survey nihilist brother Lawrence, nick-named ‘Croaker’. He may have a tendency to point out the downside of any situation, but he is nonetheless right. When he notes that making improvements on a house near the coast is essayez et gagnez futile due to structure essay erosion from the sea, I’m reminded of that very modern division that can occur between family members at gatherings: Those who worry about climate change and rising sea levels versus those who insist that any climate change is a natural phenomenon and essayez, nothing at all to on approach worry about.

No matter the era, there will always be somewhat of essayez a clash between pessimists and optimists; that’s what make this story timeless. After reading this particular short story, I suspected there was far more to it if you cared to look below the sociology essays and method surface. Sure enough, after reading Peter Mathews’ essay A Farewell to essayez Goodbyes: Reconciling the Past in Cheever’s “Goodbye, My Brother” I realise that in order to really understand Cheever you would ideally have an understanding of mythology, the history of religion, and essay mathematics survey, a keen eye for symbolism. I’m sure I could keep digging into this one until I reached China. WHAT HAPPENS IN “GOODBYE MY BROTHER” The Pommeroy Clan gathers at the family’s summer house, built in the 1920’s on an island off the coast of Massachusetts. Et Gagnez? The four grown children and their families join their widowed mother for this summer ritual.

This is a special occasion, as they haven’t seen Lawrence in four years. Unfortunately, Lawrence has a reputation for putting a downer on procedings, and sure enough, he starts to piss the rest of the family off by pointing out the negatives and refusing to be a ‘joiner’. One night, the family all dress up for skills, an ‘As You Were’ party, except for Lawrence and Ruth, who don’t want to go. All the wives turn up in their wedding dresses; the men are surprised to find more than one has turned up in his high school football uniform. Then Ruth turns up, wearing a red dress which feels to the narrator ‘all wrong’.

Lawrence is essayez et gagnez outside and refuses to come in. Weight Loss Essay? The narrator assumes it’s because he thinks the whole idea of dressing up as someone from the past is pathetic. Note that we never really know what Lawrence thinks. While the rest of the family is at essayez, a flower show, Lawrence and the narrator have their own little showdown on the beach after the narrator has a go at Lawrence for spoiling everyone’s holiday. Then he whacks him across the minority back of the head with a wet root, wishing him dead. Essayez Et Gagnez? He ends up going off to have a swim and not worrying too much about whether he is okay. Wiki? Lawrence, nihilist that he is, doesn’t seem all that surprised by this, but is essayez angry enough to pack up and leave after announcing the incident to the family. Only the mother got up to say goodbye, before Lawrence’s family took the six o’clock boat to the mainland. Laud’s Head appears to be a fictional headland of the sort that you find dotted along the New England coast of America. Structure Essay? Cheever wrote “Goodbye, My Brother,” after a gloomy summer in essayez et gagnez, Martha’s Vineyard, so I suppose we might imagine that setting.

That said, the name ‘Laud’ apparently has significance to problem skills test readers who know their English history: [T]he summer house, or Eden, of the Pommeroy family is called Laud’s Head, a name which, if one knows some English religious history, undoubtedly refers to one of the most famous Anglican Archbishops, William Laud, who was beheaded by the Puritans in 1645 for attempting to bring back into the Episcopal Church music, ritual, the Communion table, and the sacramental system the Puritans had banned. […] Chaddy Pommeroy […] and Chucky Ewing […] both have names that are cognates of […] Charles I, who also lost his head to the Puritans under the chief Roundhead, Oliver Cromwell. The Weather As Emotion In “Goodbye My Brother” The blustery Atlantic air plays an important part in the story. The cold ocean air has blown away the et gagnez gloom that Lawrence has brought with him from essay mathematics survey Albany. Et Gagnez? At the anthropological end of the story, the essayez et gagnez narrator wakes up on the morning of Lawrence’s abrupt departure with a feeling that a black cloud has blown away and macbeth character analysis essay, left a perfectly gorgeous day.

Jesus, what a morning! The wind was northerly. The air was clear. In the early heat, the roses in et gagnez, the garden smelled like strawberry jam. In stories, when the weather reflects character emotions, this is called ‘pathetic fallacy’. See: Pathetic Fallacy — not actually an insult. (There are other examples of this poetic device, though weather/emotions is a commonly utilised one.) On the other hand, the weather may not have changed; rather, the narrator’s perception of it changed along with his improved mental state.

Cheever’s characters have been described as ‘Sisyphean’, meaning they can never quite achieve completeness. Survey? (Sisypheus was a Greek king who, punished for deceit, was forced to roll a huge boulder uphill only to watch it roll back down again, then repeating the task for eternity.) A Puritan American family who have a holiday house with a tennis court. With his mouth set, my brother looked to essayez me then like a Puritan critic. Sometimes, when I try to understand his frame of mathematics survey mind, I think of the beginnings of our family in this country […] The branch of the Pommeroys to which we belong was founded by a minister who was eulogized by Cotton Mather for his untiring abjuration of the Devil. The Pommeroys were ministers until the middle of the essayez nineteenth century, and essay mathematics, the harshness of essayez et gagnez their thought – man is full of misery, and all earthly beauty is lustful and corrupt – has been preserved in books and sermons. The temper of our family changed somewhat and became more lighthearted, but […] it seemed to macbeth analysis essay assignment me to et gagnez have been a trial of the history survey spirit in which Lawrence had succumbed. The French roots of the name Pommeroy signifies “king of the apples,” a reference to essayez et gagnez the story’s Edenic context. The Unnamed Narrator: 38 years old, a married schoolteacher. Apart from time spent with the family, lives in a school dormitory. Since this is a story told in the first person, this narrator will be unreliable to some extent. And to on approach some extent, our narrator acknowledges this:

I think I saw what was going on his mind. On the other hand, we see the narrator calling the kettle black: It is like Lawrence to try to read significance and finality into every gesture that we make… Usually, the reader identifies with the first person narrator, or the main character/protagonist. In this case, the reader may or may not side with Lawrence — we are prompted in no particular direction by Cheever, who presents the story without asking us to take a moral stand. This narrator isn’t a particularly nice person.

He express no guilt over the fact that he had tried to kill his brother on the beach the day before by hitting him over essayez, the head with a waterlogged tree-root. It’s not even an structure isolated incident — he recalls a time in childhood, hitting Lawrence on et gagnez, the head with a rock. This unrepentent narrator may have his youngest brother all wrong, for all the reader knows: “The ‘I’ of the story seems at first a patient, long-suffering and trustworthy narrator, but as the tale progresses we realize that a great deal of Lawrence’s gloominess is not demonstrated but ascribed to essays on approach and method him, proceeding less from et gagnez his act than his thoughts, to loss essay which we have no access but the et gagnez narrator’s speculation. The narrator is weight loss married to a woman called Helen , who dyes her hair to hide the years. Helen and the narrator live on Long Island with four children. The Narrator’s Widowed Mother : husband was killed in a sailing accident. She has formed strong opinions on how to lead a life well-lived, and is fond of dishing out essayez, life advice to her children, even though the children are old enough now to essay history mathematics see contractions between what she says and how she behaves. The Dead Father : Just as important to et gagnez a story are the characters who are not there: The absence of the Pommeroy father constitutes more than just a fictional device: Cheever places him at sociology essays and method, the fringes of the story in order to create a deliberate echo of the et gagnez other legal discourses evoked by the narrator. Through this repeated association, the Pommeroy father becomes the symbol of the law.

His legal correlates are mapped in history survey, Figure 1: God the Father, the Logos from the Gospel of John and the author of the Ten Commandments; Uranus, the grandfather of the essayez Greek gods and the father of the Titans; and Cotton Mather, the patriarch and lawgiver of colonial, Puritan America. We are told the children are ‘out of their twenties’. It turns out they are in their early forties/late thirties. One Recently Divorced Sister : Diana. Problem Skills? Diana has been living in essayez, France while her two children are at school in Switzerland. Sociology? The names of the two women, Helen and Diana, have mythic associations. Mythic associations add a dimension of tradition to a story, and reinforce Cheever’s need to explore the past, ‘even into antiquity’. 1. Chaddy, lives in Manhattan. Chaddy and the narrator have a competitive relationship with each other, but not a soured one.

Chaddy is essayez et gagnez their mother’s favourite, and essay survey, successful in his work, whatever that is. Chaddy is married to Odette, who flirts to restore her youth. Odette has black hair and black eyes and is careful to keep out of the sun. Et Gagnez? She flirts (not seriously) as modus operandi. Lawrence is described as a ‘changeling’. 2. Problem Test? Lawrence is the youngest son and a lawyer.

He got a job with a Cleveland firm after the war. The family didn’t see him during that time. He now works for a firm in Albany, so agreed to spend time with the family at et gagnez, Laud’s Head. Lawrence’s name, of course, contains the word “law,” but his nicknames also possess deeper meanings: “Little Jesus” during the latter part of his youth. But it is his childhood nickname that has a particular resonance throughout the story. Essay Mathematics Survey? He was called Tifty as a child because of the sound his slippers made on the floor as he walked. Also called Croaker (a person who grumbles or habitually predicts evil) and Little Jesus (fitting the Puritan motif).

Lawrence is the only member of the family who has never enjoyed drinking. With his mouth set, my brother looked to me then like a Puritan cleric. Sometimes, when I try to understand his frame of mind, I think of the beginnings of our family in this country, and his disapproval of Diana and et gagnez, her lover reminded me of loss essay intro this. Lawrence is essayez both repulsed by and attracted to the past. I remembered Lawrence’s sensitivity to loss time and et gagnez, his sentiments and opinions about our feelings for the past. I had heard him say, years ago, that we and our friends and our part of the nation, finding ourselves unable to report book cope with the problems of the present, had, like a wretched adult, turned back to what we supposed was a happier and simpler time, and that our taste for essayez, reconstruction and candlelight was a measure of this irremediable failure. Lawrence is a nihilist. He can ‘make a grievance out of anything’, according to the narrator. But in Lawrence’s favour, he doesn’t seem all that bothered by a blow to his head by his older brother, because the nihilist in him must have been expecting it. Note that Lawrence barely speaks more than a few lines in the entire narrative. Though the title is named for the narrator’s relationship with this particular brother, Lawrence is not all that important to macbeth character assignment the story, because the story is et gagnez about the narrator’s inner-world alone.

Interestingly, the character of Lawrence did not even exist in an early draft of the story. The brother story, in its bare outline, was the story of one man. There was no brother; there was no Lawrence. Loss Essay Intro? (In the finished story he speaks only a few lines and the bulk of his opinions are given to him by essayez the narrator.) I tried to bury this outline then under several others so that the weight loss story would unfold like an uncooked onion. Lawrence is essayez married to Ruth. Minority Report Book Wiki? The character of essayez Ruth also highlights the importance of structure essay names to unlocking the themes of Cheever’s story; Ruth is et gagnez a Biblical character who sacrifices a lot for others.

In this story, Ruth is ‘a thin girl, tired from the journey.’ I…passed Ruth in the laundry. Skills? She was washing clothes. I don’t know why she should seem to have so much more work to essayez do than anyone else, but she is always washing or mending clothes. Their two children, too, are thin and wear ‘ornate cowboy costumes’.

They cry/take offence disturbingly easily. Even their own grandmother can’t stand to history be around them as they look so dejected. But does Lawrence really exist? Cheever apparently told a mentor: “There was no brother; there was no Lawrence.” I’m not sure of the essayez context surrounding this — perhaps he meant in an early draft, but I like the idea that Lawrence is a figment of the weight essay narrator’s imagination — the squirrel in et gagnez, his attic, the pessimistic side of himself, putting a dampener on his very own holiday. Minor Characters In “Goodbye My Brother” The man who Diana is sleeping with while here for the summer, mentioned only in passing. The summer cook, Anna Ostrovick , a recognisable trope of a woman — jolly and fat and weight essay intro, industrious. She ends up banning Lawrence from her kitchen because she can’t put up with his negativity. Revelling in essayez et gagnez, nostalgia is futile.

Critics have said that Cheever’s ‘brother motif’ tends to come back to this. “This house is about twenty-two years old,” he said. “These shingles are about character analysis, two hundred years old. Dad must have bought shingles from all the farms around here when he built the essayez place, to intro make it look venerable. Et Gagnez? […] Imagine spending thousands of dollars to make a sound house look like a wreck,” Lawrence said. “Imagine the frame of mind this implies. Imagine wanting to live so much in the past that you’ll pay men carpenters’ wages to disfigure your front door.” Then I remembered Lawrence’s sensitivity to time and his sentiments and macbeth, opinions about our feelings for essayez, the past. I had heard him say, years ago, that we and structure anthropological essay, our friends and our part of the nation, finding ourselves unable to cope with the problems of the present, had, like a wretched adult, turned back to essayez et gagnez what we supposed was a happier and simpler time, and that our taste for reconstruction and candlelight was a measure of this irremediable failure. the story’s basic thematic structure: the clash between the father, the mythological founder of the law, and the legacy he leaves to his children. “Goodbye My Brother,” is wrought with his recurrent themes of light and nostalgia . TECHNIQUES OF NOTE IN “GOODBYE MY BROTHER” The Motif Of The Sea In “Goodbye My Brother” Cheever uses the sea as a motif in a number of his works.

In this story, too, the sea forms the crucial backdrop to the narrative. “The sea salt that I think is in our blood”, says our unnamed narrator. Note also that the father died in the sea. The sea therefore is an important part of the narrator, bonding him with his family and to minority report wiki his history. Essayez? Both he and his brother Chaddy miss the sea when they venture out West.

The sea binds together various threads of the solving test story. Lawrence, on the other hand, doesn’t think well of the sea. He rejects the sea and hates everything about it, seeing the havoc it wreaks on the coastline and on the family holiday home. He and et gagnez, Ruth refuse to go swimming with the rest of the family, partly rejected by the matriarch, of course, who takes Chaddy’s arm and proclaims that she is determined to have fun . The sea relieves the narrator from the nihilism that permeates Lawrence’s thought. Structure Anthropological Essay? There is a paradoxical tranquility in the sea’s restlessness that is typified by the family’s daily swimming ritual, a practice that takes on quasi-religious overtones in its “illusion of purification” (10). The antidote to society’s Puritan past is thus to be found in the sea. Essayez? Reflecting on his encounter with Ruth in the laundry, the narrator thinks about the alternative spirituality he feels in the sea’s presence….Lawrence fears that the essay history sea, destroyer of his father and the law, will also destroy the family structure itself, as symbolized by essayez et gagnez the house. Cheever’s allusion is to the Bible, to Matthew 7:26-7, in which Jesus says: “Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened to a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon essay that house; and essayez, it fell: and great was the fall of it” (AKJV). For Lawrence, the family has built its foundations on sinking sand, a view that Cheever thematically transfers from the house to the values that underpin the lives of anthropological essay his mother and siblings.

Now I could hear the waves, whose heaviness sounded like a reverberation, like a tumult, and et gagnez, it pleased me as it had pleased me when I was young, and it seemed to have a purgative force, as if it had cleared my memory of, among other things, the penitential image of Ruth in the laundry. “‘This house will be in assignment, the sea […] The sea wall is badly cracked,’ Lawrence said. “I looked at it this afternoon. You had it repaired four years ago, and it cost eight thousand dollars. You can’t do that every four years’” The narrator ends the story with a life-sustaining image that depicts the et gagnez sea not as a destructor but as life-giving. Mythological Allusions In “Goodbye My Brother” Using the essay mathematics sea’s mythical symbolism, Cheever reaches back to a time before the invention of Christianity, before the essayez et gagnez God of the Puritans to weight loss a different and more ancient creation myth.

Through a series of allusions, he instead evokes the pagan myths and deities of the ancient Greeks: Odette looks up at the night sky, trying to find the constellation of essayez et gagnez Cassiopeia ; the narrator imagines Lawrence saying “ Thalassa, Thalassa ” (the Greek word for minority report book wiki, “sea” ) when he leaves Laud’s Head; their sister, Diana , is an allusion to the virgin goddess of the hunt; the narrator’s wife, Helen , is the namesake of the most famous beauty of the et gagnez classical world. But these allusions are swallowed up in a greater story that is alluded to problem solving skills yet never explained, namely, the creation myth of the ancient Greeks. Juxtaposition In “Goodbye My Brother” Beginning versus Ending In “Goodbye My Brother” There is a copious amount of juxtaposition in this story. It begins with the essayez et gagnez second sentence, in which.

our mother has always stressed the fact that our familial relationships have a kind of permanence that we will never meet with again. This is juxtaposed with the ending, in test, which it is perhaps true that familial relationships have a kind of permanence, but whether they should be revered or not? The reader is left knowing that the two brothers will never be friends. Juxtaposition of Voice In “Goodbye My Brother” The story is divided between the rather flat, dour pronouncements delivered by Lawrence and the rich, sensuous counterpassages of the narrator. As Lawrence, for example, calls Odette a promiscuous woman, the narrator describes her in essayez et gagnez, sensual detail, noting the roundness of her shoulders and the whiteness of her skin. Similarly, at solving, the conclusion of the costume party, the guests rescue the floating white balloons from the sea while Lawrence laments the partygoers’ foolishness.

The lushness of the prose that Cheever employs when describing the essayez et gagnez smells, the sounds, and the contentment of the narrator’s life among his family strikingly contrasts not only with Lawrence’s gloom but also with his matter-of-fact language. The sense of possibility of the former overshadows the problem solving skills finality of the latter. Juxtaposition Of Character In “Goodbye My Brother” Again from Mathews: Lawrence’s life is characterized by et gagnez a string of structure essay goodbyes, but this pattern is not accompanied by a process of healing and moving on. On the contrary, his history is scarred by these failures, and these recurring moments of disillusionment are remembered with the force of resentment.

For the narrator, by contrast, the sea allows him to forget, it allows him to essayez be washed free of his pain and thus avoid the canker of resentment that eats away at Lawrence’s being. The narrator experiences the visit as tender and warm, which contrasts with Lawrence’s perennial exasperation with his family. For example, at the age of sixteen, he labeled his mother as “frivolous, mischievous, destructive, and overly strong.” But, the narrator believes this projection to be the result of Lawrence’s basic refusal to sociology embrace life, which leads to the realization that the essayez et gagnez lifelong rift between the problem solving test brothers may always remain. The sadness that accompanies this conclusion is palpable. The philosophical difference between the brothers is acknowledged early in the story: “Then I remembered Lawrence’s sensitivity to time and his sentiments and opinions about our feelings for the past. Et Gagnez? I heard him say, years ago, that we and structure, our friends and our part of the nation, finding ourselves unable to cope with the present, had, like a wretched adult, turned back to what we supposed was a happier and simpler time, and that our taste for reconstruction and candlelight was a measure of this irremediable failure.”

Subtle Repetitions In “Goodbye My Brother” Mathews quotes Morace: “Essentially, Cheever plays the same scene or situation over and over with slight but cumulatively significant changes, gradually transforming the real into the fantastic, time into dream. […] [His fiction] depends considerably less on linear plot, narrative focus, and character development than it does on various forms of narrative parallelism: echoing, juxtaposition, counterpoint, incremental repetition, thematic variations, and the coming together of disparate characters, situations, and narrative lines” Narrator As Character In “Goodbye My Brother” Written in essayez et gagnez, first person point of view, the unnamed narrator is wry, compassionate and detached. At first we may think of him as a sympathetic observer. This kind of narrator is commonly utilised by Cheever in his short stories. The effect, according to Mathews: to initiate a move beyond the surface story, thus showing how these forces penetrate every level of discourse, from the and method level of everyday life (in the family’s clashes with Lawrence) to its deeper, more metaphysical levels (in the story’s religious, historical, and mythical references). The function of the narrator is to essayez evaluate his family’s ideas, and minority, the story is the scale on which he weighs the different worldviews he encounters in essayez et gagnez, that milieu.

His effectiveness is guaranteed by the double consciousness with which Cheever imbues him. Report Book Wiki? Indeed, the et gagnez narrator shifts continually back and forth between lyrical celebrations of life and mathematics, gloomy ruminations about Lawrence’s character. STORY SPECS OF “GOODBYE MY BROTHER” This story first appeared in The New Yorker , August 25, 1951 on P. 22, and essayez, is available online behind a paywall. “Goodbye, My Brother” is the first short story in this vintage collection. The mood and atmosphere — in other words, the solving skills test setting of “Goodbye My Brother” — remind me very much of the first few episodes of Bloodline , in which brothers and essayez et gagnez, a sister return to essay mathematics survey the family home for an gathering. In this series, too, there is one brother who is the black sheep (played by Australian actor Ben Mendelsohn). The setting is reminiscent of that portrayed in Goodbye, My Brother — the smell of brine, the coastal holiday vibe.

The feeling that not all is well beneath the surface. That said, Bloodline is set and filmed many miles south, in Florida Keys. What about films such as A Beautiful Mind , or Sixth Sense ? Perhaps this is an unreliable narrator who has no epiphany; perhaps this story pans out a bit like those. WRITE YOUR OWN BASED ON “GOODBYE MY BROTHER” Not all of us have a family holiday house.

But if you did have a family holiday house, where might it be? Who would join you there? And what sorts of dynamics would prove uncomfortable? Have you ever been on holiday with people who you know and don’t know, in just the et gagnez wrong combination? Is there anybody in your life who you suspect misreads you consistently? If they were to write a story about you, and anthropological essay, all the things that supposedly go on inside your head, what would that story look like?

(Note to essay writers: “Goodbye, My Brother” has a comma in it. I’ve removed it here for SEO purposes, though it bothers me to do so.)

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Pet Sematary and et gagnez, the Terror of Death. “Can Stephen King scare even himself? ” screamed the text on the dust jacket on loss intro the first edition of Pet Sematary in 1983. “Has the author of Carrie, The Shining, Cujo, and Christine ever conceived a story so horrifying that he was for a time unwilling to finish writing it? Yes. This is it.” You couldn’t come up with better marketing than that; King, the newly minted master of horror, had a new book that was so scary it gave even him the creeps. This could’ve been the stuff of essayez et gagnez, fanciful publicists’ dreams, yet there was some basis of truth. When King finished Pet Sematary , his friends and macbeth analysis, family were taken aback at the unpublished draft. King had touched on monsters and madmen before, but he hadn’t written something quite so drenched in death as this book; he even killed a child, one of the biggest taboos in genre fiction, and focused in detail on the unmitigated grief that accompanies such a tragedy. King himself even initially thought he had gone too far, and chucked the manuscript into the trash.

But King had one more book left to essayez et gagnez deliver in weight loss essay, a contract with publisher Doubleday, and there’s no sense in starting from scratch when you have a perfectly good tome of terror collecting dust in the rubbish bin. With all this fear-based hype, it was only a matter of time before Hollywood came calling for essayez et gagnez, the movie rights to Pet Sematary. As the skills test film begins, director Mary Lambert has her camera languidly drift amongst the titular cemetery, wafting amongst homemade tombstones cobbled together from bannisters, bedposts and orange crates. Elliot Goldenthal’s eerie score blankets everything in dead, complete with a ghostly child-based choir. If there’s one thing everyone knows, it’s that ethereal child-like choirs always give us the creeps.

A palpable gloom envelops Pet Sematary. Peter Stein’s cinematography is almost always cast in shadow, even when it’s a sunny day out. It makes everything a little more unsettling, almost dream-like at times. Dr. Louis Creed (Dale Midkiff) has relocated his wife (Denise Crosby) and family from Chicago to Maine, where he is going to take up residency as the local university campus doctor. The arrival at the picturesque house is marked with bad omens. The Creeds’ daughter Ellie (Blaze Berdahl) climbs into a tire swing, which snaps from the branch it dangles from. Essayez? Before she falls, though, she spots a mysterious stone-lined path leading off into essays on approach the woods. While the Creeds are distracted by essayez their daughter’s shocked reaction at her fall, their toddler son Gage (Miko Hughes) nearly wanders into the main road that flanks the new house. History Mathematics? That road will be a source of misery for the Creed family, as it is frequented by barreling trucks that go back and forth at all hours of the et gagnez day and night. However, the baby is saved at the last minute by Jud Crandall (Fred Gwynne), a kindly neighbor from across the road, who then strikes up a friendship with Louis.

It’s a friendship that will lead to poor, and essay, deadly, decisions. Right from the essayez get-go, the performances in Pet Sematary are wobbly. Weight? Midkiff is too passive for the lead, and this becomes more obvious as the film progresses and things get more and more devastating. Some child actors are blessed with a natural talent. Et Gagnez? Blaze Berdahl (and her twin sister Beau, who also played some of the part) is not one of structure essay, them, unfortunately. But the shaky performances are balanced a bit by Crosby, playing the Creed matriarch Rachel, and essayez, especially Gwynne as kindly neighbor Jud. Gwynne’s performance is structure anthropological, warm and grandfatherly, and it manages to elevate the entire film. The Creeds have a cat, Winston Churchill, or Church for et gagnez, short, which Ellie dotes on. Essay History Mathematics? As bad luck would have it, that mysterious path that Ellie spotted leads off to a pet cemetery. That major road has killed a lot of pets, Jud tells the Creed family. Et Gagnez? As a result, the town’s kids built this place of rest for their pets.

It’s beautifully tragic, mostly due to the slipshod nature of the on approach graves, highlighted by essayez the misspelled sign nailed above the entrance to the place. Sociology Essays On Approach And Method? Clearly hammered together by youths with no building prowess, the essayez cemetery is a labor of love, and Jud sees it as a good thing. “Kid’s gotta learn about death some time,” he explains. “Why?” Rachel barks back at him. Anthropological? Rachel has a severe phobia of death. Essayez Et Gagnez? It’s much more pronounced in the book, but the film conveys it also. Rachel wants no mention of death in her presence and, in the book, goes into near hysterics when the topic is brought up. We learn the root of this phobia soon enough. If there’s one thing people remember from Pet Sematary , it’s without a doubt the character of macbeth analysis essay, Rachel’s deceased, deformed sister Zelda. Played by essayez a male actor (Andre Hubastek), Zelda is the weight essay stuff nightmares are made of: a twisted monster of a character, suffering from spinal meningitis.

King’s novel (and by extension the film) acts as a modern-gothic story, and essayez, as such employs one of the classic gothic tropes: “The Madwoman in the Attic,” such as Bertha Mason, the first wife of Mr. Rochester, insane and locked away in the attic in Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre . Zelda is weight loss essay, Pet Sematary ’s madwoman, her sanity sapped away by her cruel illness. Et Gagnez? Director Lambert uses tight close-ups and fish-eye lenses to make the Zelda scenes all the more disturbing, and a gauzy filter reminds one of a fever dream. As Hubastek, in terrifying effects makeup, twists and turns on the bed, thick vomit trickling from a gasping mouth, the unmitigated terror of Pet Sematary comes forward tenfold. “When the death at essays on approach, the hands of a maniac like Jason Voorhees or Freddy Krueger comes, it’s almost a relief. The characters can stop fighting now; it’s all over. Et Gagnez? Pet Sematary posits that it’s when we start trying to hold on to life well after the release of death has come that we truly slip into abject horror.” Pet Sematary ’s way of structure anthropological essay, approaching death makes it particularly effective and chilling. Essayez Et Gagnez? Death is a mystery, as the structure opening quote of the book tells us, and essayez, what’s more terrifying than fear of the unknown? Yet Pet Sematary is unique in its horror-based approach to death.

In other horror films, death is macbeth character analysis essay, not the worst thing that can happen to the protagonists. In slasher films, it’s not the death that’s really scary; it’s that lead-up to the death, as a character flees in terror, trying with all his or her might to essayez et gagnez just hold on to life a little bit longer. Macbeth Character Essay? When the death at the hands of a maniac like Jason Voorhees or Freddy Krueger comes, it’s almost a relief. The characters can stop fighting now; it’s all over. Pet Sematary posits that it’s when we start trying to hold on essayez to life well after the release of death has come that we truly slip into abject horror. “Sometimes, dead is weight loss essay, better,” Jud Crandall explains. Death occupies every inch of Pet Sematary . If Rachel has Zelda’s death as an et gagnez, early catalyst, Louis has as his the death of a student named Pascow (Brad Greenquist). Macbeth Character Analysis Assignment? On Louis’ first day as the essayez et gagnez campus doc, Pascow is brought in by a mob of people. The student was out jogging when a car struck him, and by the time he gets to Louis’ infirmary, there’s nothing to anthropological essay be done. The young man’s brains are literally leaking through his exposed skull, brought to gloriously gory life by make-up artist David LeRoy Anderson. But after Pascow expires, and Louis is alone with the body, the corpse springs to life, warning Louis not to go beyond the barrier of the pet cemetery, referring to a massive pile of felled trees that border the edge of the grave grounds.

As if this weren’t bad enough, the apparent ghost of Pascow pays Louis a visit that very night, in a darkly humorous scene. King’s screenplay uses Pascow as a sort of gallows-humor comic relief, which comes in handy in such a bleak film. Later scenes in the film, with Pascow trying to direct Rachel back home to stop a crisis, can be flat-out hilarious, as in one shot that shows the grinning, rotting ghost sitting on the same plane as Rachel, echoing the helpful ghoul Jack (Griffin Dunne) from An American Werewolf in London . Back on essayez that deadly road, Church the cat is struck by a truck while Rachel and the children are visiting Rachel’s parents for Thanksgiving. Jud, knowing that Ellie will have a hard time accepting the death of her cat, has a solution for Louis: he directs him over that deadfall of sociology, trees—the area Pascow warned him not to go beyond—to a much different type of et gagnez, burial ground. Structure Essay? Located atop a high, flat peak lays a burial ground belonging to the Micmac Indians.

Jud has Louis bury Church there and, unbelievably, the cat returns from the dead. The cat is essayez, a hissing, furry nightmare, with eyes that constantly seem to be glowing. Analysis Essay Assignment? In life, Church was docile. Essayez Et Gagnez? In his after-life, he’s always on the prowl and not above tossing dead rats into the bathtub. Louis wants answers. “Has anybody every buried a person up there?” he demands of Jud. The old man looks terrified at essay mathematics survey, the idea and insists no one has or ever would.

We all know he’s not telling the truth. The concept of a pet returning from the dead is chilling enough—who among us hasn’t lost at least one pet and essayez et gagnez, wanted it so desperately to come back? And how would we react if it came back as something different? But more horror awaits. The biggest shock in the film comes when the history mathematics survey adorable toddler son is brutally run down in the middle of that damn road. This was the aspect of the novel that made King feel that maybe he had gone too far. Et Gagnez? In many horror films, while death comes swiftly for adults and teens, the death of a very young child is beyond taboo.

What’s a grieving father to do when his only son is killed, and there’s a perfectly good burial ground that raises the dead back to solving skills life? Jud knows exactly what Louis is thinking, and relays the story of essayez et gagnez, Timmy Baterman. Macbeth Character Analysis Assignment? The young man was killed in the war, then brought back to life by the Micmac burial ground. Essayez? This segment of the film allows Lambert and King to dip into George Romero zombie territory—the resurrected Timmy Baterman is report, a rotting, lumbering ghoul. Et Gagnez? As Jud’s voice-over narration relays the story, we catch glimpses of Timmy digging in the dirt and clutching the essays and method bloody severed leg of a child. Just as Church came back as some sort of essayez, hell-cat, humans who come back are changed as well. The ground up in that old Indian burial ground is sour, and the sourness seeps into the bodies planted there. “The person you bury up there ain’t the loss essay person that comes back,” Jud warns. It falls on deaf ears. King takes his cues from W.W. Jacob’s The Monkey’s Paw , where even after an enchanted, wish-granting object has caused nothing but grief for a couple, they can’t resist trying it one more time to resurrect their dead son. “We’ll have one more [wish],” the mother in that story proclaims. Essayez Et Gagnez? “Go down and get it quickly, and wish our boy alive again.” What Louis brings back, though, is not his adorable son.

Pet Sematary dips into silly Child’s Play territory as Gage comes back as a scalpel-wielding tiny killer. Macbeth Essay Assignment? The finished product is sadly lacking, as several shots of the mini-murderer clearly reveal it as a dummy. The context is still terrifying and essayez, hammers home the overall point that, sometimes, dead really is macbeth character assignment, better. His judgment faulted by his grief, Louis’ resurrection of his son costs him the life of his only real friend, Jud, and also Rachel, as Gage murders them both. Louis is driven mad by this all and performs one last burial. Essayez? At the stroke of loss intro, midnight , Rachel returns to him, a delightfully gory special effect make-up mess, with one bloody eye socket leaking a viscous fluid. Rachel and Louis kiss passionately as her wounds leak all over him, in an embrace that would make David Cronenberg proud. The book ends here, with the et gagnez return of Rachel and Louis’ fate left open-ended. Sociology On Approach And Method? That wouldn’t do for a schlocky horror film, which is, in essayez, the end, what Pet Sematary is.

King and essays, Lambert throw in one last sting, as Rachel grabs a conveniently placed butcher knife and brings it down towards the back of Louis’ head. It’s silly, but it somehow works. It brings a perverse grin to our faces, heightened as the Ramones start singing the et gagnez theme song for the film. “No one ever told me grief felt so like fear,” C.S. Lewis wrote in A Grief Observed . Grief, and the unbearable fear of death, drive every terrible action in Pet Sematary . Death is a sweet release; the fabled light at essay history survey, the end of the tunnel lies all in the letting go. Jud explains early in the film that death is “when the pain stops and the good memories begin.” We would do well to essayez remember that . . . especially if cursed Indian burial grounds lurk in our backyards.

Chris Evangelista is the weight loss intro Executive Editor of Cut Print Film co-host of the Cut Print Film Podcast. Et Gagnez? He also contributes to /Film, The Film Stage, Birth.Movies.Death, The Playlist, Paste Magazine, Little White Lies and analysis, O-Scope Musings. #039;The House on Creep Street#039; and #039;Beware the Monstrous Manther!#039;, two horror books for young readers Chris co-authored with J. Tonzelli, are available wherever books are sold. You can follow him on Twitter @cevangelista413 and essayez, view his portfolio at chrisevangelista.net. Cut Print Film Podcast: Episode 111. Philadelphia: See ‘Wheelman’ Early and Free With a Frank Grillo Q#038;A. The Popularity of the essay mathematics survey Hangover Trilogy will Never Wane. Cut Print Film Podcast: Episode 111.

On an all-new podcast, we take a spoiler-free look at Blade Runner 2049, then start a new Directors Series with Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca.

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Analysis of et gagnez Disability by Nancy Mairs. Structure? Author of disability Nancy Mairs who’s a feminist and et gagnez a cripple, has accomplished a lot in writing and essay teaching. Her remarkable personality shows in many of her essays especially in Disability which was first published in 1987 in the New York Times. In this essay, Nancy Mairs shows how disabled people are constantly excluded, especially from the media. Essayez Et Gagnez? By giving out facts and including her personal experiences, Mairs aims for making some changes regarding the relationship between the media and macbeth character analysis assignment people with disabilities. Mairs thesis is essayez, shown implicitly in the first and anthropological essay last paragraphs. Her main goal is to show everyone that people with disabilities are just like everybody else and they should be included and accepted in all daily activities. By using irony, intensity, humor and self-revelations, Nancy Mairs succeeds to get her message through. Nancy Mairs starts her essay by describing herself as a crippled woman with multiple sclerosis. She talks about her condition and how she’s never seen a crippled woman like her in the media. Then she mentions some television shows about disabled people that focus almost entirely on disabilities and essayez et gagnez neglect the macbeth essay, person’s character.

Mairs states that although disability changes a lot in one’s life, it doesn’t kill him/her. She for example, can do what every other woman her age can do. And although she’s a great consumer, advertisers never choose someone like her to represent their products publicly; and the reason for that, according to essayez et gagnez Mairs, is problem, that people cannot yet accept the fact that disability is something ordinary. The consequences of this situation are hash on disable people, for they might feel like they don’t exist. Finally, Nancy Mairs says that anyone might become disabled. But if one sees disability as a normal characteristic then it won’t be hard on him/her psychologically. And then once again, Mairs mentions that disabled people should be included in et gagnez daily activities. Problem Test? Nancy Mairs starts “Disability” with self-revelations which show through her entire essay, like for instance: “I am a forty-three-year-old woman crippled with multiple sclerosis…”; “take it from me…”; “I’m the advertisers’ dream…” The fact that Nancy Mairs mentions herself a lot makes her essay lack objectivity. But the reason behind this is that few are the essayez et gagnez, people who can relate to this topic.

So no one really knows what this is character analysis assignment, about as much as Mairs and essayez all disabled people who form a minority do. Essay? This tells us that the essayez, author knows what she’s talking about. Since this essay is addressed to people who don’t know much about disability, its purpose is not merely to inform us about the physical disability itself but also about the psychological effects of the sociology, constant isolation and exclusion of people with disabilities. Essayez? This makes the essay persuasive rather than argumentative since the author only mentioned her attitude towards this subject. But what a better way to solving skills do it than having a person with disability talk about his/her personal experiences? Persuading people of Mairs point of view which is that disabled people should be included in the daily activities couldn’t be done by just stating objective facts. This kind of persuasion needs examples. Et Gagnez? To prove that disabled people are unfairly treated, Nancy Mairs gives an example of a crippled women who was stopped from doing what she wanted to do, though she was still physically able to do it. She also gives examples of products to prove that she’s regular consumer and that there’s no reason there’s no reason why people with disabilities couldn’t get the macbeth analysis, opportunity to appear in the media and essayez represent these products. Nancy Mairs is well known for her style in writing. Essays? She uses irony to show that the reason why media always excludes disabled people is ridiculous: “if you saw me pouring out puppy biscuits, would you think these kibbles were only for the puppies of the et gagnez, cripples.

She also uses humor: “she got as far as a taxi to weight loss essay intro the airport, hotly pursued by the doctor. ” Intensity is also shown when she says: “advertisers who determine… deny the existence of essayez me and my kind absolutely”. This intensity is nothing but the result of a strong anger caused by the mistreatment of disabled people. Minority Report? This style gives the essayez et gagnez, essay a kind of vivacity, sparkle and history mathematics survey even strength. It shows that Mairs is not afraid of making fun of the essayez et gagnez, advertisers. So basically, Nancy Mairs refers to emotions: “you might feel as though you don’t exist, in any meaningful social sense at all. ” While in some cases appealing to emotions can be inappropriate, in this particular essay it’s not. It is only inappropriate when a certain topic requires logic and reason. Analysis Assignment? Actually getting people to essayez et gagnez accept disability and people carrying it requires neither logic nor reason. They’re just human beings who deserve to skills be treated like anyone else. This essay lacks some evidence though: “I once asked a local advertiser…”; “one of those medical dramas” which makes these two stories less credible and leaves us wondering whether they are true or simply made up. But as for the rest of the essayez, essay, the report wiki, information is based on personal experiences and emotions that don’t require much evidence. As for the audience, this essay is addressed to all people who read the New York Times, while it should have been addressed specifically to advertisers so they can make a change regarding the inclusion of disabled people.

Nancy Mairs in her “disability” has done a good job in delivering her message. I believe she managed to persuade the audience that there is no reason to exclude disabled people from the media. Her information was clear and made sense, her examples were enough to support her thesis and her tone added a certain flavor to her essay. “Disability” can actually make certain changes if it is addressed to its right audience and I certainly recommend it to my friends and anyone who might be interested in essayez et gagnez this topic. Loss? Nancy Mairs is essayez, a writer afflicted with multiple sclerosis. In her essay, #8220;Disability#8221;, she explains how the media fails to accurately portray individuals living with a debilitating disease.

This causes people with a handicap to feel inadequate, isolated, and lonely. #8230; Nancy Mair’s “Disability” shows us the view a disabled woman has on how the world perceives people with disabilities. Nancy is “a forty- three year old crippled woman.”(Bedford Reader 13).Nancy is a woman who spends most of her time in #8230; The essays that Nancy Mairs and structure essay Rosie Anaya wrote discuss the et gagnez, media’s lack of proper representations for those with disabilities. Mairs speaks about how people with disabilities have the same sense of normality as those who do not. Anaya talks #8230; According to Mairs, the structure anthropological, only thing #8220;normal#8221; about seeing disabled people on TV was their daily appearance on essayez et gagnez, a medical drama. As the problem test, time went by since 1987, Anaya wrote on how disabilities have become more normal in our everyday #8230; In her essay, “Disability,” Nancy Mairs argues that our society must take the essayez et gagnez, disability as normal. She describes her own experience where she finds the people taking disability as abnormal especially in media. She says, “I once asked a local #8230; “And yet the advertisers, who determine nowadays who will be represented publicly and who will not, deny the existence of me and my kind absolutely.” (paragraph 4) In this passage, Mairs displays her emotions of structure anthropological essay frustration and anger towards the essayez et gagnez, #8230; David from Healtheappointments: Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy. Haven’t found what you want?

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control essay gun ( Kan. J.L. Pub. Pol'y , Winter 1995, at 17) Clayton E. Cramer. The historical record provides compelling evidence that racism underlies gun control laws #151; and essayez et gagnez, not in any subtle way.

Throughout much of American history, governments openly stated that gun control laws were useful for keeping blacks and Hispanics in their place and for quieting the racial fears of whites. Racist arms laws predate the establishment of the anthropological essay, United States. Essayez! This is not surprising. Mathematics Survey! Blacks in the New World were often slaves, and revolts against slave owners often degenerated into less selective forms of racial warfare. The perception that free blacks were sympathetic to the plight of their enslaved brothers and the dangerous example that blacks could actually handle freedom often led New World governments to disarm all blacks, both slave and free. Starting in 1751, the French Black Code required Louisiana colonists to stop any blacks and, if necessary, beat any black carrying any potential weapon, such as a cane. (1) If a black refused to stop on demand and was on horseback, the essayez, colonist was authorized to shoot to kill. (2) In Louisiana, the fear of solving skills test Indian attack and the importance of hunting to the colonial economy necessitated that slaves sometimes possess firearms. Essayez Et Gagnez! The colonists had to balance their fear of the Indians against their fear of their slaves. As a result, French Louisiana passed laws that allowed slaves and and method, free blacks to possess firearms only under very controlled conditions. (3) Similarly, in the sixteenth century the essayez, colony of minority report book New Spain, terrified of essayez et gagnez black slave revolts, prohibited all blacks, free and slave, from carrying arms. (4) Often the relationship between racism and gun control was direct and obvious. On other occasions the connection was more complex.

One example of minority wiki a complex relationship between economic struggle, slavery, and possession of essayez arms can be found in seventeenth-century Virginia. Essay! The aristocratic power structure of colonial Virginia confronted a political challenge from lower class whites. These poor whites resented how the men who controlled the government used that power to concentrate wealth into essayez a small number of hands. These wealthy feeders at the government trough would have disarmed poor whites, but the threat of both Indian and pirate attack made this impractical; all white men were armed and solving test, had to be armed. (5) Instead of empowering poor whites, blacks, who had occupied a poorly defined status between indentured servant and slave, were reduced to hereditary chattel slavery. Et Gagnez! In this way poor whites could be economically advantaged without the character analysis assignment, upper class having to give up its privileges. (6) In the et gagnez, Haitian Revolution of the 1790s, the essay history survey, slave population successfully threw off their French masters.

As the Revolution degenerated into a race war, existing fears increased in the French Louisiana colony and among whites in the American slave states. (7) When the first U.S. Et Gagnez! official arrived in New Orleans in 1803 to take charge of the new American possession, the planters sought to have the existing free black militia disarmed and otherwise exclude free blacks from positions in which they were required to minority report book wiki, bear arms. This exclusion included such nonmilitary functions as slave-catching crews. (8) The New Orleans city government also stopped whites from teaching fencing to free blacks, and then, when free blacks sought to teach fencing, the city similarly prohibited their efforts as well. Essayez Et Gagnez! (9) Restrictions on slave possession of arms in the North American English colonies go back a very long way as well. Solving Test! Arms restrictions on free blacks in slave states, while present, at least allowed free blacks to essayez et gagnez, obtain a license to possess a gun in sociology on approach, their homes, or with good reason, to et gagnez, even carry a gun. Weight Intro! Whites were not similarly restricted. Arms restrictions on free blacks increased dramatically after Nat Turner's Rebellion in 1831 caused the South to become increasingly irrational in et gagnez, its fears. (10) In response to minority report book wiki, Turners Rebellion, the et gagnez, Virginia Legislature made it illegal for free blacks to keep or carry any firelock of any kind, any military weapon, or any powder or lead. (11) In addition, the existing law under which free blacks were occasionally licensed to possess or carry arms was repealed, thus making arms possession completely illegal for weight essay intro free blacks. (12) But even before this action by the Virginia Legislature, in the aftermath of Turner's Rebellion, the discovery that a free black family possessed lead shot for essayez et gagnez use as scale weights, but did not have powder or a weapon in macbeth analysis, which to fire it, was considered sufficient reason for a frenzied mob to et gagnez, discuss summary execution of the owner. Essay History Mathematics! (13) The fear of armed blacks had become so extreme that dogs were considered weapons.

Maryland prohibited free blacks from owning dogs without a license and authorized any white to kill an unlicensed dog owned by a free black. (14) Mississippi went further and prohibited any ownership of a dog by a black person, without even a provision for essayez licensed ownership. (15) Provisions in book, the 1834 Tennessee Constitution further reveal whites' increasing fear of et gagnez armed blacks. Article XI, Section 26 of the 1796 Tennessee Constitution read: That the freemen of this State have a right to keep and to bear arms for their common defence. (16) The 1834 constitution was revised to: That the free white men of this State have a right to keep and to bear arms for their common defence. (17) It is not clear what else could have motivated this change other than Turner's bloody insurrection. The year before the solving, new constitution was adopted, the Tennessee Supreme Court had recognized the right to bear arms as an et gagnez, individual guarantee, but there is no evidence that this decision caused the change. (18) Other court decisions during the antebellum period were unambiguous about the importance of race. In State v. Huntly, the essay history survey, North Carolina Supreme Court recognized that the North Carolina Constitution guaranteed a right to carry arms, as long as such arms were carried in et gagnez, a manner not likely to frighten people. (19) The following year the North Carolina Supreme Court decided State v. Newsom. The full significance of the Newsom decision would not be apparent until after the structure essay, Civil War and passage of the essayez et gagnez, Fourteenth Amendment. An 1840 statute provided: That if any free negro, mulatto, or free person of color, shall wear or carry about his or her person, or keep in his or her house, any shot gun, musket, rifle, pistol, sword, dagger or bowie-knife, unless he or she shall have obtained a licence therefor from the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions of his or her county, within one year preceding the wearing, keeping or carrying thereof, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and may be indicted therefor. (20) Elijah Newsom, a free person of color, was indicted under the Statute in macbeth character, Cumberland County in June of 1843 for et gagnez carrying a shotgun without a license #151; at the very time the North Carolina Supreme Court was deciding Huntly . (21) A jury convicted Newsom, but the trial judge directed a not guilty verdict, and the state appealed to structure, the North Carolina Supreme Court. Essayez Et Gagnez! (22) Newsom's attorney argued that the Statute, which required free blacks to anthropological essay, obtain a license to keep and bear arms, violated both the et gagnez, Second Amendment to problem skills test, the U.S.

Constitution and et gagnez, the North Carolina Constitution's similar guarantee. (23) The North Carolina Supreme Court refused to accept that the book, Second Amendment was a limitation on essayez state laws. The court, however, also had to deal with the minority, problem of its own state constitutional guarantees, which had been used in deciding the essayez et gagnez, Huntly decision the year before. Article seventeen of the 1776 North Carolina Constitution declared: That the people have a right to bear arms, for the defence of the State; and, as standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and macbeth character analysis essay assignment, governed by, the civil power. (24) The Newsom court asserted that: We cannot see that the act of 1840 is in conflict with it. . . Essayez! . The defendant is not indicted for carrying arms in defence of the State, nor does the act of 1840 prohibit him from so doing. (25) But in Huntly , the court had acknowledged that the seemingly restrictive language for the defence of the State included an on approach and method, individual right. (26) The Newsom court then attempted to essayez, justify the necessity of this law: Its only object is to preserve the peace and safety of the essay, community from being disturbed by an indiscriminate use, on ordinary occasions, by free men of color, of fire arms or other arms of an essayez, offensive character. Essay Mathematics! Self preservation is the first law of essayez nations, as it is of individuals. (27) The North Carolina Supreme Court also sought to repudiate the idea that North Carolina's Bill of Rights protected free blacks by essay intro, pointing out that it excluded free blacks from essayez voting.

Therefore, the court reasoned, free blacks were not citizens. Minority Report Wiki! But unlike a number of essayez other state constitutions that limit the right to keep and structure anthropological, bear arms to citizens , (28) Article seventeen of the North Carolina Bill of Rights guaranteed this right to the people (29) #151; and try as hard as they might, it was difficult to argue that a free person of color, in the words of the court, was not one of the people. It is one of the great ironies that, in much the same way that the essayez et gagnez, North Carolina Supreme Court recognized a right to macbeth analysis, bear arms in essayez, 1843 #151; then a year later declared that free blacks were not included #151; the Georgia Supreme Court did likewise before the close of the decade. The Georgia Supreme Court found in report book, Nunn v. State that a statute prohibiting the sale of concealable handguns, sword-canes, and daggers violated the Second Amendment: The right of the essayez et gagnez, whole people, old and young, men, women and boys, and not militia only, to keep and bear arms of every description, and not such merely as are used by the militia , shall not be infringed , curtailed, or broken in upon, in structure essay, the smallest degree; and all this for the important end to be attained: the rearing up and qualifying a well-regulated militia, so vitally necessary to essayez et gagnez, the security of a free State. Our opinion is, that any law, State or Federal, is repugnant to the Constitution, and void, which contravenes this right , originally belonging to test, our forefathers, trampled under foot by Charles I. and his two wicked sons and successors, reestablished by the revolution of essayez 1688, conveyed to this land of liberty by problem skills, the colonists, and finally incorporated conspicuously in our own Magna Charta! And Lexington, Concord, Camden, River Raisin, Sandusky, and the laurel-crowned field of New Orleans, plead eloquently for this interpretation! (30) Finally, after this paean to et gagnez, liberty #151; in a state where much of the essay, population remained enslaved and forbidden by law to et gagnez, possess arms of any sort #151; the court defined the valid limits of laws restricting the bearing of arms: We are of the opinion, then, that so far as the weight essay, act of 1837 seeks to suppress the practice of et gagnez carrying certain weapons secretly , that it is valid, inasmuch as it does not deprive the citizen of his natural right of self-defence, or of macbeth character his constitutional right to keep and bear arms.

But that so much of it, as contains a prohibition against bearing arms openly , is in conflict with the Constitution, and essayez, void . . . Report! . (31) Citizen? Within a single page, the court had gone from right of the essayez, whole people, old and young, men, women and boys to the much more narrow right of problem solving test a citizen. The motivation for this sudden narrowing of the et gagnez, right #151; that blacks were not citizens #151; appeared two years later. Cooper and Worsham v. Mayor of problem Savannah was not principally a right to keep and bear arms case.

In 1839, the city of Savannah, Georgia, in an admitted effort to prevent the increase of free persons of color in our city, had established a one hundred dollar per year tax on free blacks moving into Savannah from other parts of Georgia. Essayez Et Gagnez! Samuel Cooper and Hamilton Worsham, two free persons of color, were convicted of failing to pay the tax and structure anthropological essay, were jailed. (32) On appeal, counsel for Cooper and Worsham argued that the ordinance establishing the tax was deficient in a number of technical areas. (33) Of most interest to us is counsel's assertion that [i]n Georgia, free persons of color have constitutional rights. . Essayez Et Gagnez! . . (34) Cooper and Worsham's counsel argued that these included the right to writ of survey habeas corpus, the right to own real estate, the right to be subject to taxation, and the right to sue and be sued. Their counsel cited a number of precedents under Georgia law in defense of their position. (35) Justice Warner delivered the essayez, court's opinion. Weight Loss Essay! One portion of the opinion shows the fundamental relationship between citizenship, arms, and elections, and why gun control laws were an essential part of defining blacks as non-citizens: Free persons of color have never been recognized here as citizens; they are not entitled to bear arms, vote for members of the legislature, or to hold any civil office. (36) The Georgia Supreme Court did agree that the ordinance jailing Cooper and Worsham for nonpayment was illegal and ordered their release, (37) but the comments of the court make it clear that their brave words in Nunn v. State about the right of the people really only et gagnez, meant white people. (38) Finally, in the infamous Dred Scott decision, the U.S.

Supreme Court showed that it shared this understanding that citizenship excluded blacks and explained the relationship between citizenship and the carrying of arms: It would give to persons of the negro race, who were recognized as citizens in any one State of the Union, the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, singly or in companies, without pass or passport, and without obstruction, to sojourn there as long as they pleased, to go where they pleased at every hour of the day or night without molestation, unless they committed some violation of essays and method law for which a white man would be punished; and it would give them the full liberty of essayez speech in public and in private upon weight intro all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to keep and carry arms wherever they went . And all of this would be done in the face of the subject race of the same color, both free and et gagnez, slaves, inevitably producing discontent and insubordination among them, and macbeth character analysis essay assignment, endangering the peace and safety of the State. (39) While settled parts of the South were in great fear of armed blacks, concerns about essayez Indian attack often forced relaxation of these rules on the frontier. The 1798 Kentucky Comprehensive Act allowed slaves and free blacks on frontier plantations to keep and use guns, powder, shot, and weapons, offensive and defensive. (40) Unlike whites, however, free blacks and book, slaves were required to have a license to carry weapons. (41) Blacks needed to carry arms for self-defense not only against criminal attacks that any person, white or black, might worry about, but they also needed arms for protection against the additional hazard of being kidnapped and sold into slavery. (42) A number of states, including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, passed laws specifically to essayez, prohibit kidnapping of free blacks. These states were concerned that the Federal Fugitive Slave Laws would be used as cover for re-enslavement. (43) The end of sociology and method slavery in 1865 did not eliminate the problems of racist gun control laws. The various Black Codes adopted after the Civil War required blacks to obtain a license before carrying or possessing firearms or bowie knives. These Codes are sufficiently well-known that any reasonably complete history of the Reconstruction period mentions them. These restrictive gun laws played a part in provoking Republican efforts to get the Fourteenth Amendment passed. (44) Republicans in Congress apparently believed that it would be difficult for night riders to et gagnez, provoke terror in freedmen who were returning fire.

It appears that the Fourteenth Amendments requirement to report, treat blacks and whites equally before the law led to the adoption of restrictive firearms laws in the South that were equal in the letter of the law, but unequally enforced. It is clear that the vagrancy statutes adopted in et gagnez, 1866, the same year the arms control laws were adopted, were intended to be used against structure, blacks, even though the language was race-neutral. (45) The former states of the Confederacy, many of which had recognized the right to carry arms openly before the Civil War, developed a greater willingness to qualify that right after the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment. One especially absurd example of essayez how far a state was willing to go to report, qualify the right to bear arms, and one that includes strong evidence of the et gagnez, racist intentions behind gun control laws, is a decision made in Texas. In 1859 in Cockrum v. State, the Texas Supreme Court recognized that there was a right to carry defensive arms and that this right was protected under both the Second Amendment and character assignment, Section Thirteen of the Texas Bill of essayez et gagnez Rights. (46) The outer limit of the state's authority (in this case, attempting to discourage the carrying of bowie knives) was that it could provide an enhanced penalty for manslaughters committed with bowie knives, but could not prohibit their being carried. (47) Yet, by 1872 in essay mathematics survey, English v. State, the Texas Supreme Court denied that there was any right to carry any weapon for individual self-defense under either the state or federal constitutions. (48) Rather than explaining or justifying why the Cockrum decision was no longer valid, the court merely explained that the et gagnez, issue of the sociology essays on approach, right to bear arms was not fairly before the court in Cockrum . (49) What caused the dramatic change? The following excerpt from the English decision reveals how racism permeated legal thinking: We will not say to what extent the early customs and et gagnez, habits of the people of this state should be respected and accommodated, where they may come in conflict with the loss, ideas of intelligent and well-meaning legislators. A portion of our system of laws, as well as our public morality, is derived from a people the most peculiar perhaps of any other in the history and derivation of its own system . Essayez! Spain, at different periods of the world, was dominated over by the Carthagenians, the Romans, the Vandals, the Snovi, the Allani, the Visigoths, and Arabs; and to this day there are found in the Spanish codes traces of the mathematics, laws and customs of each of these nations blended together in a system by no means to be compared with the sound philosophy and pure morality of the common law. (50)

Throughout the South during the post-war period, the existing precedents that recognized a right to openly carry arms under state constitutional provisions and the Second Amendment were being narrowly construed or simply ignored. (51) The apparent goal of the gun control and vagrancy laws was to intimidate the freedmen into an economically subservient position. By making the freedmen defenseless, employers could be more confident that intimidation would keep their hired hands in et gagnez, line. Nor was the intent that led to these laws lost on judges in the North. In 1920, the Ohio Supreme Court upheld the conviction of a Mexican for carrying a concealed handgun #151; while he was asleep in his own bed. (52) Justice Wanamaker's scathing dissent criticized the precedents cited by the majority in skills, defense of this absurdity: I desire to give some special attention to some of the authorities cited, supreme court decisions from et gagnez Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Kentucky, and one or two inferior court decisions from New York, which are given in support of the doctrines upheld by this court. The southern states have very largely furnished the precedents. It is only necessary to observe that the race issue there has extremely intensified a decisive purpose to entirely disarm the mathematics, negro, and this policy is evident upon essayez et gagnez reading the opinions . (53)

There are other examples of remarkable honesty from the analysis essay, state supreme courts on essayez this subject. The finest is probably Florida Supreme Court Justice Buford's concurring opinion in Watson v. Stone. In Watson , a conviction for carrying a handgun without a permit was overturned because the handgun was in the glove compartment of sociology essays on approach a car. (54) Justice Buford wrote: I know something of the history of essayez this legislation. Minority Book! The original Act of 1893 was passed when there was a great influx of essayez et gagnez negro laborers in this State drawn here for structure anthropological the purpose of working in turpentine and lumber camps. The same condition existed when the Act was amended in 1901 and the Act was passed for the purpose of disarming the negro laborers and to thereby reduce the unlawful homicides that were prevalent in turpentine and saw-mill camps and to give the white citizens in sparsely settled areas a better feeling of security. Essayez Et Gagnez! The statute was never intended to weight intro, be applied to essayez, the white population and in practice has never been so applied. (55) There is a shortage of such forthright statements of macbeth analysis racist intent behind modern gun control laws. But has the racist intent disappeared, or simply been recast into a more acceptable form? Robert Sherrill, at one time a correspondent for The Nation and a supporter of restrictive gun control laws, argued in et gagnez, his book The Saturday Night Special that fear of armed blacks was the major provocation of the Gun Control Act of 1968.

He argues: The Gun Control Act of 1968 was passed not to control guns to but control blacks, and essay mathematics survey, inasmuch as a majority of Congress did not want to do the former but were ashamed to show that their goal was the latter, the result was that they did neither. Indeed, this law, the first gun-control law passed by Congress in thirty years, was one of the grand jokes of our time. (56) Sherrill failed to provide smoking gun evidence for his claim, but there is no shortage of evidence of the level of fear that gripped white America in the late 1960s. Essayez! The California Legislature adopted a major new arms law in sociology on approach and method, 1967, for the first time prohibiting the open carrying of firearms in cities. (57) This law easily passed after the Black Panthers demonstrated against it #151; by essayez, walking into the Assembly Chamber carrying pistols, rifles, [and] at least one sawed-off shotgun. (58) This demonstration of course pushed the law through, in spite of loss essay significant opposition from essayez conservative Republicans such as State Senator John G. Schmitz. (59) Another piece of evidence that corroborates Sherrills belief that both liberals and conservatives intended the Gun Control Act of 1968 as race control more than gun control has recently been found.

There are strong similarities between the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the 1938 weapons law adopted by Nazi Germany. (60) This similarity is no coincidence; one of the principal authors of the Gun Control Act of 1968 was Senator Thomas Dodd of minority report wiki Connecticut. After World War II, Dodd was assistant to the chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg war crime trials. (61) Shortly before the essayez, Gun Control Act of 1968 was written, Dodd asked the Library of Congress to translate the 1938 German weapons law into English. Dodd supplied the German text. (62) Dodd was not a Nazi; he had a reputation as an aggressive federal prosecutor of civil rights violations. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that any sort of American Holocaust was intended. Problem Solving Test! Nonetheless, it would not be surprising if Dodd found it convenient to adapt a law that had already proven its efficacy at disarming a minority group. Today is not 1968.

When proponents of restrictive gun control insist that their motivations are color-blind, there is a possibility that they are telling the truth. Nonetheless, there are some rather interesting questions that should be asked today. The most obvious is, Why should a police chief or sheriff have any discretion in issuing a concealed handgun permit? Here in California even the state legislature's research arm #151; hardly a nest of pro-gunners #151; has admitted that the vast majority of permits to carry concealed handguns in et gagnez, California are issued to white males. (63) Even if overt racism is not an issue, an official may simply have more empathy with an applicant of a similar cultural background and consequently more closely relate to the applicant's concerns. As my wife pointedly reminded a police official when we applied for concealed weapon permits, If more police chiefs were women, a lot more women would get permits, and would be able to defend themselves from anthropological essay rapists. The warrantless searches of private residences for essayez et gagnez guns in loss essay intro, Chicago housing projects in early 1994 is another reminder of how racism and gun control remain intertwined. Essayez Et Gagnez! (If there are white people living in these projects, they are remarkably invisible in news media coverage). While these warrantless searches were finally blocked by a judge, the popular press was remarkably neutral in its coverage of the Clinton administrations advocacy of such an obvious violation of the intro, Fourth Amendments protections against unreasonable searches.

President Clinton, after his warrantless search policy was struck down, explained his goals: Finally, we're going to work with residents in high-crime areas to permit the full range of searches that the Constitution does allow in common areas, in vacant apartments, and in circumstances where residents are in immediate danger. We'll encourage more weapons frisks of suspicious persons, and et gagnez, we'll ask tenant associations to put clauses in their leases allowing searches when crime conditions make it necessary. (64) The frisks of suspicious persons are a longstanding tradition used against black Americans. Requiring housing project tenants to give up their constitutional protections against warrantless searches is analysis essay assignment astounding. Can you imagine the essayez, reaction if tenants were required to macbeth, give up their right to free speech when crime conditions make it necessary? It is hard to essayez et gagnez, imagine the government attempting something similar in a white suburb #151; at least until the courts first find it constitutional in a black ghetto. The case might be made that the government attempted to make the tenants safe by unconstitutional means #151; that the macbeth character essay assignment, intentions were good even if the et gagnez, methods were wrong. But even for problem solving skills the special case of housing projects, there are profound inconsistencies in the policy. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Henry Cisneros in a press conference on February 4, 1994, attempted to et gagnez, justify the warrantless searches as protecting the tenants of these crime-ridden projects. Cisneros, however, admitted that [c]rime statistics . . . show that public housing residents are not to blame for the reign of terror. (65) A large majority of those arrested in housing projects were nonresidents. (66) It is therefore all the more amazing that the essay survey, residents , who would presumably have much to fear from these armed nonresident criminals, are the ones that the Clinton administration seeks to disarm.

If we examine these Clinton administration policies as a pragmatic response to crime, we must ask: why disarm the et gagnez, likely victims of the criminals? But if we consider these inexplicable policies as the latest symptom of character assignment racist attitudes about violence, then these policies make much more sense. Gun control advocates today are not so foolish as to promote openly racist laws, but it is important to consider the relevance of essayez et gagnez racist gun control laws of the past. Report! My concern is that past motivations for disarming blacks are really not so different from the motivations behind disarming law-abiding citizens today. In the essayez, last century, the rhetoric in support of such laws was that they (i.e., blacks) were too violent and too untrustworthy to be allowed weapons. Analysis Essay! Today, the same elitist rhetoric regards law-abiding Americans the same way, as children in need of guidance from the government. While never openly admitted, one of the goals of disarming blacks was to make them more willing to accept various forms of economic oppression, such as the sharecropping system, in which free blacks were kept in an economic state not dramatically superior to slavery.

Even today, with open racism unacceptable in the mainstream of American politics, gun control still looks suspiciously concerned with issues of essayez race. The Crime Bill of 1994, passed after a bruising fight in Congress, was opposed by an unlikely coalition in the House: most Republicans, some conservative Democrats, and many black Democrats. The primary concern of the first two factions appears to have been the assault weapon ban. Black Democrats were concerned that the death penalty provisions would disproportionately affect blacks. The assault weapon ban provisions of the Crime Bill certainly reflected a widespread fear of armed inner-city blacks.

Much of character analysis its rhetoric was devoted to the dangers of essayez these guns in the hands of macbeth character essay assignment gang members and other code phrases for poor blacks. But as a number of essayez careful studies have found, assault weapons are seldomly misused criminally. (67) A Wall Street Journal editorial chided Congress for minority report passage of et gagnez a ban that, under the most charitable assumptions, would reduce murder and other violent crimes by a tiny fraction of 1%. (68) The Trenton, New Jersey assistant chief of police testified before Congress that his officers were more likely to confront an escaped tiger than a criminal with an assault weapon. (69) Crime control was not the motivation for history mathematics the assault weapon ban. Supporters of the ban continually emphasized that hunting rifles would not be affected by the ban. Was this a subtle way of saying that the sort of guns owned by white Americans would not be affected? Hunting is a heavily rural activity in America, and not surprisingly, black hunters are relatively rare.

Similarly, an argument advanced by some pro-ban members of the Congress (notably Senator Campbell of Colorado) was that the law would only affect new manufacturing #151; existing owners could keep their guns. If the effect of a similar 1986 ban on new machine gun manufacturing is any indication, the net effect of essayez such an essay history mathematics survey, assault weapon ban will be to dramatically increase the price of existing weapons. A price increase further removes assault weapons from the financial reach of the poor, who are disproportionately black. What are the policy implications of restrictive gun control today? Increasingly, they are not aimed just at black people, or at the poor, but at the middle class. The forces that push for gun control are heavily (though not exclusively) allied with political factions that are committed to dramatic increases in taxation on the middle class. While it would be hyperbole to compare higher taxes on the middle class to essayez et gagnez, the suffering and deprivation of sharecropping or slavery, the analogy of disarming those whom you wish to economically disadvantage has a certain worrisome validity to it.

Another point to consider is that under the American legal system certain classifications of macbeth essay governmental discrimination are considered constitutionally suspect, and these suspect classifications are subject to a strong presumption of invalidity ( e.g ., a law that made distinctions based on essayez et gagnez race, even if the sociology essays on approach and method, distinction was nominally race-neutral in its effect). Et Gagnez! (70) These classifications are suspect because there is a long history of governmental discrimination based on report book wiki them, and because laws based on these classifications often impinge on fundamental rights. (71) In much the same way, gun control historically has been a tool of essayez et gagnez racism and minority report, associated with racist attitudes about essayez et gagnez black violence. Structure Anthropological Essay! Similarly, many gun control laws impinge on that most fundamental of rights: self-defense. Essayez Et Gagnez! Racism is so intimately tied to the history of essay history gun control in America that we should regard gun control aimed at essayez et gagnez law-abiding people as a suspect idea and require that the courts use the same demanding standards when reviewing the constitutionality of a gun control law that they use with respect to a law that discriminates based on race. Throughout the history of the United States, our courts have often avoided directly answering questions about the constitutional limits of gun control. As we have seen, this was sometimes done by insisting that the right of the people didn't include black people. Weight Intro! Another strategy popular in the slave states was to claim that as long as openly carrying a firearm was legal, then the state could prohibit or regulate concealed carrying of a firearm. Yet another strategy was to dispute what arms were protected. The New York courts upheld the Sullivan Act, which licensed the possession of essayez et gagnez handguns at home, on the basis that handguns were not a constitutionally protected arm #151; unlike a rifle or a shotgun. Such decisions have usually insisted that only arms of the problem solving skills, soldier are protected by the Second Amendment, or the state constitutions equivalent provision.

In United States v. Cruikshank (a decision that emasculated the Ku Klux Klan Act), the U.S. Supreme Court decided that the Second Amendment is a limitation on essayez et gagnez the federal government only, not on wiki the state governments. (72) This argument has been accepted by most (but not all) state supreme courts. (73) These sorts of question-begging approaches will not be available to the U.S. Supreme Court in the cases that will come before it shortly. The assault weapon ban in the 1994 Crime Bill prohibits new manufacture of a category of weapons that is more clearly protected by original intent and existing precedents than any other category of common privately owned arm: arms with a primarily military function and appearance.

Unlike Morton Groves handgun ban, (74) or California's Roberti-Roos Assault Weapons Control Act, (75) this law is federal, not state. Fourteenth Amendment incorporation is not necessary for the Crime Bills ban to be contrary to the Second Amendment. Similarly, the Administrations gun control policies with respect to public housing will create differential treatment between whites and blacks, simply because blacks are so overwhelmingly the residents of urban public housing projects. Will the Supreme Court apply the same reasoning to the Second Amendment that they have with the First Amendment? Or will they continue a tradition of winking at the Second Amendment because the underlying policy of gun control is based on racist assumptions? 1. Essayez Et Gagnez! Thomas N. Ingersoll, Free Blacks in a Slave Society: New Orleans, 1718-1812 , 48 Wm. Mary Q. 173, 178-79 (1991). 3. Solving Skills! Daniel H. Usner, Jr., Indians, Settlers, Slaves in a Frontier Exchange Economy: The Lower Mississippi Valley Before 1783, 165, 187 (1992). 4. Michael C. Et Gagnez! Meyer William L. Sherman, The Course of Mexican History 216 (4th ed. 1991).

5. Skills! Edmund S. Morgan, Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox , in Colonial America: Essays in Politics and Social Development 280 (Stanley N. Katz et al. eds., 4th ed. 1993) 7. Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in et gagnez, the Making of weight loss intro America 81 (3rd ed. Et Gagnez! 1987). 8. Essay! Ingersoll, supra note 1, at 198-200. 10. Stanley Elkins, Slavery 220 (3rd ed. Essayez! 1976). 11.

Nat Turner 115 (Eric Foner ed., 1971). 13. Harriet Jacobs [Linda Brant], Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861), in The Classic Slave Narratives 333, 395-96 (Henry Louis Gates, Jr. ed., 1987). 14. Theodore Brantner Wilson, The Black Codes of the South 30 (1965). 16. 6 The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming The United States of America, 3424 (Francis Newton Thorpe, ed., 1909) [hereinafter The Federal and State Constitutions]. 17. Id . at 3428 (emphasis added).

18. Simpson v. State, 13 Tenn. 292, 295 (5 Yer.) (1833). 19. State v. Huntly, 25 N.C. 311, 314 (3 Ired.) (1843). 20. State v. Newsom, 27 N.C. Problem Solving Skills! 203, 203 note (5 Ired.) (1844). 24. 5 The Federal and State Constitutions, supra note 16, at 2788.

25. State v. Newsom, 27 N.C. 203, 206 (5 Ired.) (1844). 26. State v. Huntly, 25 N.C. 311, 314 (3 Ired.) (1843). 27. Et Gagnez! Newsom , 27 N.C. at sociology and method 206. 28.

1 The Federal and essayez, State Constitutions, supra note 16, at 538 (1818 Connecticut, Art. I, Sec. 17); 3 Id . at 1275 (1792 Kentucky, Art. XII, Sec. 23) and at 1290 (1799, Art. IX, Sec. 23); 3 Id . at 1648 (1819 Maine, Art. I, Sec. 16); 4 Id . at 2034 (1817 Mississippi, Art.

I, Sec. 23); 5 Id . at 3101 (1790 Pennsylvania, Art. IX, Sec. 21, but see 5 Id . at 3083, 1776 Constitution, That the people have a right to bear arms. . . .); 6 Id . at 3543 (1836 Republic of minority report wiki Texas Declaration of Rights, Sec. 14) and at 3548 (1845 Texas Constitution, Art. I, Sec.

13). 30. Nunn v. State, 1 Ga. 243, 251 (1846). 32. Cooper v. Mayor of Savannah, 4 Ga. 68, 68 (1848). 38. 1 Ga. Essayez! 243, 251 (1846) (upholding the right to bear arms). 39.

Dred Scott v. Problem Skills! Sandford, 60 U.S. 393, 417 (19 How.) (1857) (emphasis added). 40. Juliet E. K. Walker, Free Frank: A Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier 21 (1983) (quoting the statute). This is an et gagnez, inspiring biography of a slave who, through hard work moonlighting in the production of saltpeter and land surveying, saved enough money to buy his wife, himself, and eventually all of his children and grandchildren out of essays on approach slavery #151; while fighting against oppressive laws and vigorous racism. Et Gagnez! Most impressive of all, is that he did it without ever learning to read or write.

42. See id . at 73 (describing precautions free black families took to protect themselves from kidnappers). 43. Stephen Middleton, The Black Laws in the Old Northwest: A Documentary History, 27-32, 227-40, 309-14, 353-7, 403-4 (1993) (quoting statutes from Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin). 44. Michael Les Benedict, The Fruits of Victory: Alternatives to Restoring the Union, 1865-1877, 87 (1975) (quoting Louisiana statute); Francis L. Broderick, Reconstruction and the American Negro, 1865-1900, 36-37 (1969); Dan T. Carter, When The War Was Over: The Failure of structure anthropological essay Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865-1867, 219-21 (1985) (describing confiscation of arms from blacks after the Civil War); Eric Foner, Reconstruction 258-9 (1988). 45. See Foner, supra note 44, at 198-201. 46. 24 Tex.

394, 401-02 (1859). 48. Essayez Et Gagnez! 35 Tex. 473, 476-77, 478 (1872). 49. Id . at 476 (citing Cochrane [sic.] v. Survey! The State, 24 Tex. 394.) 50. Id . at 479-80 (emphasis added). 52. State v. Nieto, 130 N.E.

663, 663, 665 (1920). 53. Et Gagnez! Id . at 669 (emphasis added). 54. 4 So. Minority Report Book Wiki! 2d 700, 702-03 (1941). 56. Robert Sherrill, The Saturday Night Special 280 (1973). 57. Assembly Office of Research, Smoking Gun: The Case For Concealed Weapon Permit Reform, 6 (1986). 58.

Capitol Is Invaded , Sacramento Bee, May 2, 1967, A1, A10. 59. Bill Barring Loaded Weapons In Public Clears Senate 29-7 , Sacramento Bee, July 27, 1967, A6. 60. Jim Simkin Aaron Zelman, Gun Control: Gateway to Tyranny 83 (1992) (providing the full text in German and English of the various weapons laws and et gagnez, regulations adopted by the Weimar Republic and the Nazis from essay 1928 to 1938 and essayez, comparing them to the Gun Control Act of 1968). 61. Sherrill, supra note 56, at 67. 62.

Jews for character analysis assignment the Preservation of Firearms Ownership, The War on essayez et gagnez Gun Ownership Still Goes On! , Guns Ammo, May 1993, at problem test 30-31. 63. Assembly Office of et gagnez Research, supra note 57, at 5. 64. The President's Radio Address of Apr. 16, 1994, 30 Weekly Comp.

Pres. Doc. 823 (Apr. 16, 1994). 65. The Vice President, Secretary Henry Cisneros, Secretary Lloyd Bentsen, Attorney General Janet Reno and Director of Drug Policy Lee Brown, Press Briefing (Feb.

4, 1994) (transcript available from the White House Office of the Press Secretary). 67. Gary Kleck, Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America 75 (1991). 68. Character! What Is an Assault Weapon? , Wall St.

J., Aug. 25, 1994, at A12. 70. Thomas G. Walker, Suspect Classifications , in Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the essayez, United States 848 (Kermit L. Hall et al. eds., 1992). 72. 92 U.S. 542, 553 (1875).

73. See generally Clayton E. Cramer, For The Defense of Themselves And The State: The Original Intent Judicial Interpretation of the Right To Keep And Bear Arms 221-67 (1994) (surveying a number of state court decisions where gun restrictions were reviewed). 74. Morton Grove, Ill., Ordinance 81-11 (June 8, 1981). 75. Loss Essay Intro! Cal. Penal Code §§ 12275-90 (West 1992 Supp.

1994).