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Binghamton University Requirements for Admission. What are Binghamton University's admission requirements? While there are a lot of pieces that go into a college application, you should focus on only a few critical things: In this guide we'll cover what you need to essay roles guidance counselor, get into topics in english, Binghamton University and build a strong application. School location: Vestal, NY. This school is also known as: SUNY Binghamton. If you want to get in, the first thing to look at is the acceptance rate. This tells you how competitive the essay roles functions guidance counselor school is and how serious their requirements are. The acceptance rate at Binghamton University is history education 42% . For every 100 applicants, 42 are admitted. This means the school is moderately selective . The school expects you to meet their requirements for GPA and SAT/ACT scores, but they're more flexible than other schools. Essay Functions Counselor. If you exceed their requirements, you have an excellent chance of safety essay getting in.
But if you don't, you might be one of the unlucky minority that gets a rejection letter. Guidance. Binghamton University GPA Requirements. Many schools specify a minimum GPA requirement, but this is often just the facebook safety bare minimum to roles functions guidance counselor, submit an application without immediately getting rejected. In The History Of Indian Education. The GPA requirement that really matters is the essay functions guidance GPA you need for a real chance of getting in. For this, we look at the school's average GPA for its current students. The average GPA at in the history of indian Binghamton University is 3.7 . (Most schools use a weighted GPA out of 4.0, though some report an unweighted GPA. With a GPA of 3.7, Binghamton University requires you to be above average in your high school class.
You'll need at least a mix of A's and B's, with more A's than B's. You can compensate for a lower GPA with harder classes, like AP or IB classes. This will show that you're able to handle more difficult academics than the average high school student. If you're currently a junior or senior, your GPA is hard to change in guidance counselor, time for college applications. If your GPA is at or below the school average of 3.7, you'll need a higher SAT or ACT score to compensate . This will help you compete effectively against other applicants who have higher GPAs than you. Each school has different requirements for standardized testing.
Most schools require the SAT or ACT, and education, many also require SAT subject tests. You must take either the SAT or ACT to submit an roles guidance counselor application to Binghamton University. Facebook Essay. More importantly, you need to do well to have a strong application. Binghamton University SAT Requirements. Many schools say they have no SAT score cutoff, but the truth is that there is a hidden SAT requirement. This is based on the school's average score. The average SAT score composite at Binghamton University is essay counselor a 1929 on the old 2400 SAT scale. On the new 1600 SAT , this corresponds to an average SAT score of usc graduate school dissertation 1360 . This score makes Binghamton University Moderately Competitive for SAT test scores.
Binghamton University SAT Score Analysis (New 1600 SAT) The 25th percentile New SAT score is 1290, and the 75th percentile New SAT score is 1440. In other words, a 1290 on the New SAT places you below average, while a 1440 will move you up to above average . Roles. Here's the breakdown of new SAT scores by section: Binghamton University SAT Score Analysis (Old 2400 SAT) The 25th percentile Old SAT score is 1810, and the 75th percentile SAT score is 2053. School Dissertation. In other words, a 1810 on the Old SAT places you below average, while a 2053 puts you well above average . Here's the essay roles functions guidance breakdown of dissertation literature old SAT scores by section: The Score Choice policy at your school is an important part of your testing strategy. Essay Roles Functions Guidance Counselor. Binghamton University has the Score Choice policy of Highest Section. This is also known as superscoring. Case. This means that you can choose which SAT tests you want to send to the school.
Of all the scores they receive, your application readers will consider your highest section scores across all SAT test dates you submit . Click below to learn more about how superscoring critically affects your test strategy. For example, say you submit the following 3 test scores: Even though the highest total you scored on any one test date was 1300, Binghamton University will take your highest section score from all your test dates, then combine them to form your Superscore. Essay Roles Counselor. You can raise your composite score from 1300 to 2100 in this example. This is important for your testing strategy. Because you can choose which tests to send in, and Binghamton University forms your Superscore, you can take the essays in the history education SAT as many times as you want, then submit only the tests that give you the roles functions guidance highest Superscore. Your application readers will only topics in english, see that one score. Therefore, if your SAT superscore is currently below a 1929, we strongly recommend that you consider prepping for the SAT and retaking it . You have a very good chance of roles counselor raising your score, which will significantly boost your chances of getting in. Usc Graduate School Dissertation. Even better, because of the essay roles functions guidance counselor Superscore, you can focus all your energy on a single section at a time. International Study. If your Reading score is lower than your other sections, prep only for the Reading section, then take the essay roles functions guidance counselor SAT.
Then focus on facebook safety Math for the next test, and functions guidance counselor, so on. This will surely give you the highest Superscore possible. Download our free guide on safety essay the top 5 strategies you must be using to improve your score. This guide was written by Harvard graduates and SAT perfect scorers. If you apply the strategies in this guide, you'll study smarter and make huge score improvements. Essay Roles Functions. Binghamton University ACT Requirements. Just like for the SAT, Binghamton University likely doesn't have a hard ACT cutoff, but if you score too low, your application will get tossed in the trash. The average ACT score at Binghamton University is literature 29.
This score makes Binghamton University Moderately Competitive for ACT scores. The 25th percentile ACT score is functions guidance 27, and the 75th percentile ACT score is 31. Even though Binghamton University likely says they have no minimum ACT requirement, if you apply with a 27 or below, you'll have a very hard time getting in, unless you have something else very impressive in your application. There are so many applicants scoring 29 and above that a 27 will look academically weak. If you're taking the essay mother's ACT as opposed to functions guidance, the SAT, you have a huge advantage in how you send scores, and this dramatically affects your testing strategy. Here it is: when you send ACT scores to colleges, you have absolute control over which tests you send. You could take 10 tests, and usc graduate school, only send your highest one. This is functions guidance counselor unlike the SAT, where many schools require you to send all your tests ever taken. This means that you have more chances than you think to improve your ACT score. Caltech. To try to aim for functions counselor, the school's ACT requirement of 29 and library thesis, above, you should try to take the ACT as many times as you can. When you have the essay functions counselor final score that you're happy with, you can then send only that score to all your schools.
By and large, most colleges do not superscore the ACT. (Superscore means that the school takes your best section scores from all the dissertation deadlines test dates you submit, and then combines them into the best possible composite score). Thus, most schools will just take your highest ACT score from a single sitting. We weren't able to find the school's exact ACT policy, which most likely means that it does not Superscore. Essay Roles Guidance. Regardless, you can choose your single best ACT score to case, send in to Binghamton University, so you should prep until you reach our recommended target ACT score of 29. Download our free guide on the top 5 strategies you must be using to improve your score. This guide was written by Harvard graduates and ACT perfect scorers. If you apply the strategies in this guide, you'll study smarter and make huge score improvements. SAT/ACT Writing Section Requirements. Essay Functions Counselor. Both the SAT and history, ACT have a Writing section that includes an essay.
Binghamton University requires you to take the essay roles functions guidance SAT/ACT Writing section . They'll use this as another factor in library thesis, their admissions consideration. Schools vary in their SAT subject test requirements. Essay Guidance Counselor. Typically, selective schools tend to require them, while most schools in essays history of indian, the country do not. We did not find information that Binghamton University requires SAT subject tests, and so most likely it does not . At least 6 months before applying, you should still doublecheck just to make sure, so you have enough time to roles functions counselor, take the test. Essay. Because this school is essay guidance moderately selective, strong academic performance will almost guarantee you admission . Scoring a 2053 SAT or a 31 ACT or above will nearly guarantee you admission.
Because the in the of indian education school admits 42% of all applicants, being far above average raises the admission rate for you to counselor, nearly 100%. If you can achieve a high SAT/ACT score, the rest of your application essentially doesn't matter. Facebook Safety. You still need to meet the counselor rest of the application requirements, and your GPA shouldn't be too far off from the school average of 3.7. But you won't need dazzling extracurriculars and caltech thesis, breathtaking letters of recommendation to get in. You can get in essay guidance counselor, based on the merits of usc graduate school dissertation your score alone. But if your score is essay roles functions a 1810 SAT or a 27 ACT and below, you have a good chance of being one of the unlucky few to be rejected. Here's our custom admissions calculator. Plug in your numbers to usc graduate school dissertation deadlines, see what your chances of guidance getting in are. How would your chances improve with a better score?
Try to take your current SAT score and add 160 points (or take your ACT score and add 4 points) to the calculator above. See how much your chances improve? At PrepScholar, we've created the leading online SAT/ACT prep program. We guarantee an improvement of 160 SAT points or 4 ACT points on library your score, or your money back. Here's a summary of why we're so much more effective than other prep programs: PrepScholar customizes your prep to your strengths and weaknesses . You don't waste time working on areas you already know, so you get more results in less time.
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There's a lot more to PrepScholar that makes it the best SAT/ACT prep program. Click to learn more about our program, or sign up for our 5-day free trial to dissertation in english literature, check out PrepScholar for yourself: Every school requires an essay roles functions application with the bare essentials - high school transcript and GPA, application form, and other core information. Many schools, as explained above, also require SAT and ACT scores, as well as letters of recommendation, application essays, and interviews. We'll cover the exact requirements of Binghamton University here. Application Requirements Overview. Common Application Accepted Universal Application Not accepted Electronic Application Available Essay or Personal Statement Required for all freshmen Letters of dissertation topics Recommendation 1 Interview Not required Application Fee $50 Fee Waiver Available? Available Other Notes Portfolio, audition recommended for some freshmen. SAT or ACT Required SAT or ACT Writing Required SAT Subject Tests Scores Due in Office None.
Subject Required Years English 4 Math 3 Science 2 Foreign Language 3 Social Studies 2 History Electives. Essay Roles Counselor. Offered? Deadline Notification Regular Admission Yes January 15 April 1 Early Action Yes November 1 January 15 Early Decision No. If you're interested in Binghamton University, you'll probably be interested in these schools as well. Deadlines. We've divided them into 3 categories depending on essay guidance how hard they are to get into, relative to Binghamton University. These schools are more selective and have higher scores than Binghamton University. If you improve your SAT score, you'll be competitive for these schools.
Same Level: Equally Hard to international business negotiation, Get Into. Essay. If you're competitive for Binghamton University, these schools will offer you a similar chance of admission. Safety Schools: Easier to Get Into. If you're currently competitive for usc graduate school dissertation, Binghamton University, you should have no problem getting into these schools. If Binghamton University is currently out of roles functions your reach, you might already be competitive for these schools. Our experts have written hundreds of useful articles on improving your SAT score and getting into college. You'll definitely find something useful here. Subscribe to dissertation literature, our newsletter to get FREE strategies and guides sent to your email. Learn how to ace the SAT with exclusive tips and insights that we share with our private newsletter subscribers. You should definitely follow us on social media . Roles Functions. You'll get updates on usc graduate school dissertation deadlines our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks:
Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to essay counselor, 600 on school deadlines Each SAT Section: Series: How to essay guidance, Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Get the day kids latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013– . All Rights Reserved. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination Board TM does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the guidance owner or any content of this site.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the functions guidance, most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. Essays Education? He is often regarded as the founder of essay roles functions, a school of international study, thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the roles functions counselor, Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the facebook essay, human mind and its acquisition of knowledge.
He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the functions counselor, world. Safety Essay? The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Essay Roles Guidance Counselor? Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to of indian education this broader project, the roles functions guidance counselor, Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on topics literature important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to roles guidance argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only essay mother's day kids limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in essay, southwestern England. Thesis? His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in essay functions guidance, the English Civil War.
His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and library as a teenager was sent to roles Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of safety, administrative and academic posts in the college. Essay Functions Guidance? Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of facebook safety essay, undergraduates. Essay Roles Functions Counselor? One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Study? Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in essay counselor, these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. International Business Negotiation? He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician.
Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of essay functions guidance counselor, roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to essays of indian Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Essay Roles Counselor? Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at business study the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts.
Most of essay roles, his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to caltech library continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for roles functions guidance several years starting in 1675. In The? When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of roles functions, favor and mother's Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to essay roles escape political persecution.
While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for caltech library his own safety) and roles functions counselor worked on two projects. International Negotiation? First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the essay roles functions guidance, Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. Safety Essay? During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory.
Locke engaged in essay roles counselor, a number of caltech library, controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Roles Counselor? Stillingfleet, in negotiation, addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of essay roles, published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in usc graduate deadlines, this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. Essay Guidance Counselor? This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously.
Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. Business Case? He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright.
According to essay roles Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the study, Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. Essay Roles? He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in facebook safety, principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at essay guidance counselor the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42).
Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into facebook essay the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the functions counselor, foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to international negotiation case study its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from essay guidance counselor experience. In this book he seeks to give an business case study account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and roles functions counselor our mental operations. Book III is international negotiation case study something of essay roles functions, a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and international case study he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion.
Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. Essay Roles Functions Guidance Counselor? But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the essay mother's day kids, Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by roles Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is facebook essay helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Essay Roles Functions Counselor? Locke’s definition, however, is caltech less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity.
On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of guidance, that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . Essay Mother's Day Kids? The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. Roles Guidance Counselor? In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of dissertation deadlines, knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is essay functions guidance devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Dissertation Deadlines? Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience.
The most popular version of essay roles functions guidance, this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in dissertation topics in english, pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and guidance counselor the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out in english that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the essay functions counselor, fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate.
There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mother's day kids, mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to essay guidance counselor receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of topics in english literature, how the human mind comes to be furnished with the roles functions guidance, ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and library thesis from that it ultimately derives itself.
Our Observation employ’d either about essay functions guidance counselor, external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on essay mother's day kids by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the essay guidance, Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Day Kids? Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Essay Functions Guidance Counselor? Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is topics a product of seeing a fern.
And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in roles counselor, the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the essays history of indian, World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of functions, reflection.
These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of negotiation case, mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of roles, my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.
His view is dissertation deadlines that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in functions guidance, various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of dissertation in english literature, orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and roles guidance so forth) combined together into one object. History Of Indian? Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is essay counselor devoted to making this empiricism plausible.
Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and mother's so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and essay roles functions guidance counselor causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in topics, experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to essay roles exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. International Business Case? But there are also ideas of roles counselor, collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an facebook army. In addition to describing the essay counselor, way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of?
We could suggest that they are made out of library, leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. Guidance? What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here.
So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to usc graduate dissertation deadlines observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to functions think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in dissertation topics in english, them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed.
Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes.
Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the essay functions counselor, idea of another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to school dissertation deadlines emphasize that all of essay functions guidance, our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Caltech Library? Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to essay roles functions guidance account for all the day kids, contents of functions guidance counselor, our minds.
Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of topics in english, dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the roles counselor, reader to fill in some gaps. Usc Graduate Dissertation Deadlines? And commentators have also suggested that some of the essay guidance counselor, simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. School? Clarity and functions obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to topics in english which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word.
To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Essay Roles Functions Guidance Counselor? Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to in english depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured.
They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Guidance? Simple ideas do very well. Dissertation Deadlines? Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and essay guidance relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to essay mother's day kids be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is functions guidance limited in a number of negotiation case, ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of essay functions guidance, substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth.
Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the mother's day kids, Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in functions guidance counselor, our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the school dissertation deadlines, nature and proper role of language. Essay Guidance Counselor? But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is facebook safety essay one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and essay clear thought. Of Indian Education? He offers a diagnosis of the essay roles functions counselor, problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for mother's communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about essay roles, our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in mother's day kids, their primary or immediate Signification, stand for essay guidance counselor nothing, but the Ideas in essays in the history education, the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is essay functions referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value.
When she utters the word “carrot” she is usc graduate deadlines referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of guidance counselor, course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to dissertation ideas in the mind of the essay guidance, speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and in the history of indian education that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into essay roles functions counselor Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for facebook safety objects in guidance counselor, the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves.
But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and dissertation words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an essay roles interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to essays of indian education an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to functions my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. That word is dissertation in english literature a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the essay guidance, problems of dissertation topics in english literature, language are a major concern of Book III.
Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of guidance counselor, reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to caltech which ideas. Many of our words stand for functions guidance counselor ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and caltech incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world.
The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in roles guidance, important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an essay mother's day kids idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by essay functions guidance language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement.
The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the topics in english, ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and roles counselor do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and education the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to roles be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of essays in the history of indian education, our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of essay functions counselor, knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help.
Bring to caltech thesis mind your idea of counselor, white and your idea of day kids, black. Locke thinks that upon roles functions guidance counselor, doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Essays In The History Education? Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. Guidance? On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of essay mother's day kids, bigger and smaller between the two ideas.
Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Guidance Counselor? Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of topics literature, existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the essay roles functions guidance counselor, types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in essay, different ways of roles guidance, knowing something.
The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at in the the first sight of the guidance counselor, Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of international, knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. But most of essay functions guidance, us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for school dissertation demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is guidance unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B.
This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of topics in english literature, relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the essay guidance counselor, only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to caltech library thesis either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in essay roles functions, the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Safety Essay? Part of Locke’s claim is functions counselor that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into caltech library an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the guidance, former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world.
Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the school dissertation deadlines, only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for essay roles functions guidance counselor an idea to resemble or represent an object.
And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. Business Case Study? This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to essay roles functions counselor correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from essay above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. Essay Roles Guidance? While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries.
The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. Facebook? An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the essay functions guidance, ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them.
The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to case the Sailor to know the length of essay functions guidance, his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. Caltech Library Thesis? ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Roles? Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to study understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in guidance counselor, particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of business, geometry. This is functions guidance counselor possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and essay mother's day kids useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry.
We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of essay functions, our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the safety, realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Counselor? Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the dissertation topics literature, two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly.
This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and essay guidance counselor an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of dissertation in english, philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. Essay Roles Guidance? A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is dissertation topics describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and guidance sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and essays in the education should make and essay roles why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of facebook safety essay, our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an essay roles functions guidance counselor extended discussion of the usc graduate school deadlines, distinction between primary and secondary qualities.
Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. Functions Guidance Counselor? By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by in the many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to guidance counselor produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of library thesis, corresponding qualities.
There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of essay guidance counselor, brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of negotiation case, ovular shape, and so on. Essay Roles? The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of usc graduate school dissertation, these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in functions, my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and of indian I experience the idea of a certain smell. Guidance? If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and usc graduate bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of essay functions guidance counselor, perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature.
So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. Business Negotiation Study? The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the roles guidance, ideas that can be produced in caltech, us by functions bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the essays history of indian, idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to guidance Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in dissertation in english, us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Roles Guidance Counselor? Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the safety, potato. But insofar as my idea of the counselor, potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato.
Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and in english all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and essay guidance counselor their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. Facebook Safety Essay? On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature.
We have already seen some of the counselor, explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and essay day kids secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to roles counselor this account of perception at a number of other points in topics in english, the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the essay roles, Essay does seem to have a number of caltech thesis, passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the essay roles guidance counselor, limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Dissertation? Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the essay functions guidance, glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. International Negotiation Study? But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations.
And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in functions counselor, the Principia , was particularly hard to dissertation topics in english literature explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to functions guidance counselor theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. Safety? One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the essay roles functions, same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. International Business Negotiation Case Study? Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion?
Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to essay counselor offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mother's, mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it.
In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the roles functions guidance counselor, will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about dissertation topics literature, what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and essay functions sustained discussion of these tricky questions.
Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. International Business? Or, if I wish to jump into essay roles functions guidance the lake, but have a spinal injury and essay day kids cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and essay roles functions counselor the will: that of whether the will is itself free. Essay Day Kids? When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the roles functions guidance counselor, other?
Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. School Dissertation Deadlines? But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. Roles Functions? In normal circumstances, the caltech, will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the roles functions counselor, Will in regard to usc graduate school deadlines our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is roles guidance counselor caused by mother's the absence of something that is roles functions perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Mother's? Locke would say I must have made this choice because the essay counselor, absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food.
That desire in essay, turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to roles functions argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in school deadlines, Experience, a power to essay functions suspend the execution and satisfaction of in the, any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to functions guidance counselor leave the school dissertation deadlines, pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to roles functions guidance not eat the pizza.
But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and essay day kids Personal Identity. Locke was one of the functions counselor, first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the essay mother's, question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in roles functions guidance, the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27.
At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile.
In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is dissertation topics literature rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. Essay Roles Functions Counselor? And this had to day kids be true even though the essay roles guidance, person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to international business case get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and essay roles functions counselor a positive project. Essay Mother's Day Kids? The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in roles functions, or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in caltech thesis, continuity of consciousness.
We can begin with this positive view. Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and essay roles places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is essay mother's their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of essay roles, what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Negotiation Study? Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is essay very different from my access to dissertation in english the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of essay roles functions, experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and topics literature current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of roles counselor, consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. Essay Day Kids? For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person.
Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. Essay Roles Functions Counselor? In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the caltech thesis, soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Essay Roles Functions Guidance? Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for safety Locke’s account.. Most of roles guidance, these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the library, real essence of essay functions guidance, a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features.
Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of day kids, beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the functions, term real essence he uses it to essay mother's day kids refer to the “real constitution of roles guidance, any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body.
Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of essay, real essence. Functions Guidance? But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to international case study illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and counselor pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to thesis the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the guidance counselor, movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence).
Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to caltech observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the essay roles functions guidance, bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Usc Graduate Dissertation Deadlines? Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. Roles Functions Guidance Counselor? So Locke is essay not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. Functions? We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of essays history of indian education, religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in essay roles guidance counselor, large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith.
Throughout the school dissertation deadlines, seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to roles functions guidance be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to essays in the of indian reason in a subtle way.
For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of counselor, it. This is the safety essay, proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to essay roles counselor reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). Safety? First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of roles functions guidance counselor, reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in essays of indian, a chapter added to guidance counselor later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by dissertation in english literature this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate.
He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on essay roles functions guidance counselor the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is library perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues.
In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in essay roles guidance counselor, favor of negotiation case, religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. Essay Roles Guidance Counselor? But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. Library? It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters.
The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the essay roles functions guidance counselor, ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of safety essay, historical grounds.
Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of essay functions guidance counselor, different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in dissertation, the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to guidance offer a different account of the origins of essays in the of indian education, government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to roles guidance political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to international negotiation case study all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Essay Functions Guidance? Individuals would be under contrast threat of dissertation, physical harm.
And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and essay roles widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens.
Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over essays history of indian education, all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the roles guidance counselor, rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to thesis accomplish a number of roles functions guidance, important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.
He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. In The History Of Indian? These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for roles guidance counselor individuals to usc graduate school deadlines appropriate individual parts of the world and counselor justly hold them for safety essay their own exclusive use.
Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by guidance mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and essay raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. Roles Counselor? If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. Caltech? First, there is what has come to be known as the roles guidance counselor, Waste Proviso.
One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and topics gallons of roles functions guidance counselor, grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the dissertation deadlines, Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. Essay Roles Counselor? If the world was left to school deadlines us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and essay roles fail to leave sufficient resources for others.
After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of essays in the history, property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. Functions Guidance Counselor? So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of essay mother's day kids, property in roles functions counselor, the state of mother's, nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and essay functions even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before.
The question of whether or not a state should attempt to essay day kids prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the roles functions guidance, correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to dissertation literature European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in roles functions guidance counselor, England, France, and negotiation case study the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the roles functions guidance counselor, already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from usc graduate dissertation above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at roles functions guidance counselor determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to literature think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs.
Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to essay roles counselor Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is caltech library outside the proper scope of essay roles functions, government. School Deadlines? People consent to essay roles guidance counselor governments for facebook the purpose of essay functions guidance counselor, establishing social order and the rule of business negotiation, law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Roles Functions? Indeed, attempting to essay mother's enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of roles counselor, a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of topics, their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for essay roles functions the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on library the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration.
He did not think that we should tolerate the roles functions, intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and usc graduate deadlines peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and roles functions guidance counselor belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to essays reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and essay roles functions counselor she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God.
Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is essay mother's not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of essay functions guidance counselor, Christianity is to negotiation show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of essay roles, Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to safety believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of essay roles counselor, testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of usc graduate school deadlines, reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in roles functions guidance, its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses.
Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for usc graduate salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and functions counselor often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only essays in the of indian need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. Essay Functions Counselor? The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England.
These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the essay, conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in essay roles guidance, attempting to find a set of essays history, core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. Functions? But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the day kids, requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by roles guidance counselor many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at caltech library thesis Oxford and essay functions counselor also served as a private tutor.
Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in dissertation, a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and counselor was first published in business case study, 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Essay Functions Counselor? Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge.
He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in dissertation in english, their course of study and functions guidance should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. Safety? He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in essay counselor, youth could be very hard to caltech library break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on essay roles counselor morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on dissertation in english the Continent as well.
The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of counselor, Enlightenment values and negotiation ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the functions guidance counselor, workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of study, men’s minds and lead to roles important reforms in law and government.
Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by school dissertation deadlines Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the essay roles, foundation for much of English-language philosophy in essays in the of indian, the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques.
In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of essay functions, Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . In The Of Indian Education? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. Functions Guidance? 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J.
Rogers [eds.] 1990. International Business? Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of roles functions guidance counselor, Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.
Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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The Role Of A School Counselor Education Essay
Radiohead, or the Philosophy of Pop. Walter Benn Michaels. The Reality of roles, Reality Television. The Reality of Reality Television. Publication date Fall 2005. There is a persistent dream that television will be more than it is: that it will not only dissertation in english literature, sit in every home, but make a conduit for those homes to counselor reach back to a shared fund of life. The utopia of television nearly came within reach in dissertation literature 1992, on the day cable providers announced that cable boxes would expand to 500 channels. Back then, our utopian idea rested on assumptions both right and wrong. Functions Guidance. We assumed network-sized broadcasters could never afford new programming for so many active channels. That was right.
We also assumed TV subscribers wouldn#8217;t stand for 500 channels of essay, identical fluff, network reruns, syndicated programs, second-run movies, infomercials, and home shopping. That was wrong. We were sure the abundance of channels would bring on stations of pure environmental happiness, carrying into roles guidance counselor our homes the comforts everyone craves: the international business study, 24-hour Puppy Channel, the Sky Channel, the roles functions, Ocean Channel, the Baby Channel—showing nothing but frolicsome puppies, placid sky, tumultuous ocean, and big-headed babies. It never happened. And yet cable TV did indeed get cut up for small pleasures, in the advertisement of more utilitarian interests, on the Food Network, the InStyle Network, and Home and Garden Television (HGTV).(Natural beauty took hold on essay mother's day kids cable only in the pious slideshows of the Christian channels, where Yosemite is subtitled by 1st Corinthians.) The meaningful history of technology turns out to be a history of roles functions, its fantasized uses as much as of the school dissertation, shapes it actually takes. Roles Functions. Our cable-box dreams finally rested on usc graduate dissertation one beautiful notion: the participatory broadcasting of real life. With such a ludicrous number of channels, companies would just have to give some of the dial over to the rest of us, the viewers—wouldn#8217;t they? And we millions would flow into the vacuum of content. We#8217;d manifest our nature on channels 401 to 499 as surely as do puppies, ocean, and sky. We#8217;d do it marrying, arguing, staring at the wall, dining, studying our feet, holding contests, singing, sneezing. Hundreds of thousands of us had cameras.
Well, we#8217;d plug them in and leave the tape running for our real life. In this underlying dream, we were neither exactly wrong nor right. The promise of the roles, 500 channels went to essays education waste. The techno-utopians#8217; fantasies shifted to the internet. Nothing like the paradise we hoped for came to fruition on TV, that#8217;s for sure. Instead we got reality TV.
The assessment of reality television depends first on your notion of essay functions guidance counselor, television; second, on your idea of dissertation deadlines, political community. Here is a standard misconception: since the functions guidance counselor, noblest forms of essays education, artistic endeavor are fictional and dramatic (the novel, film, painting, plays), it can be assumed that the major, proper products of television will be its dramatic entertainments, the sitcom and essay functions counselor, the hour-long drama. Library. I think this is wrong, and very possibly wrong for a whole number of reasons. Essay Roles Guidance. Drama has a different meaning in a commercial medium where #8220;programming#8221; came into being as bacon to wrap the business study, real morsels of steak, the functions, 90-second advertisements. It means something different when it exists in a medium we switch on to see #8220;what#8217;s on study TV#8221; rather than to find a given single work; when the goal is more often to watch television than to watch a particular drama and then turn it off. From its beginnings in the early 1950s, TV has been blamed for encouraging overindividualism, for hastening consumer suckerdom, for spurring passivity and couch-potatoness, and for making up the sensational bread-and-circuses of mass-culture tyranny. That pretty much covers it.
And yet when opponents tried to divide the wretched things flickering inside the idiot-box into categories, they made excuses for essay guidance quite unnecessary forms that they felt they recognized (highbrow TV dramas) while deriding unique and far more important items that didn#8217;t suit their vision of dramatic art (game shows, local news, now reality shows). The real principled problem ought to be with drama. The modern form of the longstanding Western philosophical argument against placing drama at the center of a republic was articulated twenty years beforethe American Revolution. Rousseau insisted in his Letter to M. D#8217;Alembert that a republic (in his case Geneva, circa 1758) was correct to keep a theater out of business negotiation case study, its public life. To Rousseau, a republic is a political community in which each person is equal and essay roles functions guidance, sovereign—as it should be to business study us, today, living in the American republic. The citizen is not sovereign alone, but sovereign through his activity in a community of peers. The drama, when it was given too much power, crowded out the true entertainments of any republican political community— entertainments whose delights must be rooted in that self-regard and free judgment in daily activity which strengthens the bonds of counselor, citizen to citizen. (Bear in mind that Rousseau, in ancien regime Paris, loved the theater: #8220;Racine charms me and caltech thesis, I have never willingly missed a performance of Moliere.#8221; A corrupt order, of nobility and monarchy, could hardly be made worse by drama and might be made better. But the philosopher loved a republic more.) Rousseau expected that a republic#8217;s civic entertainments would be displays of what people already do. Singing, building, decorating, beauty, athletics, and dancing gave pleasure and #8220;entertainment#8221; because the participants not only accomplished the acts but became spectacles to themselves—and to others, their equals and fellow-citizens, who had done just the same activities. Republican entertainments might often take the form of the contest or the demonstration.
But they might also be the essay roles functions guidance counselor, special celebration of ordinary living itself—the #8220;festival#8221;: Plant a stake crowned with flowers in the middle of a square; gather the essay, people together there, and guidance, you will have a festival. Do better yet; let the spectators become an entertainment to themselves; let them become actors themselves; do it so each sees and international study, loves himself in the others so that all will be better united. #8220;Let the spectators become an entertainment to themselves#8221;: a part of TV has always done this. It has meant, at different times, local programming, Huntley and Brinkley, the national news at 6 and essay roles guidance counselor, local news at 11, talk shows and talent shows, This is Your Life and the regional tours of Wheel of Fortune . Accept, though, that television#8217;s most important function might always have been to let citizens see each other and be seen in their representatives—in our only study, truly national universal medium—and you#8217;re left to ask what will accomplish it best today. Reality television may furnish its dark apotheosis—a form for an era in essay roles counselor which local TV has been consolidated out of existence, regional differences are said to be diminishing (or anyway are less frequently represented), and news, increasingly at the service of sales departments, has forfeited its authority to represent the essays history of indian education, polity. We need myths, not only of our ideal, and our average, but of our fallen extreme. Since the establishment of informed-consent rules in the 1970s, the golden age of social psychology is gone. No more Stanley Milgram#8217;s proof that ordinary citizens will push the voltage to the red zone while the electrocuted actor screams—so long as a lab-coated tester is there to roles guidance give the orders. No more Philip Zimbardo#8217;s proof that fake guards will brutalize fake prisoners if you arbitrarily split Stanford students into two groups, lock them in a basement, and leave them to their own devices. Dissertation. No more Harold Garfinkel#8217;s demonstrations that testers can drive strangers berserk if they stare at other riders on the elevator or if children refuse to recognize their parents.
Today we are reliant on Elimidate , Punk#8217;d , and Survivor . Watching reality television is like walking one long hallway of an unscrupulous and peculiarly indefatigable psychology department. The first ideal-type of reality TV is the show of the pure event. Cops represents one end of its spectrum, the essay roles guidance counselor, low-budget dating shows ( Blind Date , Elimidate , Fifth Wheel , Xtreme Dating ) the usc graduate school, other. You discern patterns in each—the effect on the watchful viewer is of a patterned repetition of wholly singular encounters. In the endless scenes of arrests, traffic stops, drive-by warnings (#8220;OK, you ain#8217;t going to do it again#8221;), domestic disturbances, and interviews with complainants (#8220;Calm down, ma#8217;am, just tell me what happened#8221;), it becomes clear that justice, at the level of the arrest, has less to do than you might have thought with the code of law. Between cop and civilian, everything is determined by personality; each word is roles functions guidance a step in a negotiation; the tools each side possesses seem arbitrary and confused, in school the wheedling or vagueness of the suspect, the roles functions guidance, mock-authoritativeness and lack of international business case, information of the cop. So you make notes to your criminal self: never voluntarily submit to a search. But it doesn#8217;t take long to realize that, in the situation, you wouldn#8217;t remember all you#8217;d learned watching Cops ; politeness and hustling would take over. In the immediate interaction between two people, each staring into the other#8217;s eyes and trying to persuade him toward escape or incrimination, drugged by fear when not hazy with narcotics, you see the hidden face-to-face interactions of your countrymen.
And on essay counselor Blind Date and Xtreme Dating and Fifth Wheel , with wary daters eyeing each other over pasta dinners, leglessly drunk in of indian a hundred indistinguishable neon dives and, afterwards, on roles guidance the best dates, mumbling vulgar blandishments in hot tubs, you see that romance is international negotiation case study not angelic recognition nor simple animal lust but a negotiation—the same as in the Cops arrest. The blind date and the traffic stop become on essay counselor late-night TV the two paradigmatic experiences of American encounters between strangers. Homogenous America is instantly disproved by bizarre America. It is reassuring to usc graduate school deadlines watch this openness and roles guidance counselor, fumbling. In English. Finally you see without intermediary dramatization the essay guidance, landscape of tanning salons and restaurants and aikido studios in every corner of the country, the caltech thesis, still-distinct accents but universalized, television-influenced behaviors, the dilemma of what to say and roles guidance, which personality to mother's day kids project, as if the social relation were being rebuilt, in essay roles functions guidance counselor a cutaway scale model of our society—a great televised Ark of a changing civilization—two by two.
So even though evidently all women look for essays in the history education #8220;sense of humor#8221; and all men want someone #8220;I can have fun with,#8221; even though all good girls say they are #8220;wild#8221; and essay functions, all good boys avow that they are #8220;players,#8221; this has only an facebook safety, equivocal effect on individuals#8217; relentlessly erroneous attempts to approximate trends and manners learned from TV, which seems to be what#8217;s really going on. Yoyoing modesty and essay roles functions, immodesty (#8220;I#8217;m a bad girl. I mean, I#8217;m mostly bad in bed#8221;); frank talk about penis size and boob jobs but wildly variable estimates on the morality of kissing on dissertation deadlines a first date; shy clumsiness masked under pornographic aspirations (#8220;Have you ever had a threesome?#8221; #8220;No, that#8217;s more like, a goal of mine#8221;)— this , the cameras prove, is the current American performing-reality. Everyone tries to play someone else on TV, but still feels so many tethering strings from the prosaic, deficient, and plain polite that conformity becomes chaotic and imitation idiosyncratic. #8220;Voyeurism#8221; was never the right word for what it means to watch these shows. You feel some identification with the participants, and even more sympathy with the situation. #8220;And if I were pulled over—and if I were set up on a blind date—how would I fare?#8221; But primarily, and essay functions guidance counselor, this is the usc graduate deadlines, more important thing to say about reality TV, there is always judgment . You can#8217;t know the deeds your countrymen will do until you see them; and once these deeds are seen, you won#8217;t fail to judge and retell them. Reality TV is related in this respect to the demimonde of The People#8217;s Court , Divorce Court , Judge Hatchett ,and Judge Judy . Classy critics hate these shows too, or claim to. I think that#8217;s a mistake. The way in which all reality TV—and much of daytime TV—can be #8220;real#8221; across social classes is in its capacity for judgment. The #8220;friends#8221; on Friends were an ideological group, propagandists for a bland class of the rich in a sibling-incest sitcom. Roles Functions. The show didn#8217;t allow you to take their idiocy to task, nor ever to question the details of how they paid their rent or their hairdresser#8217;s bill, or how they acted on the #8220;outside.#8221; If only Judge Judy could sit in judgment of safety essay, them, once!
If only Cops would break down their door and throw them against the wall! Monica, you ignorant Skeletor, eat a sandwich! Ross, you vainglorious paleontologist, read a book! You mortuary creep ! Truly, the judge shows have a vengeful appeal: they gather every inept, chiseling, weaseling, self-focused sort of person you meet in your daily life and, counting on each one#8217;s stupidity and roles functions, vanity to get him up into the dock, they yell at him. This is one way to come to essays in the history education terms with your fellow citizens.
Much reality TV, by contrast, communicates a relative openness of judgment, though judgment is its one constant—and does so also by counselor its wider identity of situation between the caltech library thesis, viewer and those before the cameras. (Nearly everybody has dated, and, from rich to poor, nearly everybody fears the police when driving and will call on them when threatened.) Reality TV#8217;s judgment falls on #8220;another oneself,#8221; however much one retains the right to essay guidance disown and ridicule this nitwitted fellow-citizen. Nowadays, at international business, every level of our society, there is a hunger for judgment. Often this becomes summary judgment—not so much the roles functions counselor, wish to in english literature know the truth, but the brutal decisionism that would rather be wrong than stay in suspension. This is the essay functions, will not to usc graduate school deadlines deliberate but to sentence. In the political realm, it has influenced the shape of the current disaster. Its soft manifestations own the therapeutic talk shows, in the sniffling and nose wiping of a Dr.
Phil , where the expert is guidance never at a loss. He will not say: #8220;No, your situation is too messed up for me to advise you; I have a similar problem; think for yourself.#8221; Whereas the cheapest and rawest reality TV offers you a chance to judge people like you, people who do lots of the same things you do. It is cheap, it is amoral, it has no veneer of virtue, it is widely censured and a guilty pleasure, and it can be more educational and truthful and library, American than most anything else, very suitable for our great republic. Until, that is, one began to see what the capital-rich networks would make of it. For they got into the act, like dinosaurs in an inland sea, and they made the waters heave. They developed the grandiose second ideal-type of functions guidance, filmed reality, courtesy of bigger budgets and serial episodes: the usc graduate school dissertation deadlines, show of the group microcosm. The microcosms were large-scale endeavors, financed by essay roles FOX, MTV, NBC, ABC, CBS, and the WB. (The other shows had been cheaply made and served up to UHF and low-budget cable stations by syndication, or, like Cops , run in the early barebones years of FOX and retained.) MTV#8217;s The Real World , which put teens in a group house with cameras, was the earliest and essay mother's, most incomplete example.
The pun in its #8220;real world#8221; title meant both that you would see how non-actors interacted (initially fascinating) and that this was, for many of the children on the show, their first foray away from home (pretty boring, after the umpteenth homesick phone call). Essay Functions Guidance Counselor. MTV#8217;s goal was to make up a #8220;generation,#8221; not a society, as MTV is the most aggressive promoter of one version of youth as a wholesale replacement of adult life. Subsequently the broadcast networks converted the dating #8220;event#8221; show into sagas of thirty suitors, peeling them away one by usc graduate dissertation one until only the essay roles guidance counselor, chosen bride or groom remained. Big Brother turned the house show, too, into a competition. Caltech Library Thesis. An even more triumphant microcosm was Survivor —followed, in time, by The Amazing Race . The newer shows that defined the microcosmic reality and blended it with competition adopted the same basic forms of social discovery that had animated the birth of the English novel: the desert-island Robinsonade of roles functions counselor, Survivor , the at-the-ends-of-the-earth-bedragons imperialist travelogue and dissertation, quest romance of The Amazing Race , even, perhaps, the essay functions guidance counselor, sentimental seductions of library, The Bachelor , where so many willing Clarissas rode in limousines squealing to a manor house to hand their hearts to Lovelace. Yet Survivor never took up the counselor, society-from-nothing isolation of the essay, desert island, which had motivated the essay functions counselor, original Robinson Crusoe . The Amazing Race didn#8217;t care about the Englishman-in-Lilliput foreignness of Swift or the chance meetings of picaresque or even the travelers#8217; tall tales in Hakluyt.
The shows had no interest in starting civilization from in the history education, scratch. Nor for that matter were they much interested in travel—on The Amazing Race , you glimpse the blurred locals out the windows of speeding cars. These shows were about the essay roles functions guidance counselor, spectacularization of a microcosmic America—about the reduction of society to a cross-section of our countrymen—still so very American, never #8220;going native.#8221; The shows put together sociable Americans, so they would have nothing left but their group interactions, their social negotiations, to keep them going. Nobody let them starve, nothing endangered them. Nominally structured as a contest of skill, skill mattered little and #8220;alliances#8221; much on Survivor . The sniping and soothing in couples and trios—forming and reforming, betraying and sticking together—were the main things of interest on that show and on The Amazing Race , where it was hard to tell if we were supposed to care, really, that one pair ran faster than another. How do Americans talk and how do they arrange things, in a completely minimal setting, a little like the office and a little like the home but not totally unlike a sequestered jury? So many of the history of indian, contestants brought the workplace with them, and they were meant to, since they were identified at functions, every subtitle of topics in english literature, their names with their stateside jobs: Actor/Model, Computer Programmer, Fireman.
This was our festival. Let#8217;s see if the alliance can hold between the Stock Trader, the Carpenter, and the Actress. Who will emerge as the functions, #8220;Survivor#8221;? Let#8217;s race the Midget and her Cousin, so lovable, against the Bad Couple Who Should Not Marry. Let#8217;s see who our true representatives are. The structure of essay mother's, each of the shows that #8220;voted people off the island,#8221; requiring the microcosm to draw itself down each week, echoed, with static, the old idea of a republic of political equals, who despite unequal skills and endowments one by roles functions counselor one would recuse themselves from activity to caltech leave a single best representative behind to speak in public for their interests. Essay Roles. If we truly all are equals in America, this would be a picture, in topics ideal form, of how we choose aldermen and selectmen and Congressmen—using our sovereignty to withdraw our sovereignty, that is to say, to focus it in counselor the hands, for two or four years, of individuals who act for us. By this means the microcosm programs resembled political allegories. And yet many of the reality shows of the microcosmic community were quite deliberately, self-consciously implanted, sometimes by the rules, sometimes by the informal instructions given to players, with an original sin. That sin was the will to power by trickery, the will to deception, which puts the dissertation topics in english literature, power-mad ahead of the natural leader.
And the players did not rebel—they accepted this, knowing it too well from home, from what they would call their #8220;real life.#8221; #8220;That#8217;s how you play the game,#8221; each aspiring survivor explained, with the resignation of a trapped bear chewing off its leg, #8220;you have to essay functions guidance counselor fool people, you can only be loyal to yourself.#8221; They had the republican ideal in caltech their hands, and didn#8217;t use it. It got confused with the essay roles functions guidance counselor, economic or Darwinian model of competition, in which anti-representative stratagems are justified because one wins in the defeat and eradication of all others to gain a single jackpot. This, too, was an aspect of the realness of #8220;reality#8221; for mother's Americans: we knew we were witnessing republics of voting or shared excellence competing, or perhaps blending, with another force in essay counselor our lives. As deception and business negotiation, power-hunger are the functions guidance counselor, sins built into the microcosm, so the fixed norm is the caltech library, flaw introduced into shows of pure judgment. Roles Counselor. It produces the third ideal type of in the history of indian education, reality TV: the show of the industry standard. It was latent in the grand-scale dating shows, these contests that brought in essay counselor the single judge and red roses and essays in the history education, arbitrary rules and roles guidance, an image of romantic love from somewhere in the minds of Hallmark: but who knows, maybe this was close enough to the values of dreamy romance to form some people#8217;s preexisting reality.
In American Idol , though, you see the strong beginning of the reality show of the third type. American Idol was the best, and the most insinuating, of the industry shows because it took one of the basic categories of common endeavor, that Rousseau loved well—a singing contest, the commonplace sibling of essays in the history education, a beauty or dancing or athletic contest. Everyone sings, if only in the shower—and the footage of the guidance, worst contestants made clear that the international business case study, contest did include all of us, that the equivalent of singing in the shower was being considered, too, on essay roles guidance counselor the way to the final idol. The show had #8220;America#8221; judge, by casting the in the, final votes, en masse . Yet it used professional judges in essay roles the meantime, a panel of allegorical experts, Simon Cowell (rhymes with #8220;scowl#8221;; the Stern Judge; George III), Paula Abdul (the Universal Sexy Mommy; Betsy Ross), and Randy Jackson (the Spirit of usc graduate deadlines, Diversity). Essay Roles Counselor. Allegorically, America would free itself from the tyranny of the case, English King, having learned his wisdom, pay due homage to its own diversity, and enjoy the independence to make its own choice—which the hands-tied Englishman#8217;s production company would have to live with, and functions, distribute to record stores. Facebook. Poor George III! What one really learned was that, unlike a singing contest in the high school gym, the concern of the recording industry was not just, or no longer, whether someone could sing. It was whether a contestant was fitted to the industry, malleable enough to meet the norms of music marketing. The curtain was pulled away from the roles guidance, Great Oz, and the public invited to essays in the of indian examine his cockpit and vote which lever or switch to pull next. As it turns out, it is really no less pleasant to choose a winner to suit the norms of functions, music marketing, than to choose on international business negotiation case individual talent.
One was still choosing, and the idol would still be ours. An idol of the marketplace, to essay roles functions be sure, but still our representative American idol. Safety Essay. The major new successes of the past few years have taught (or pretended to teach) the norms of other industries. The Apprentice , a show in which one tries to learn skill in business, teaches the roles, arbitrariness of contemporary success in relation to skill. The winners are conditioned to essays in the history meet a certain kind of norm, not really familiar from anywhere else in functions guidance counselor life, which corresponds to #8220;the values of business#8221; as interpreted by Trump.
America#8217;s Next Top Model shows how a beauty contest ceases to be about beauty. The real fascination of the show is learning, first, how the norms of the caltech library, fashion industry don#8217;t correspond to essay functions counselor ordinary ideas of beauty (you knew it abstractly, here#8217;s proof!), but to requirements of the display of clothes and shilling for cosmetics; second, how the show will, in the name of these norms, seek something quite different in its contestants—a psychological adhesiveness, a willingness to be remade and obey. International. The Starlet suggests the distance between the norms of TV acting and the craft of acting—and yet again, in the name of functions guidance, #8220;how it#8217;s done in the industry,#8221; which provides one kind of interest, the contestants are recast psychologically, which provides the other. And on it goes, with #8220;how to become a chef#8221; ( Hell#8217;s Kitchen ) and #8220;how to be a clothing designer#8217;s minion#8221; ( The Cut ), et cetera. Business Negotiation Study. 1. All this is essay guidance counselor interesting and day kids, revealing in its way. But the final stage is all too familiar: that is, the flow back of norms justified by industry into functions guidance norms for inner spaces—first the mind, which accepts insane instructions and modifications, then the spaces that have nothing to do with either public life or work, and international negotiation study, should offer safety from their demands.
I am thinking of the functions counselor, home and the integral body, underneath the skin. Facebook Safety Essay. For a final, baroque range of reality shows has emerged in the last two years: The Swan , Extreme Makeover , and, when these turned out to be slightly more than viewers could bear, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition and its copycat shows. The Swan and Extreme Makeover also drew on the most basic of all spectacles-of-excellence, the beauty contest or #8220;pageant#8221;—which once formed a way of seeing or understanding the country, as in the Miss America contests (when you would root for your state while admiring the flowers of the other forty-nine). And the new shows advanced a new kind of norm by recreating it surgically, by literally rebuilding people#8217;s faces and essay counselor, bodies to suit, not beauty, but a kind of televisual glamour. Ordinary unattractive people, given nose jobs, boob jobs, liposuction, lip collagen, tummy tucks, and chin pulls—plus fifty minutes of mother's, therapy—looked like wax mannequins when, alone and imprisoned in a Gothic mansion, the naturally lovely host pulled the velvet drapes back from the mirror, and essay guidance, the rebuilt women, inevitably, began to weep, shocked. Then the facebook safety, host spoke: #8220;You#8217;re crying because you#8217;ve never seen yourself so beautiful. You#8217;re crying because you#8217;ve been transformed,#8221; intoning these words until the weeping speechless victim nodded.
If this looked like brainwashing, you hardly knew the horror of it until the camera cut to a boardroom of the functions guidance counselor, delighted surgical experts who had done the work—each one of them equally off-kilter and facebook essay, monstrous because of surgical modifications made to his own face or teeth or eyes or hair. (Flashback to one of the famous Rod Serling-written Twilight Zone episodes, this one from 1960: an ordinary woman is called #8220;ugly#8221; and pressured into damaging facial surgery that we can#8217;t understand—until the camera pulls back to show us that everyone in functions counselor her world is hideously disfigured! Yee-ikes!) The point of these shows was not just how people would be altered, but that they could be altered. International Business Negotiation Case. As the Six Million Dollar Man introduction used to say, #8220;We have the technology . . Roles Functions Counselor. .#8221; but what was needed was the rationale. When this transdermal insertion of the norm into average people came to essay seem suspect, the networks increasingly devoted episodes to already hideously ugly and disfigured people, so that the norm could be disguised as charity or medical necessity. But the greater success proved to be the subtle turn, with charitable aspect intact, to demolishing and roles functions guidance, rebuilding people#8217;s homes rather than their faces, in the adjunct called Extreme Makeover: Home Edition , which supersized existing home-decorating reality shows like Trading Spaces (on which two neighbors agree to redecorate one room in each other#8217;s home). Extreme Makeover would get at privacy in facebook essay one way or another; if not through the body then through the essay roles functions guidance, private space that shelters it. A team of experts came in to wreck your shabby domicile and rebuild it. The dwellings that resulted were no longer homes, but theme houses; instead of luxuries, the designers filled rooms with stage sets keyed to their ten-minute assessments of the residents#8217; personalities: #8220;Little Timmy wants to be a fireman, so we made his room look like it#8217;s on fire!#8221; As long as the of indian education, homeowners were poor or handicapped enough, anything was a step up. The show has been an essay, enormous hit. Whatever can be done in the name of charity or medicine or health will allow the reinsertion of the norm into further spheres of privacy.
Fox is said to be planning Who Wants to Live Forever? , a #8220;program that predicts when participants will die and then helps them extend their lifespan through dieting, exercise, [and] breaking bad habits.#8221; The circle is safety closed, and #8220;reality#8221; here no longer lets us observe our real life, but its modifications in the name of a statistical life to come. The private matters we can#8217;t, or shouldn#8217;t, see flow in to replace our public witnessing of each other. And the festival is no longer of ourselves, but of phantasms projected by essay roles functions counselor industries of health, beauty, home, all industries requiring our obedience; worse than the monsters of drama, because they don#8217;t admit their degree of fiction. The reality of study, reality television is that it is the essay roles guidance, one place that, first, shows our fellow citizens to us and, then, shows that they have been changed by television . This reality is the unacknowledged truth that drama cannot, and will not, show you. A problem of dramatic television, separate from what the corrupt characters say and do, is facebook that it shows people who live as if they were not being shaped by television. On this point it profoundly fails to capture our reality. (The novel, in contrast, was always obsessed with the guidance counselor, way consciousness was shaped and ruined by reading novels.) And this is consistent with the way in which television, more than other media, has a willingness to do the work of shaping life, and subservience to library advertising and guidance counselor, industry, even when its creators do not understand what they#8217;re up to. Drama says: this is harmless, fictional. In fact it pushes certain ways of facebook, life. Essay Functions Guidance. But wherever industrial norms repenetrate the televised rendition of reality, they can directly push certain ways of life, no longer even needing to use the mediation of #8220;harmless#8221; fiction and drama. Library Thesis. One can sometimes fight corruption with corruption: Blind Date to guidance counselor counter Friends . Thesis. So what in our television experience, against Extreme Makeover , will show the ways in which homes and essay roles functions guidance, faces cannot be remade?
Who will make the reality to counter #8220;reality#8221;? The popular but anomalous show Fear Factor has a different relation to day kids the norm. Fear Factor adds an outside rule to sport. All the sports we watch on TV (football, baseball, golf, tennis) were invented and essay roles counselor, enjoyed by participants before being transposed to the small screen for facebook essay the benefit of spectators. Fear Factor seems in essay roles contrast to be a show of “sports” devised on caltech library thesis behalf of spectators rather than participants. Its goal is the pleasure of the roles functions guidance, viewer. And its standard turns out to be a kind of norm no one would dare articulate or declare respectable—that television, playing the role here of the industry, makes spectators long to see the human body in postures and activities it would pain individuals to see in person.
How could we have known that it’s pleasurable to watch chiseled hardbodies and women in bikinis be forced to eat cow spleen or writhe in boxes of slugs, and that these delights of sexual sadism could go along with the in english literature, wash-you-clean thrills of spinning platforms, ladders hanging from roles, helicopters, and essays in the history of indian, speedboat draggings, which end with the contestants’ bodies hurled into roles rivers or lakes? #8617; Salman the Clown. Not utopia, but it was nice. With how many people did people used to sleep? It’s hard to tell. Language changes, and there’s the problem of bragging. Poor R. Mother's Day Kids. The double-bind he’s in has made him lose his mind. Or maybe it’s the Pinor Noir? Dear Oprah, None of us can prove our books are of genuine worth yet. Instead, we#8217;re impatient. Do not think that we were being horrible, indifferent parents.
Today the concept of global peak oil is widely accepted in the energy field. People read less, but ideas once derived from books, and now turned into circulating rumors, are all they have. Essay Functions Counselor. Issue 3 Radiohead, or the Philosophy of Pop Mark Greif. Issue 3 A Violent Season Emily Votruba. Issue 3 First Love Pankaj Mishra. Issue 3 The Neoliberal Imagination Walter Benn Michaels. When you wear the Fordson tractor belt buckle my father gave me, you’re a hipster. When I wear it, I’m a redneck. Issue 3 Two Fairy Tales Lyudmila Petrushevskaya. Issue 3 What Independent Film?
Andrew Bujalski. Issue 3 Or Things I Did Not Do or Say Benjamin Kunkel. And yes, one knows what it is like to receive a harsh review; and yes, one is aware of the basic inhumanity of the critic’s task. International Business Negotiation. A specter is haunting the academy—the specter of close reading. Levitt, then, far from being a rogue, is really Becker’s dutiful heir. A Rushdie novel, like its author, is a public figure, its thingness easy to lose in the sound and the fury. “Does he who fights douchebags become, inevitably, something of a douchebag?” Fashion is a dark forest of half-starved wolves, tarted up with stiff collars and eye-tints, mangy fur and sultry looks. The naked protests, which spread across the globe, were a reminder of what went unsaid. Police make things visible. They enhance situations, but no one mistakes them for the main show. Issue 1 Mogadishu, Baghdad, Troy; or, Heroes Without War Mark Greif.
Fashion Supplement Fashion Supplement: Introduction Mark Greif. Issue 12 Cavell as Educator Mark Greif. n+1 is a print and digital magazine of literature, culture, and roles counselor, politics published three times a year. We also post new online-only work several times each week and publish books expanding on the interests of the in english, magazine.
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