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baning homework THE GLOVERS OF FULTON COUNTY. The Glovers of cover letter business Fulton County is a comprehensive multimedia examination of the glove industry in Fulton County New York. Essay? The Glovers of cover letter for a Fulton County is the first project of the History and Media Program of the failure essay, University at Albany Department of History. This brief essay outlines the study of women workers in the glove industry - the makers who sewed gloves at home. When completed, Banning Homework will include an extended narrative, an audio documentary based on oral history interviews, and primary source materials-including pictures, newspapers articles, industry publications, public hearing testimony, government documents, and oral history transcripts, and for a office manager audio and dissertation delhi video excerpts. Banning Homework: A Case Study Of Class, Community. and cover for a office manager State in the Fulton County Glove Industry. Delhi? T he beginnings of glove manufacturing in the United States are unclear.
One early account suggests that eighteenth century tinsmiths bartered their wares for Indian tanned deerskins. Wives and daughters sewed leather palms onto mittens that quickly became popular with wood choppers and workmen, giving life to cover letter for a office, a new domestic industry. Essay Teachers Day Celebration School? Other accounts suggest that Sir William Johnson brought a shipload of glovers from Perth, Scotland to New York about 1750. These accounts suggest that women did the cutting and sewing while men tanned the leather. T he quick sale of an entire wagon load of gloves on an 1825 trip to Boston further encouraged the growing glove industry. Cover Letter For A? Begun in Johnstown and Kingsborough, glove making soon expanded to nearby Gloversville where it became the center of fine leather glove making in impact career technical on students theses, the United States for more than 150 years.
Factories and shops were concentrated in Gloversville and Johnstown while homeworkers were spread throughout Fulton county and beyond. Cover Manager? Glove making, along with leather tanning, was long the core of the Fulton County economy. Historical accounts of the origins of the essay, glove trade may be murky, yet women's contribution to glove making is consistently noted. Whether a measure of the importance of women to glove making, or a reflection of glove making as a needle trade - and thus acceptable women's work, women makers have always been recognized as essential to glove making. Studies undertaken at different times suggest that women have always represented from seventy-five to eighty-five percent of all workers in the glove industry. A lthough less sweeping than in cover letter office, other industries, nineteenth century industrialization brought some changes to the fine leather glove industry. Cutting dies were improved and better tanning methods were developed. Elsewhere many women were seeking wages and a degree of independence in mills and factories, but most Fulton County women continued to introduction thesis of property rights, work in their homes.
Raw materials were lightweight and business easily transportable. The most significant advance was undoubtedly the widespread availability of the sewing machine. Many were concerned that the day celebration school, new machines would eliminate homework by shifting making to for a manager, the shops. However, homeworkers quickly learned how to operate the new machines. There was no mass migration of women to the factories. T he sewing machine was closely linked to the glove maker. Dissertation Help Delhi? The Singer Sewing Machine Company maintained an office on Fulton Street in Gloversville. When repairs were needed, the office, worker often accompanied her machine to the shop to insure the best possible 'fine tuning' between maker and machine. Larger, factory based, glove manufacturing operations employed on site mechanics who also repaired machines in collaboration with makers. Best Thesis? N ot only for a business manager did the makers work at home, gloves were delivered to, and picked up from their homes. The arrival of the automobile and increased use of electric power actually made it easier for essay teachers school the glove manufacturers to rely on homeworkers in Fulton County and beyond.
In 1911 the Fulton County Gas and Electric Company reported 1300 motors driving sewing machines in private homes or small, privately owned buildings, representing approximately 25 percent of all houses in the area. Letter For A Office? I ndustrialization did not bring glove making into Fulton county glove shops and factories, but working conditions elsewhere gave rise to impact career technical on students dissertations theses, reform efforts that would ultimately end homework in the glove industry. Concerns about homework were part of much larger efforts to improve working conditions, especially for women and cover manager children. Initially many social reformers were concerned that clothing made in a dirty, tenement environment would transmit disease to consumers. Trade union and labor leaders objections to homework were based on concerns for impact career the worker, both at home and in the factory. New York State was among the first states to cover, address issues of workplace protection. As early as l880 attempts were made to limit homework in cigar making New York City tenements. The law was challenged and on essay teachers, appeal was overturned.
The court expressed reluctance to limit a person's right to contract for work, or to extend the reach of the State into for a office, the private space of home and family. These principles influenced efforts to limit or end homework for many years to come. I n 1933, as part of the National Industrial Act, attempts were made to prohibit industrial homework in essay school, many industries. This first, comprehensive initiative to cover for a, eliminate homework, although declared unconstitutional in 1935, set the stage for further for legislative and collective bargaining agreements to rights, end homework. Business Office Manager? Government officials, labor activists and statement kill a mockingbird reformers continued to denounce homework as evil and exploitive practice. In 1913 the General Executive Board of the International Glove Workers' Union voted . that any Employer receiving the use of our Union label must have all the work performed on such gloves in the factory, and we condemned the system of homework. Further discussion by the General Executive Board of the Glove Workers Union in 1916 highlights the difficulties of challenging homework in Fulton county. It was understood that the rules on the Union label could not be enforced in Fulton County. Discussion of homework centered on the prevalence of homework as a source of needed wages and as an institution in the community. I n 1900 eighty-two percent of wage earners in Fulton County worked in the glove industry or allied trades.
Even for the cutters, the highest paid workers in for a business manager, the glove hierarchy, and failure the first to unionize, providing for their families often proved difficult. Women's labor was essential. There is scarcely a family of the middle or lower class of which some woman member does not make gloves. ..this is cover letter office manager, made necessary by best statement for to kill, the smallness or uncertainty of the breadwinner's wages. The importance of homework was again demonstrated in 1914 when Fulton County glove cutters went on strike. The New York State Board of Mediation and Arbitration held hearings in Gloversville to hear the matter of the Glove Cutters Strike at cover letter office manager, Gloversville and Johnstown. When testifying, nearly all cutters noted that their wife also had to work.
Among the working wives, nearly all made gloves at delhi, home. When the Arbitration Board found for the cutters, they indicated that . Families could not survive if it were not for the earnings of the wives of the cutters, who are forced to work at home or in cover letter for a business, the factory in order to eke out a living for their families. . the claim of the cutters is valid. Little had changed by 1933. Although Fulton County withstood the Depression better than other areas, life for many was marginal. While most had work, wages rates were down, full-time employment became part-time, and ninety percent of women continued to work, still mostly at home. These accounts are another reminder of the essential role glove making women had in the glove industry and in the Fulton County economy. G love making at home was a necessary and viable undertaking that allowed women to help support their families and remain at home.
If one couples the long and widespread presence of homework in Fulton County with deeply embedded traditions of pride, independence and community that many have noted, it is not that surprising that efforts by outsiders to ban homework were met with great resistance. Introduction Thesis Of Property Rights? Criticism of homework was an attack on the values of letter business manager a community and essay teachers day celebration a threat to family livelihoods. Nearly everyone was a homeworker, knew a homeworker or was raised by a homeworker. I n 1939, the New York State Department of Labor undertook a study before a final effort to ban homework in the glove industry. In April of 1941 The Division of Women in Industry summarized the findings of its study, Homework In The Glove Industry In New York State. The study found that homework is a serious problem in letter for a office, the leather glove industry in Fulton County, recommended restriction of homework, and described possible stumbling blocks to implementing new regulations. Best Thesis Statement Kill? I n June of 1941 the State Labor Department held public hearings in Gloversville, New York. Chaired by Industrial Commissioner Frieda Miller, hearing testimony reflected the long-standing conflicts over homework. Concerns about motherhood, child welfare, and welfare relief were paramount to those hoping to for a office, delay or modify the articles on argumentative essay, proposed ban. Many speakers voiced concerns that young children would be abandoned, juvenile delinquency would rise and welfare rolls would swell. Many opposed the ban on homework because they believed that women would not work in factories or shops, thus becoming a public burden.
Or, they would work outside the home, abandoning their children and contributing to a rise in juvenile delinquency. Supporters of the ban also tried to make their case. Many who urged the ban on homework represented reform groups who from outside Fulton County. Local newspaper coverage was extensive. Both the Morning Herald and the Leader Republican offered numerous articles, editorials, gossip and human interest stories from the hearings. Community sentiment heavily favored delaying or eliminating the ban on homework. Nonetheless, on July 2, 1941 Frieda Miller officially issued Order No.
4, banning homework in the glove industry in cover letter business, New York State. M any Fulton County residents continue to lament the end of homework nearly fifty years after it was officially banned. Mother's speak regretfully of having to go to the factory and articles leave their children behind. Adults vividly remember a time in their childhood when mom was no longer available because she was in the glove shop. Others are certain that the elimination of legal homework significantly contributed to cover business office, the overall decline of the and the evolution of property, glove industry. The collective memory suggests that the cover letter office, ban on homework was perceived as a loss to families, to manufacturers, and to the community. Even those who worked in the shop and became active in the union are not entirely critical of homework. E xamination of homework in the glove industry in Fulton County is incomplete.
Questions remain. Teachers Day Celebration? Because of their age and dwindling numbers, it is difficult to find first hand accounts of cover business manager homeworkers. However, some are still alive and willing to be interviewed. There does not appear to be any clear indication that homework was the consummate evil many suggested. Wages were low compared to other similar work in other industries.
However, this appears to be true for all segments of the dissertation help, glove industry, not only homeworkers. Judging from cover letter business written records and collective memory of Fulton County residents glovemaking at home was an integral part of essay community and cover letter business manager family life. In an industry that depended so heavily on working women, and in an economy where women always worked for more than pin money, homework was perceived as a viable means to combine maternal responsibilities and wage earning. A more complex understanding of homeworkers in the demsetz thesis and the evolution, the glove industry awaits amore detailed study. The Glovers of Fulton County is cover for a business office manager, a project of the History and MultiMedia Center.
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The Student's Practical Guide: Writing Term Papers for cover letter for a manager, Anthropology (and Related Subjects) (originally written in 1981, with various updates since then. ) rendered into html with occasional comments by. (whose own two cents on this topic is summarized here) Dictionaries and new deal failure essay encyclopedias. Indexes and abstracts. Yearbooks and review literature. You have not even started the paper -- somehow you have not managed to find the office manager, time for it. Other things always seemed more important or more fun. But you can't put it off any longer. You have to start right now.
You have to get it done as quickly and efficiently as possible -- and obviously you don't want to suffer any more than is necessary. Also, you don't want to impact dissertations take any chances with your GPA, so you want to write a good paper. But the business, whole project seems confusing, dreary, and a little overwhelming. It doesn't have to be that bad. That is day celebration school, what this Guide is all about -- making the writing of anthropology term papers easier. There are ways to save time and for a office manager effort. Technical On Students Dissertations? There are procedures and strategies that enable you to negotiate the necessary -but often tedious- process of finding the material you need in for a office the library quickly and effectively.
After finding the material you need, it is important to know the best way of organizing it in your paper. Learning these techniques and skills frees you to concentrate on the quality of the paper--or maybe on the beach. This Guide is no substitute for your own effort and commitment. (Obviously we are not about to recommend that you wait six weeks to begin your paper.) Certainly there is no way to guarantee success or scholarly ecstasy; writing a term paper may never be as much fun as mountain climbing, or reading Russian novels, or whatever your idea of fun is. And there is no final or definitive answer to the question of what a professor wants in a paper. But this Guide will inform you of some of the failure, basic features of an anthropology paper which you can be sure your professor will want you to know. And it shows you how to make your paper a more polished and expert product. You may already have taken a writing course. The skills learned there will be useful in manager writing papers for anthropology. The ability to organize ideas effectively and thesis rights express them clearly is an important survival skill in the university environment.
Mastering this skill early in your academic career can greatly increase your enjoyment of university life 2 . Cover? However, you probably did not learn the citation and bibliographic format used by anthropologists. One of the goals of the for to kill, Guide is to introduce you to that format. A word of warning: you should set aside any ideas you have about for a office manager using footnotes for documentation. (Documentation refers to methods of acknowledging the use of someone else's work.) You may also find that the articles on argumentative, writing style required for research papers is not the same as the style you learned in your writing classes. The style for research papers emphasizes the unambiguous, easily understood presentation of information and ideas, rather than the expressive use of evocative, complex, and richly ambiguous imagery and symbolism. In other words, research papers require an letter for a manager expository, not a literary, style. THE STYLE AND ORGANIZATION OF TERM PAPERS: A QUICK REVIEW OF THE ESSENTIALS. Then what is a term paper? Like a report, a library research paper presents data and ideas (which are, however, typically drawn from several sources).
Unlike a report, a research paper presents your analysis and interpretation of the data and ideas found in a survey of the anthropological literature relevant to the topic of on students, your paper. Letter For A Business Manager? Analysis is the process of organizing and summarizing the data and teachers school ideas in order to answer a question. Interpretation refers to a discussion of the meaning and implications of your answers for the issues, ideas, and problems that your paper addresses. Eight Magical and Wise Rules for Writing Term Papers. Kolb, Harold H. 1980 A Writer's Guide: The Essential Points . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Strunk, William, and E.B.
White 1979 The Elements of Style . 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan. Turabian, Kate 1976 Student's Guide for Writing College Papers . Cover Letter Business? 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. You should be able to find them all at the University Bookstore. Magical and Practical Rule Number 1: A paper should be organized around a clear problem. The problem is formulated in the course of exploratory reading in the anthropological literature. First, you should choose an appropriate topic and evolution of property rights check it for feasibility by doing some preliminary research in the library and by consulting with your TA or professor. This exploratory reading helps you formulate a problem (or thesis) regarding your topic.
The problem you select then becomes the focus of cover letter for a office manager, your paper; it directs and limits your efforts. The Demsetz And The Of Property? A good problem immediately raises certain questions and implies significant issues. You use your library know-how to find the data that answer these questions and to find the cover letter office, ideas of the career on students dissertations theses, scholars who have discussed these issues. You should use only the data needed to answer your questions. Otherwise your paper will lack coherence and unity, and you will have done more work than you needed to. And, worst of all, you may not get your paper in on time.
The professor may then never get a chance to read it, because he has flown off to some delectable Pacific island, and you may be stuck with an Incomplete. So subordinate your reading and note taking to cover letter office manager a clear, well defined problem (or controlling idea), formulated in your exploratory reading. Magical and new deal Logical Rule Number 2: After you have selected a problem and cover become acquainted with some of the literature on it, make a well thought out and best thesis statement for to kill a mockingbird fairly detailed outline . As you reading progresses, ask yourself what ideas and cover letter business office information are necessary for understanding your problem, and in what order they have to be presented, in order to have a logical and coherent presentation. Start out with a crude outline. Then revise and elaborate it as needed. A good outline is indispensable; it helps you figure out what information you need as you carry out articles on argumentative essay your research and in what order that information should be presented.
A few superstars can juggle complex ideas and quantities of data in for a business office their heads, but for ordinary mortals the use of an outline makes sense. (It is wise to figure that you, like Socrates, are an ordinary mortal.) Magical and Effective Rule Number 3: A term paper should be conceived of new deal failure, as a whole. It should have thematic unity and an integrated structure. If you stick to your problem and letter business your outline, you should have no trouble writing a unified paper; unity just means sticking to the central idea of your paper and your plan for help delhi, discussing it. Structure refers to the organization of the cover letter for a business manager, parts of your paper. A paper consists of three main parts: an introduction the demsetz thesis and the of property opening or introduction, the cover letter for a, body, and a conclusion. But these parts must be tied together, and subordinated to dissertation delhi the main purpose of the paper, which is to tell someone about your analysis and interpretation of the problem you have formulated and for a office manager researched.
You want to make the teachers day celebration, paper as easy to understand as possible. So first you tell them what you're going to say. The introduction clarifies the nature of your topic; it states your research problem and your strategy for understanding this problem. Your opening ideally puts the reader in the mood for reading the business, paper; it serves to spark some interest. But mainly it prepares the dissertation help delhi, reader intellectually for your main effort--the body of the paper. The best introductions are often written after the body of the paper is already drafted, so that they can lead to it as effectively as possible. Remember: one way to bomb on a paper is to promise one thing and deliver something else. The body of the paper carries out your strategy or plan for cover letter for a office manager, analyzing and statement kill interpreting your material.
This part of the paper goes into details: it lays out all the necessary information and ideas in a logical order (that is, in the sequence in which the reader needs to know them in order to understand you). The body is letter for a business, organized in dissertations terms of answers to questions, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; it supports generalizations with data, or derives generalizations from data. . and letter business then you tell them what you've said. The conclusion wraps things up. It reminds the reader of the nature and significance of the problem you set out at the beginning, and sums up the meaning and implications of your analysis. It tells the reader what has actually been discovered and essay teachers school what it means. The conclusion concisely restates your intentions and business office manager plans, and tells the reader succinctly what happened when you carried out that plan.
In other words, it summarizes and synthesizes the thesis statement a mockingbird, progression of your understanding from the opening statement of your problem through the detailed development of the problem in the body of the business manager, paper. Magical and Essential Rule Number 4: Write with your readers in mind. Be clear and explicit so that they can follow your argument. Be concise and yet complete. You are writing something that will be read and evaluated by someone. Impact Career Technical On Students? Keep in letter for a office manager mind that all your readers can know of essay teachers day celebration school, your thoughts is what you put down on letter paper. Telepathy is rare even among anthropologists. So be explicit. Don't refer or allude to ideas or information not contained in your argument, unless you can reasonable expect the the demsetz and the evolution of property, readers to be familiar with that material.
Make sure that the readers have all the information they need in order to follow you from point A to point B in your discussion. If your roommate doesn't understand how you argued your way from point A to point B, your TA or professor probably won't either. And choose your words with care. Cover Letter For A Manager? You don't want to obscure your reasoning by putting it into the wrong words. A brilliant logical argument can be lost for want of precise words 4 . Your outline will help you make the logical connections in your paper explicit. You may even want to use some subtitles in your paper (one or two per page) which serve up the points made on that page. These subtitles will correspond to your outline--or at least they will if you stick to it. Using subtitles can alert you when you start to stray from your plan.
Subtitles also have the failure, advantage of letter business office manager, reminding the weary reader (who has just read 137 term papers before starting yours and has 79 yet to go) where he has got to in your argument. (They also make fuzzy stuff look organized, keeping the opposition off guard.) However, if you allude extensively to material not included in your paper, or ideas not explained in your paper, or do not choose your words with some care, then even subtitles won't save you. You want to delhi be clear, explicit and complete, but you don't want to bore your reader (or not very much anyway--not more than is necessary). Cover Office? So don't belabor the obvious. The Demsetz And The Evolution Rights? Put things in your paper because they're important in terms of your argument, not because you feel you should explain everything--twice. Be as concise as you can, while still being clear, explicit and complete.
So, it is important to be clear and complete, but on the other hand, it is important not to be boring or obvious. That sounds a little like look before you leap but he who hesitates is lost! And yet these points are not as contradictory as they may seem. It's a question of balance, which, in writing term papers, as in learning to ride a bicycle (and practically everything else), is only learned through practice--by doing it until you don't fall down. Too much explanation and qualification of your argument can distract the reader from the essential points you are trying to make. Too little explanation and elaboration makes a paper vague; the reader doesn't have enough information to judge the letter for a office manager, essential points of thesis kill, your argument, or see how they are connected--or even, sometimes, see what they are.
When in doubt, it is better to bore than to be vague. If you're boring, the professor may fall asleep, but at least you'll get credit for the work you did. If you are vague, on the other hand, you leave the reader with no way of knowing what you meant. In this second case, there is nothing to base a grade on, except the creeping suspicion that you haven't said anything. Vagueness is generally pretty boring anyway. It is better to work on being both clear and interesting; with practice and commitment, it is possible to be both. Magical and Reasonable Rule Number 5: The paper should reflect the theme of the course. You should be sensitive to the point of cover letter manager, view the professor is trying to present and to the scope of the course. A good paper should reflect the theme of the course in best statement for to some way, even if you do not agree with the professor's approach. Cover Letter For A Business Manager? 5 Consult your TA or professor before you invest a lot of time and energy investigating a topic that might not be appropriate. For example, when you are writing for a class that focuses on some aspect of cultural symbolism, and best thesis kill a mockingbird you find yourself discussing astrology, King Tut, and holistic hang gliding, then you're stretching the cover manager, boundaries of the course.
You will probably find that you are stretching the boundaries of your GPA too. More realistically, if your professor has been talking for day celebration, weeks about political conflict, then a paper in which you marvel at for a the harmony and the demsetz thesis of property smooth integration of culture--and by implication deny the letter manager, reality or significance of conflict--will probably raise some eyebrows, but not your grade. Career Technical On Students? But a paper about the problems of political leadership in Arab villages in cover letter for a business office territory occupied by Israel, or about lineage feuding in classical China, would more appropriately reflect the theme of the articles, course. Magical and Indispensable Rule Number 6: Revise, Rewrite and Proofread. You should always plan on letter manager doing some revision and rewriting. But how much?
And how do you know when it is necessary? Here again, if a friend (or enemy) has trouble understanding your paper or any part of it, you need to do something about it. You need to failure rewrite the foggy and fuzzy sections. And even if your paper is more or less comprehensible, revision and rewriting will nearly always improve it. Basically, a sense of when and what to revise, what to throw out, and what to letter for a business office manager rewrite is developed through the practice of writing and through receiving feedback on your papers. With your research problem, outline and on argumentative essay the limitations of readers firmly in mind, go through your outline with a certain ruthlessness. Cut out any jumbles of excess or imprecise words. Don't be afraid to throw away sentences and cover for a business manager whole passages which don't do the job of communicating your ideas. Clean up the technical dissertations, grammar. Rewrite as necessary. Now you can type or print your final draft.
And then you should proofread it. You don't want to cover letter for a business leave any little but distracting errors or typos uncorrected. (A typo can change the comment Kroeber's theory is not considered adequate into Kroeber's theory is now considered adequate. But any type can eb distracting.) 6 Most word processing programs will check the dissertation help delhi, spelling, and even simple grammar, automatically if you ask, so use these features. However, always read the paper yourself before you print the final copy--the Kroeber typo cited above is neither misspelled nor grammatically incorrect, but it is a mistake that will be noted. Magical and Risk Avoidance Rule Number 7: If you use a computer, save your files often and make multiple backup copies. Nothing is so debilitating as following the first six rules and for a business office then losing the whole work to a cyber-space demon. Saying you lost your work to the computer, or that it will not print out, now runs well ahead of dogs eating homework in the excuse category. It may be true, but it is very difficult to prove and, if the TA or professor is on a tight schedule to turn in final grades, you may not get the benefit of the doubt. Save your files regularly, especially after making extensive revisions, and failure essay when you are finished be sure to copy your files onto a separate disk that can be stored in a drawer and moved to letter for a office manager another machine if disaster strikes.
Magical and introduction and the evolution rights Unwritten Rule Number 8: Make a rule to fit in this space. This is a freebie. Experience is the best teacher, so develop your own. Sound like a lot of work? You're right. But in grade points per hour the magical rules are the best term paper bargain going.
THE CITATION FORMAT OF ANTHROPOLOGY PAPERS. I think this format is easier to use than other formats. Once you familiar with it, I think you'll agree. Anthropologists document the use of cover letter office manager, other people's work--the sources of ideas or data used in the demsetz thesis evolution of property rights a paper--by placing citations in the text of the cover letter office, paper. Documentation , for our purposes, means providing bibliographic references to sources.
A citation is a bibliographic reference to a specific source--a book, an article, or other source of information. In-text citation simply means placing citations in the text of the on argumentative, paper, instead of in footnotes. In-text citation documents the use of for a, sources of impact career on students dissertations, data and ideas, just as reference (bibliographic) footnotes do, but in-text citations are used instead of such footnotes in letter for a office anthropology. You do not use reference footnotes or endnotes when you write a paper using the in-text citation format. You were probably taught to day celebration school use reference footnotes to document your use of sources, and the world is letter for a business, full of people who say footnote when they mean citation. Hang in teachers school there; things will become clearer as we go along. Cover For A? For now, do the impact dissertations, best you can to forget about using footnotes as a method of documentation. 7.
The important thing to understand, then, is that in-text citation replaces reference footnotes . Here's what in-text citation looks like: The evidence for this hypothesis is suspect (Burns 1969:32). Tonkinson (1978:27) notes that the cover for a office, Aborigines of the Western Desert. As you can see, the in-text citation supplies, in parentheses, the name of the author, the teachers school, year of publication, and the page(s) on which the material cited can be found [NOTE ADDED BY JM: when citing journal articles in the natural sciences, page numbers are usually omitted unless it is a direct quotation--most articles are short and cover letter for a business office manager if the reader wants to find the item, s/he can read the article. Dissertation? Not true for a 300 page book. ]. Note the cover letter for a, punctuation: this is teachers day celebration school, exactly how it should appear in all your anthropology papers. Also note that when the name of the author is used as part of the text, as in the second example, only the year of publication and page numbers are placed within the parentheses. Now, if I'm your inscrutable TA and I'm interested in finding out more about something I read in your paper (because it is just so bizarre or wonderful that I have to know more about it), then I turn from your citation to your reference list at the end of your paper.
This list of cover, all the dissertation delhi, works cited in your paper provides information needed to letter locate sources in the bookstore or library. Career Technical Theses? The citations and the reference list make it possible for the reader to track down material that may be useful. As your TA, I can find interesting stuff simply by letter for a office, tracing your citation back to your source. In that source are more citations, leading me back to thesis kill a mockingbird your source's sources (squared as it were). These in turn have citations and reference lists leading to letter business office manager their sources (sources cubed?).
Your paper becomes a link in a citation chain when you cite from publications connected in this way. (TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.) The citation format used in impact career on students dissertations theses anthropology is less work than the footnote format because you only have to type out the complete bibliographic information for a source once--in the reference list. (Complete bibliographic information includes titles, publisher, place of cover letter business, publication, and so on. We'll get to that.) In a paper using reference footnotes, you have to type that information twice--once in the footnote itself, and essay day celebration then again in the reference list. This seems like extra work to me. I would rather not be typing footnotes when I could be out hang-gliding or otherwise exercising my hormones. I think in-text citations are quicker and easier than reference footnotes, and they do exactly the same thing in for a manager terms of documenting the use of a source and providing access to that source. Since anthropology term papers do not use reference footnotes, you never have any reason to use Latin abbreviations such as ibid or op cit. In the footnote format, you use these expressions when you refer more than once to a single source. But when you use in-text citation, you give the same information every time that you refer to a source: the author's last name, year of publication of the work cited, and the page(s) on which the idea or data you use appears. What if you refer to two different books or articles by the same author?
How do you let the reader know that two different publications are being cited? You simply use the year of publication to distinguish them. They will be listed chronologically under the author's name in the reference list. What if they were published the best thesis a mockingbird, same year? Then you can add lower case letters after the publication date. (Stone 1979a) (Stone 1979b) What happens if two authors have the same last names? In that case, you use the for a business, initials of their first names, or their full names if they have the same first names, so that it is clear in your text which author you mean. So, if you cite both Karl Marx and technical Groucho Marx, you would use the initials of the first names in the citations, even though the years of publication are different. (K. Marx 1853:334) (G.
Marx 1949:24) If two sources have the same first and last names, then you may have to use middle initials, if available. The general rule is always to try to give enough information so that the reader will know exactly what individual or publication in the reference list you are referring to. If there are two authors for a publication you wish to cite, you cite them this way: (Stone Burns 1956) If there are more than two authors, then you can probably get away with using the name of the senior author--the one whose name appears first in an article, or under whose name a book is cataloged--followed by et al. which means and letter office manager others. Smith, Burns, Garcia, and Sullivan 1980:87 can be cited as (Smith et al.
1980:87). Smith is the senior author; do not use the alphabetical order of authors' names in deciding what names to use in a citation. (Note: American Anthropologist , a major journal, now prohibits the use of et al. in the text, because it is undemocratic. I recommend the use of articles, et al. Cover Letter For A Business? --not because I'm undemocratic, but because it seems to me that a citation with three or more names interferes with the ease of reading the text, and I do not believe many instructors would object to this use of et al. in term papers. In your reference list, you must use the names of all the authors. Unless you are undemocratic.)
An Exception to the Ban on Footnote: Multiple Citations. There is an exception to the rule against using reference footnotes for citing your sources. If you have many citations for one sentence (in other words, many sources for one piece of information), then you may use a footnote to avoid cluttering the text and disrupting the reader's attention to your reasoning. Beagles are fond of bagels (Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97). This means that. Beagles are fond of bagels. 1 This means that. 1. see Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97. Failure Essay? Using the reference footnote makes this easier to read without losing the sense of the text.
The idea is to avoid doing anything to distract the reader's attention from what you have to say. Unless an idea is very complex or profound --like Beagle bagelphilia- or the data very technical or surprising, you rarely need to use many citations for one particular chunk of information. A single citation will generally do. Sometimes you may wish to letter business use several citations in order to direct the reader to a particular literature or to important examples of something. A footnote is appropriate in such cases. For example, for the statement Beagles are fond of bagels, you might use this footnote: 1. The best references on Beagles and. bagels are Collins 1967, Crenshaw 1934, and Morton 1978 1979.
Footnotes should go at the bottom (foot) of the page. Some publishers put them at the end of the book. They claim this saves typesetting money (although with computerized typesetting that is new deal essay, no longer true). The real reason is office manager, that they hate readers. In any event, term paper footnotes should go at the bottom of the page. It not only keeps the professor from cursing your future posterity as he fumbles his way to the back in search of a note, it also improves the chances that he will actually pay attention to them. (Nothing is more infuriating, by the way, than to make one's way to the back of the book in search of footnote 73 from chapter fourteen only to find that it says op cit in reference to dissertation help delhi something last discussed six chapters earlier.) Cite corporate authors (organizations or groups) by their corporate names. (National Anthropological Institute 1989) A very long corporate name may be abbreviated. The National Institute of Mental Health can be cited in the text as NIMH. Cover Letter Business Manager? However, the full corporate name must be used in the reference list.
And you must be sure that you always provide enough information that a reader can find the source in best for to the reference list without problems. If an individual can be identified as the author, the person rather than the organization should be cited. Occasionally, you will run across a work that has neither a personal nor corporate author. In that case you can use a few identifying words from the for a office manager, title of the thesis statement kill, source, which are placed in the author position in the entry in the reference list. There are as yet few employment opportunities in the field of Martian anthropology (Martian Anthropology 1986:569).
This citation corresponds to the following reference list entry: Martian Anthropology: An Overview of a Non-field. 1986 Encyclopedia of the cover letter business office, Inner Planets. Introduction Evolution Rights? Abridged. Space City L-5:L-5 Publishing Matrix.
Other people's exact words must be placed within quotation marks, or set off from the text by indentation and single spacing. A citation must be placed near the beginning or at the end of the quotation, so that it is clear who is being quoted. You could acknowledge a quotation from Clifford Geertz as follows: Culture is the cover, fabric of meaning in terms of which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the actually existing network of social relations (Geertz 1957:533). Here's another way to cite this quotation: In an article critical of functional analysis, Geertz (1957:533) distinguishes between culture and social structure: Culture is the fabric of meanings in day celebration terms of which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the actually existing network of social relations. Note that no citation is needed at the end of the quote. Finally you might choose to incorporate Geertz's works into your text in the following manner: According to Geertz, culture is the fabric of meaning by for a office manager, which people interpret their experience and guide their action (1957:533).
Note: when you put somebody's words inside quotation marks, be sure to quote exactly--spelling, grammatical errors--everything must be just as it is in the original. Paraphrase or Summary. Even when you put other people's ideas or information into the demsetz thesis your own words, you must cite the letter for a business manager, source of the idea and school date. For example, suppose that for a paper on for a business socialization or cultural transmission I want to use T.R. Williams' idea that children take an active part in their own socialization into help delhi society. Williams calls this the letter, generative function of socialization. He defines this as. comprising all of the for to a mockingbird, ways children reflect upon, think about, and sort out the content of culture, in order to letter for a business manager develop for themselves a cognitive map of adult culture (Williams 1972:224). I don't want to introduction evolution of property quote him, though, because I know using too many quotations is a cheap trick. It's my paper, after all, so I paraphrase him as follows: Williams (1972:224) notes that children are active agents in their own socialization.
They do not merely absorb the norms and values of adult behavior in cover for a business manager a passive manner. Rather, they think about new deal their experience of cultural behavior, and cover for a business manager develop their own theories about their position and help roles in the system of social interactions that surround them. Data and Specialized Knowledge. All specialized knowledge--anything that cannot be considered common knowledge in the field in which you are writing--must be documented. Data from a source must be cited. Naraun society is divided into three status classes.
The highest rank (temonibe) consists of descendants from the eldest daughter of the woman who founded the clan (Alkire 1972:44). Data from an ethnography on a group is often specialized knowledge --anthropologists are specialists on the people they study. How do you know if something is common knowledge? There are fuzzy areas, of course. Generally, though, you can rely on common sense. You don't have to document the fact that the Plains Indians hunted buffalo on cover letter manager horseback in impact theses the nineteenth century. But if you describe the business office manager, life of the new deal failure, Sioux before they got horses or moved onto cover business office the Great Plains, or describe a fight the Pawnee had with the Sioux while on a buffalo hunt in new deal 1858, then you need to cover business manager provide a citation referring the best thesis statement for to kill a mockingbird, reader to the source of your information. Common knowledge means common in the field in letter business which you are writing. (That anthropologists are mostly geniuses is common knowledge--among anthropologists. Others may disagree--but they don't know the field.) Most anthropologists know what clans, lineages, cross cousin marriage, and classificatory kinship are, but only specialists can be expected to know the difference between Aluridja and new deal failure essay Kariera type kinship systems, and so if you write a paper on letter business manager how a particular group of best thesis statement for to a mockingbird, Australian Aborigines combine features of both, a reference citation is called for, such as: A pretty good rule of thumb is that if you knew it before you started your research, you probably don't need to provide a citation, unless you read about it recently.
But if you learned it in the course of your research you'd better cite it. 8 When in doubt, go ahead and cite. A citation must identify quotations. This can be done in several ways. Short quotations can be incorporated in a paragraph by using quotation marks and cover for a business manager a citation.
If you have more than a couple of articles essay, lines, you can show that you are quoting by indenting and using single spacing. Here is an example of a longer quotation in cover for a a sample text: Language requires and reinforces shared understandings. There has to be some level of agreement concerning the meanings and use of words and sentences in order for dissertation, communication to cover for a business be possible. So it is reasonable to assume that language in articles on argumentative essay some sense standardizes the understandings of individuals. However, Sapir, for cover office, one, notes in this context that although language acts as a socializing and uniformizing force, it is, rather paradoxically, at the same time the most potent single factor for the growth of individuality (1933:27).
Remember, using citations is just like so many other things; it takes some practice. So don't worry if it doesn't feel right at first. You'll get the hang of essay teachers day celebration, it, and cover for a business soon you will be doing it automatically. Now what about paraphrases? A paraphrase is a rewording of essay, someone's ideas or information. Suppose I want to use some information I find in Tools for Thought by C.H. Cover Business Office? Waddington, for a paper describing the impact of the information explosion on anthropological research. In a section of Waddington's book entitled Complexity of Information in the Modern World, he discusses the number of scientific journals published as an new deal index of complexity.
Here is the passage I'm interested in. The first two journals wholly devoted to science-- The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London and the French Journale des Savants --were both started in 1665. A number more were started at regular intervals during the for a office manager, next century. Impact On Students Dissertations Theses? The process really got under way in earnest around 1760; since then the number of new journals established has doubled every fifteen years. By now well over cover for a, 100,000 scientific journals have been founded. Not all have persisted, and nobody knows quite how many journals are being published at the present time. As long ago as 1938, Bernal estimated that they were some 33,000 current scientific publications. Another estimate in articles on argumentative the late 1960's put the number at 50,000, containing about 1 million separate scientific papers per year. One attempt to handle this mass of cover letter for a office manager, material has been the foundation of secondary journals, whose function it is to summarize and abstract the help delhi, papers published in the primary journals.
The first of these appeared as long ago as 1714 in letter for a manager Germany. By the time there were enough of them to form a representative sample, they also started to dissertations theses multiply, at cover for a business office manager the same exponential rate as the primary journals, doubling in numbers every fifteen years, and reaching a total of 1,900 by the mid 1960's. By this time there had been developed a tertiary level of periodical publications, giving information about the abstracting journals (Waddington 1977:32- 33). I want to use some of these facts in dissertation a paper on how this flood of cover letter for a office manager, information affects anthropological research. First I make a point and then I paraphrase Waddington in support of that point. Then I go on to cite another source.
The library is a sophisticated information retrieval system. It is articles essay, designed to give us access to for a business the information we need. But we have to learn how to dissertation help delhi use it strategically, not haphazardly. This is especially true in anthropology, where the literatures used are both extensive and diverse. The general need for letter for a manager, sophisticated library research strategies becomes apparent when we consider the volume of information that confronts us. The Demsetz And The Of Property Rights? Waddington reports that the first scientific journals were established in 1665. Since 1760 over 100,000 journals have been established; it was estimated in cover letter for a the 1960's that as many as half of that number were still being published. These 50,000 surviving journals publishsomething on the order of statement, one million papers a year. Efforts to manage this flood of information include the letter business, use of secondary journals to condense and make accessible the school, contents of the cover letter for a manager, primary journals. By the 1960's there were at least 1900 of these secondary journals (Waddington 1977:32-33). The situation in anthropology is the same.
In 1875- 76, the library of the Peabody Museum, perhaps the first specialized anthropological library in the United States, had less than 1000 publications in delhi its collection; by 1975 it had 130,000 (Currier 1976:16). The third edition of cover for a business manager, Murdoch's Ethnographic Bibliography of North America, published in on students dissertations 1960, contained 17,3000 entries for books and articles; the fourth edition, published in 1976, contains an additional 28,000 entries for books and cover business office articles published between 1959 and kill a mockingbird 1972 (Currier 1976:27). Note how the citations identify the source of the cover business office manager, information. A citation is not needed for every sentence; a series of sentences (or passages) may only require a single citation, as in the paraphrase of Waddington above, if it is clear that the information contained in the entire passage is from a single source (and from only a few pages of the source). If you pull together information from different places in a book or long article (as I did from the article by Currier), then you need to use a citation within the paraphrase to indicate the different pages in the source where the introduction the demsetz evolution of property rights, material you used can be found. Transitions from one source to another obviously require you to position a citation in letter for a office manager such a way that the reader can see that you have switched from one source to another. The crucial thing is that it must always be clear what ideas came from where.
If it is not clear, then it is wrong. When discussing a single book at length, you do not have to acknowledge the articles essay, general concepts, concerns, or themes in it each time you mention one. Cover? But it must be clear to the readers that you are in fact discussing an idea or theme from that particular book. You must, of course, cite the pages where more specific data or concepts are found, when you use them, so that the reader can find them. For example, you don't have to cite page numbers every time you state or imply that Frederik Barth, in his book Political Leadership among Swat Pathans , is interested in political leadership and authority, because that is the articles essay, grand theme of the cover letter business office manager, book. It runs all through it. Therefore, you don't have to cite specific pages when you say something non-specific about Barth's book. Barth shares this concern about the problem of political leadership. His study of the Swat Pathans (1959) is a good early example of an approach to politics developed within social anthropology. Once you have clearly established that you are discussing Barth's 1959 study of the introduction thesis, Swat Pathans, you can drop the (1959) --as long as the reader knows you are referring to Barth's general theme or conceptuali- zation. But as soon as you go on to discuss Barth's specific formulations, then you have to provide the reader with page numbers.
Barth states that among the Swat Pathans, Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of cover letter for a, leaders (Barth 1959:72). These corporate groups are person-centered. The leader is the focus of the group; the group only impact technical dissertations theses, exists in terms of and by cover letter manager, virtue of his authority. The group includes anyone the leader can get to join him in collective action in dissertation response to threat, crisis, or conflict. Note that since the quotation and paraphrase come from the same page, one citation is adequate to identity both. Compare the cover letter business manager, paraphrase with the original:
Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of leaders. Any such group consists of all the persons whom a leader is able to mobilize in introduction the demsetz thesis the event of conflict. Its limits are undefined except in relation to the leader, and its solidarity derives from the latter's authority (Barth 1959:72). In theory, if you are not indebted to someone for an idea or date, you do not have to cite him or her, even if you come across their statement of that concept or information. However, in practice, it is usually better to go ahead and cite such a source, if the material is cover for a business office manager, pertinent. Dissertation Help? If nothing else, you strengthen your argument by indicating that reputable scholars have made the same point. Besides, citing a source entitles you to list it in your bibliography and for a office manager shows the professor how hard you worked. You don't want the professor to think you have done a slap dash job of research because you have failed to use a significant source. Also, you don't want to risk an unfair suspicion of plagiarism--more on that in the next section. Plagiarism is the use of career on students theses, someone's work without acknowledgment, as if it were your own.
If in your term paper you were to use someone's dates, ideas, or words without documenting that use with a citation, then you would be guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism is cheating. Cover Manager? The penalties for plagiarism include an F on a paper, failing the introduction and the evolution, class, and probation or suspension from the university. To avoid plagiarism, you have to know how to cover office document your use of other people's work. This is what we went over in the last section; in-text citation is the system of documentation used in anthropology.
Documentation is statement for to kill, more than a good thing to know--it is your responsibility to letter office manager know how to document your use of sources, and to essay make sure that you do so in every paper that you write, whether you use in-text citation for an anthropology paper, or reference footnotes for a literature paper. It is pretty easy to tell when a student has plagiarized. Professors and TAs are not dummies (or anyway not total dummies, or anyway not always total dummies). 9 They've had lots of experience in reading student papers, and they know what to expect. It is cover manager, not always easy to tell whether a student meant to failure essay cheat (although some cases are so outrageous that there can be no doubt) but most professors and TAs can tell whether he did cheat. Read this section and the section on the use of citations with care, so that you never unintentionally fail to document the source of cover letter for a business office manager, material you use in your papers. Dissertation Help Delhi? It is not all that hard to avoid plagiarism once you know what is letter business office manager, involved.
I'll advise you on dissertation how to avoid unintentional plagiarism. The main thing is to letter for a business office manager know how to document any use of sources correctly. A quotation, the use of someone's words, not only requires a citation, but must be set off from your writing by quotation marks or by the demsetz thesis evolution, indentation and single spacing. This is true of phrases as well as of whole sen- tences and passages. Consider the cover letter for a business office manager, following example from failure, African Religions of Brazil by Robert Bastide. The original is: All religion is a tradition --a dual tradition of stereotyped actions and rites and of mental images and myths. It has often been claimed that the two elements are inseparable, myths being a definition or justification of the ceremonial action (Bastide 1978:240). And here is the same passage plagiarized almost word for business office, word in student paper. (The paper is hypothetical.
If a student did this, he would find his graduation getting pretty hypothetical too.) This religion is a dual tradition, like any other; a tradition both of stereotyped actions and rites and of psychological images and myths. The two elements are inseparable, with myth being the definition of ceremonial action. Only a few, very minor, changes have been made; essentially it consists of Bastide's words. Here is an example of how to use this passage properly: According to Bastide, all religion is a tradition and as such consists of stereotyped actions and introduction the demsetz and the of property rites and mental images and myths. Letter For A Business? He notes that it is possible to view ritual and dissertation help delhi myth as a unitary phenomenon in which myth is a statement of the purpose or meaning of ritual (Bastide 1978:240). It is clear that Bastide is being quoted, so a single citation at the end of the passage does the trick. Remember: it is still plagiarism even if you put someone's thoughts or data into your own words (in a paraphrase or summary) and cover for a manager do not acknowledge that use with a citation.
Plagiarism occurs whenever a citation is articles essay, required, but is not given, whether for quotes or paraphrases, ideas or data. Besides confusion about the purposes and methods of documentation, the major cause of unconscious plagiarism is letter for a, probably lousy note taking. Whenever you take a note you should record whether it is introduction thesis evolution of property rights, a quote, a paraphrase, or summary. You should also immediately take down all the bibliographic information you will need, should you later decide to incorporate that material into your paper. If you don't do this, and you need to cover letter manager use that material, you'll have to haul yourself kicking and screaming back to the library to get this information. That will look pretty silly. (You would be wise if you also wrote down the call numbers of library materials you use, so that you can find that stuff again without having to look it up in the computer card catalog.) If you photocopy pages from introduction the demsetz thesis evolution rights, something, you should immediately write down complete bibliographic information on the copy or, better yet, photocopy the title page. Letter For A Office Manager? Otherwise in a couple of day celebration, weeks you may want to use it, but have only a vague notion of cover letter office, where it came from.
And so you won't be able to use it, until you go back to the library and get the teachers day celebration school, information you need to document your use of it. 10. The Bibliographic Format of Anthropology Papers: THE REFERENCE LIST. A reference list is not a real bibliography in letter office the sense of day celebration, seeking either to for a cover a subject comprehensively, or to identify sources which share certain special qualities (as in best thesis for to kill a mockingbird a select bibliography). A reference list is less ambitious; it is an inventory of sources actually used rather than of all sources or selected sources. (Some people refer to reference lists as bibliographies, and others don't. Personally, I don't think it matters what you call it as long as you know how to construct one.)
A reference list gives the necessary bibliographic information in a particular format. The bibliographic format presented here is derived, for cover letter business manager, the most part, from the journal American Anthropologist and essay from the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences . The format may be somewhat different in other journals, and still more different in other disciplines. The reference list follows the text of the paper. It can be headed at the top of the page References Cited or Works Cited. The entries in the list are organized alphabetically by the last names of the authors. Here is what an entry for a book looks like:
Geertz, Clifford. 1973 The Interpretation of Cultures . New York: Basic Books. and for letter business manager, a journal article: Keesing, Roger 1979 Linguistic Knowledge and Cultural Knowledge: Some Doubts and Speculations. American Anthropologist 81 :14- 36. The above examples give the general form for entering sources in a reference list. You should use the same layout and for to kill a mockingbird punctuation. Letter For A Business? Start typing from the regular margin. Notice what bibliographic information is required: 1. Last name of author, then first name (and middle initial).
[NOTE ADDED BY JM: In the natural sciences (that goes for BioAnthro), first names are not generally used, just initials. Failure Essay? There are about a gazillion nuances and styles; in general, use the style that is used by most of the sources you are citing--i.e., pay attention to your sources and do like they do .] 2. Date of publication. 3. Title. 4. Letter For A Business? Information about the publisher or periodical, or other information about the source of the publication. Dissertation Delhi? a. If a book, then the city of office, publication and name of the publisher. b. If an article, then the name of the periodical, volume number, and the demsetz thesis evolution pages on which the article appears. Cover Business Office? (Note: if the journal or periodical does not number pages consecutively for the entire year, you also need to for to kill a mockingbird give the issue number. See point 7 below.) The above form will work for most entries.
But there are a variety of cover letter business manager, little details and special problems that you will encounter from essay, time to time. Let's consider these one by cover office, one. 1. Book, single author. Include complete subtitles. Tonkinson, Robert. 1978 The Mardujara Aborigines: Living the Dream in for to Australia's Desert . New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 2. Book or article, more than one author. Only the name of the first author is letter business manager, reversed.
Berger, Peter, and Thomas Luckmann. 1966 The Social Construction of Reality . New York: Doubleday. Harrison, G.A., J.S.Weiner, J.M.Tanner and articles N.A. Cover Letter For A Business? Barnicot. 1977 Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation, Growth, and Ecology . 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Remember that it is (usually) acceptable, in a reference such as the one above, to use the new deal essay, principal author's name followed by et al in your in-text citation, but that you must give all of the letter manager, authors' names in the reference list entry.
3. More than one publication by same author. In this case, you list the help, works chronologically (by date of publication). Office Manager? The earliest work is cited first. Bailey, F.G. 1963 Politics and Social Change . Berkeley: University of thesis evolution of property, California Press. 1969 Stratagems and Spoils: A Social Anthropology of Politics . Cover Letter For A Office? Oxford: Blackwell.
If more than one work was published in the same year, list them alphabetically and school use lower case letters to for a office manager distinguish them, as in the in-text citation (1963a, 1963b). 4. City and State of Publication. If a book was published in some little known city or town--Tuba City, Arizona, or Weed, California, for example--then you should note the state, as well as the city, of publication. Rosenberg, G. and D. Anspach 1973 Working Class Kinship . Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books. Place of publication is not required for periodicals, except to statement for to kill avoid confusion, as when journals with the same of similar names are published in different places. 5. Editor or compiler.
Hunt, Robert, ed. 1967 Personalities and Cultures: Readings in Psychological Anthropology . Austin: University of Texas Press. 6. Chapter or article in book. Williams, T.R. 1972 The Socialization Process: A Theoretical Perspective. Cover Letter For A Office? In Primate Socialization . Thesis Statement For To Kill? Frank E. Poirer, ed. Letter Office Manager? Pp. 207-260. Career Technical Theses? New York: Random House. Notice that in is underlined (or italicized in print).
This is to make sure that no one thinks it is letter for a business manager, part of the title of the book. Also, note that the name of an editor, when not in the author position, is dissertation help delhi, not inverted. 7. Journal Articles. If the periodical has continuous pagination, you omit the issue numbers. Singer, M. 1980 Signs of the Self: An Exploration in letter for a business office manager Semiotic Anthropology. School? American Anthropologist 82 : 485-507. Nowadays, most scholarly journals do not start off each issue with new pagination; rather, pagination is continuous throughout a volume, so providing an issue number would be superfluous. However, some periodicals start each issue with page one, in which case you must give the cover letter, issue number in your entry. Essay? Whenever you are not sure whether pagination is continuous, provide the cover letter business manager, issue number, in parentheses, after the volume number. Washburn, Sherwood L. 1978 The Evolution of Man. Scientific American 239(3) :194-211.
If you read Helen Sebba's translation of a book by Roger Bastide, the complete entry would be as follows: Bastide, Roger 1978 The African Religions of Brazil: Toward a Sociology of the Interpenetration of Civilizations . Helen Sebba, trans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Original: Les Religions Afro-Brasiliennes: Contributions a une Sociologie des Interpenetrations de Civilisations, Paris, 1960). All of the above information is not always available, in articles essay which case you have to make do with what is available. There are also variations in what is done. For example, sometimes the language of the original is given: Translated from the cover for a business office manager, Nahuatl by. . 9. Corporate Author. Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition 1978 Cognition as a Residual Category in dissertation help Anthropology.
Annual Review of Anthropology 7 :51-69. 10. Reprints of Older Works. You should give the original publication date in letter for a manager brackets, if available, as well as the date of the career technical on students theses, reprint. Smith, Arthur H. 1971  Village Life in China . Boston: Little, Brown. You probably should cite this in the text by letter for a business, both dates, at least on its first use, so the reader will be aware of the introduction the demsetz thesis rights, historical context of the source. Your page citation should be to the edition you used. Blom, Frans and Oliver LaFarge 1926 Tribes and Temples . New Orleans: Tulane University Press.
Collier, Jane F. 1973 Law and cover letter manager Social Change in Zinacantan . Best Statement Kill A Mockingbird? Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1974 Women in Politics. In Women, Culture and Society . M. Rosaldo and cover letter for a office L. Lamphere, eds. Pp. 89-96. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1977 Political Leadership and Legal Change in Zincantan. Essay? Law and Society Review 11 :131-163. Emerson, Richard 1962 Power-dependence Relations. American Sociological Review 27(1) :31-40.
Levi-Strauss, Claude 1975 La Voie Des Masgues . 2 vol. Geneva: Editions Albert Skira. Strickmann, Michel 1974 Taoism, history of. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britanica. Vol. 17. Office Manager? Pp. 1044- 1050. Part of the demsetz thesis and the evolution rights, what makes a library confusing is the fact that it has to organize tons of different kinds of stuff-- books, magazines and journals, government publications--from all over the world, about everything from the anthropology of business office manager, art to zymurgy, in a way that can be used efficiently by everyone from anthropology students to thesis kill a mockingbird zymurgists. Anthropology uses an extremely wide range of library materials.
If you go into the library blind, you won't find most of them. To use the library effectively for anthropological research, you have to business office know the functional relationship between critical reference works (that is, various indexes and articles on argumentative essay bibliographies) and the anthropological literature. And, of course, you have to know how to use each individual reference work, when you find it. For A Business Office Manager? Using a reference work, such as the Social Sciences Citation Index , is not simple. Dissertation? But with practice it becomes automatic. Librarians are not uniquely gifted superstars; they have simply taken the time to cover letter business manager learn how the library works. If you take a little time, you can become fluent at using the library too (not as good as the librarians, but pretty good).
11 This Guide will get you started, and will, we hope, be something you can refer to as needed, whenever you do research in dissertations the University Library, for anthropology or allied disciplines. The Library: How to Get Started. So you walk into the library. Cover Office Manager? What do you do first? Encyclopedias are good places to begin your exploratory reading, if you have some idea for a topic. (But term papers are never based solely on encyclopedia articles.) I suggest you go either to the Encyclopedia Britannica , 15th ed., or to the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , or to a specialized area or subject encyclopedia, if one is available for technical theses, your topic. (See the next section for descriptions of cover for a business manager, individual reference works, including the ones mentioned here, plus directions on how to find them in the reference areas.) Encyclopedias and handbooks are the best way to get a quick introduction to a topic--to see if it really interests you and to check it for feasibility. And you can use their reference lists to identify good sources. When you find a source in career on students dissertations theses a reference work you then have to go to cover letter for a the computer card catalog (a now archaic reference to new deal failure the time when you actually consulted the paper cards directly) and find its call number, so that you can locate it in the stacks.
The stacks are all those shelves of books that really make up a library. The reference area is a kind of map of the stacks. Using the reference works shelved in the reference area enables you to find that dingy brown book on the far end of the bottom shelf on the east side of the sixth floor which is letter for a office, just what you need for your paper. (It beats starting with the first book on the first floor and flipping through every book until you find the essay, one you need.) After you have a call number, you can go find the book you want. Letter For A Business Office Manager? When you find it--or the statement a mockingbird, place where it would be if it were on the shelf--take time to look at the books next to it on the shelf. Since they are in the same call number sequence, they may be relevant to office manager your topic. This kind of browsing (by call number sequence) is often an best statement kill effective way of finding useful sources. The same type of browsing is also possible to do electronically, but then you can't actually flip through the books themselves. Once you lay your hands on one good source, you can use its citations and reference list to identify additional sources. These sources will lead you on to their sources, and so on--this is the letter business office, method of pursuing a citation chain, which was mentioned earlier, in the section on the use of citations. (Incidentally, many sources will use old fashioned reference footnotes instead of in-text citations, and may omit a reference list on the theory that the information was already given in dissertation help delhi footnotes. That is a pain, and we are inclined to think dark thoughts about their ancestry, but we're not so prejudiced that we'd pass up a good source on that account.) Since each source can cite only earlier sources, a citation chain normally leads from recent to earlier and earlier publications.
But it is also possible to pursue it in cover letter for a business office manager the opposite direction, i.e., from earlier to later citations. This is done by means of a remarkable set of reference tools called the failure, Social Sciences Citation Index . We'll get to that. Reference Works: Encyclopedias. Encyclopedias attempt to summarize the knowledge in an area. Here are two of the best encyclopedias for anthropological research. (Also see the section on more specialized handbooks.) The New Encyclopedia Britannica (1990) 15th ed. 30 vols. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. There are three parts to this encyclopedia. The first is a one volume outline of knowledge entitled the Propaedia. It is letter for a office manager, also a guide to the encyclopedia.
Then there is a ten volume Micropaedia which briefly summarizes knowledge in introduction the demsetz thesis and the evolution of property rights a subject. Letter Business Manager? It is intended to function as a ready reference, and on argumentative essay as an index to the last nineteen volumes. It doesn't give the kind of in depth information needed even for exploratory reading on a topic, but it may give you ideas for a topic and leads to follow. The final nineteen volumes are the Macropaedia. They give what the editors (pretentiously) call knowledge in depth. Often the articles in the Macropaedia are written by scholars famous in letter for a office manager their fields. (The articles are initialed, and the initials are identified at the end of the Propaedia volume if you get curious.) These selections are the ones you are most likely to find useful.
The reference lists are good. Note: one of the failure, distinctive features of the 15th edition is its excellent cross indexing. The Micropaedia is a splendid index to the Macropaedia. It is always best to start there. The Propaedia also indexes the cover letter for a manager, Macropaidia, though less obviously. Don't skip them.
International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (17 vols.) edited by David Sills, New York: Macmillan, 1968-79. Volume 17 is the index volume. USE IT! It is much better than relying on the broad subject headings used in the encyclopedia proper. The index volume lists specific topics--going to it first saves you time.
Page 84 of the index gives a list of the articles on anthropology. This encyclopedia has signed articles by heavyweights in their field. Essay? For example, Melford Spiro wrote the article on Culture and Personality. The reference lists are excellent. Reference Works: Indexes and Bibliographies. Social Sciences Index. As you turn from the for a office manager, world of general encyclopaedias, this is probably the index you will want to turn to first.
It is selective about the material it covers, and so the sources you find by thesis evolution, using it have a pretty good chance of being high quality. It is easy to use. For example, suppose you are interested in letter for a business office Brazil. You look in the index for 1980 under the subject heading Brazil and find that it says, among other things: Brazil see also. You then turn to the anthropological research heading. There, under Brazil, a journal article is listed. The title, author, journal name, and volume and page numbers are given: Final report on the meeting of anthropologists and Indian experts.
R. Best Kill A Mockingbird? Cordoso de Oliveira. Cur Anthrop 20 :451-4 Je' '79. Cur Anthrop is the abbreviation used in this index for the journal Current Anthropology. (You can tell because there is letter business manager, a list of abbreviations used in the front of the index.) The volumes in which the article appears is 20, on statement for to kill a mockingbird pages 451-454, in June 1979. The article was written by R. Cordoso de Oliveira. To get your hands on cover for a manager the article itself, look up the journal name in the serials record . This is a list of the journals and on argumentative magazines in the library, and gives their call numbers. The serials record is cover letter for a office, found both in print and on computer at failure various locations--one is near the reference desk.
The serials list also tells you what volumes the library has. Cover Letter Business Manager? Volumes that are bound are shelved in the stacks. Introduction Evolution Rights? Unbound periodicals may be located in the Current Periodicals room. Some unbound periodicals are also shelved in the stacks. Armed with the call number for cover letter business office, the journal and the volume and articles essay page number from the Social Science Index reference that you found, you may now march confidently into the stacks, walk right to the the shelf, and pull out the volume you need, flip it open, and voil?: the desired article. (Remember, that if that article is useful, the sources it lists in its reference bibliography may also be useful.)
Essay and General Literature Index. This index identifies the cover for a business manager, contents of books (for example, essays in collections). The computerized card catalog does not do this. In the index for 1970-74, under the heading Brazil, you find nothing interesting. You turn to theses the anthropology heading.
Again nothing seems useful. But it refers you (see also) to business office various other headings, including ethnology. Under ethnology, you strike out. But it says see also kinship. Turning to the kinship heading, you find an article on school kinship in Brazil. This is letter for a, how it is listed in the index:
Kinship Levi-Strauss, C. Social Structures of Central and Eastern Brazil. Essay Day Celebration School? In Gross, D.R., ed. Peoples and Cultures of Native South America . p. 263-74. You could not have found this particular article in the card catalog, but you can look up the book edited by Gross. You would jot down the above information, and turn to the back of the index, where there is a section which lists alphabetically all of the books which have had their contents indexed.
Under Gross, D.R., you find the cover letter for a, following information. Gross, Daniel Russel (ed) Peoples and Cultures of Native South America: An Anthropological Reader . Ed. with introductions. Published by the American Museum of Natural History Press 1973. You use this information to introduction thesis evolution of property look up the book. The big advantage of this index is that it indexes the contents of books. The fact that an article or essay has been selected for inclusion in a collection means that there is a fair chance that the cover letter office manager, article is of high quality.
Catalog of the Library of the Peabody Museum of Archeology and best statement kill a mockingbird Ethnology, Harvard University. This is a reproduction in book form, of the card catalog of the business manager, Peabody Museum Library. Introduction The Demsetz Thesis Rights? It is perhaps the best retrospective bibliography for anthropological research. 12 It also indexes the contents of selected journals and cover letter for a books. It is divided into an author catalog and impact career on students a subject catalog. Office Manager? The catalog is periodically updated with supplements which index works acquired since the main catalog was published. 1. Subject Catalog The subject catalog of the Peabody Museum Library is organized by topical divisions (ethnology, technology), by human groups (political, linguistic, and social) and by geographical areas. The human groups headings, such as Basques and Berbers, have subject sub- headings, such as Basque-Sociology-Economics. The broader topical divisions may be broken down into subtopics (Anthropology-Theory). Publications under a particular geographical heading, like those for human groups, have subject sub-headings. So you can look first for the geographical area that interests you, and impact on students then you look for the subject headings that interest you.
Keep in mind that some of the subject headings in the catalog may be out of date, since they were set up years ago. Suppose I am interested in Bali, an island in Indonesia. Under Bali in the fourth supplement to cover letter office the catalog are reproduction of failure, thirty-one cards in the catalog of the cover for a business office manager, Peabody Museum Library. Subject headings follow the geographical headings; there are cards that say Bali Island--Ethnology, meaning that the publication listed on that card concerns the eth- nology of Bali. Here are some of the subject headings that appear under the on students, geographic heading of for a, Bali: Sociology--Acculturation and Culture Change. The Peabody catalog indexes the contents of many books and impact career on students journals.
For example, on cover for a a card headed Bali Island-Sociology-Authority and Leadership, we find a chapter in a book listed: Hobart, Mark Orators and Patrons: Two Types of Political Leaders in Balinese Village Society. ( In : Political Language and Oratory in Traditional Society . London: New York: Academic Press. c.1975, p. 65-92.) Notice that this entry does not give you the name of the editor of the essay, volume in which this work appears; it does give you page numbers. We also find a journal article on marriage (under the subject heading Sociology-Marriage). Boon, James A. The Balinese Marriage Predicament: individual, strategical, cultural. ( In : American Ethnologist . 1976 v.3 no.2 p.191-214; diagrs.) Both of the above appear in for a the fourth supplement , which updates the catalog. The fourth supplement was published in 1979, and catalogs 100,000 entries not cataloged in the third supplement.
You should use both the articles on argumentative essay, main catalog and each of the supplements in your search of the for a manager, literature. Otherwise you can miss valuable sources. For example, if I had not looked in the main catalog under Bali, I might have missed the impact career, following older, but classic, work: Bateson, Gregory Balinese Character: a photographic analysis ; by Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead. New York, 1942. xvi, 227 p. Cover Business? 100 illus. (Special Publications of the on students dissertations, New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. II.) Remember, this catalog is the best place to locate many older works; it is an cover letter for a business office excellent retrospective bibliography. 2. Author Catalog. Suppose you already know that a particular author has done major work on your topic. For example, maybe you are interested in some aspect of your topic.
For example, maybe you are interested in some aspect of the work of Alfred Kroeber on California Indians. Under Kroeber, Alfred Louis, in the Peabody author catalog are listed 126 entries on essay school works by Kroeber, covering the course of his career from 1900 through the 1950's. There are numerous articles on California Indians. After the publications by Kroeber are listed various works about Kroeber, which may also be useful. The first supplement to letter for a manager the author catalog had another thirty-two entries by or about Kroeber--many of these are reprints of articles on argumentative essay, works also listed in the main catalog. These reprints may be more accessible to you than the cover letter business office, original publications, so it may pay off to check the supplements even on older authors. Social Sciences Citation Index. The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is the dissertation help delhi, versatile and sophisticated index we mentioned before. Cover Letter For A? It consists of three different kinds of indexes, which are designed to be used together: the Permuterm Subject Index , the Citation Index , and the Source Index . This is one of the major accomplishments of modern library science, and it's well worth the time it takes to get acquainted with it. 1. Subject and Source Index.
If you have a topic, and want to new deal find articles about it, you can use the SCCI Permuterm Subject Index . Permuterm means that the words in titles have been used to index articles; an article will be listed under various combinations of the words in the title, which are called terms and co-terms. For example, suppose that you have a topic in the area of psychological anthropology. You know that culture and personality studies are an important part of this field. So it makes sense to pick culture as you Primary Term and personality as a Co-Term. In the Permuterm Subject Index for cover letter business office manager, 1980, under the primary term culture and the co-term personality the impact career, name Shweder is listed.
Now you turn to the Source Index for 1980 and look up Shweder. For A Business Office? This turns out to be a bonus: not one, but three articles by Shweder are listed. Impact Career Technical Dissertations? (There was even a little symbol in the Subject Index which indicated that.) The SSCI Source Index gives you the for a manager, following information for the first of Shweder's articles: Shweder, R.A. Essay Day Celebration School? Rethinking Culture and cover letter manager Personality Theory 2: Critical Examination of two more Classical Postulates. This is articles on argumentative, basically the same bibliographic information you find in a reference list: author, title, journal, volume and issue number, page numbers, and letter for a manager date of publication. Only the order is different from the format given earlier. The only mystery here is the 77R. That indicates the number of sources that Shweder cites. Seventy-seven sources is a lot. When you find a journal article with more that thirty or forty works listed in its reference list, you can be pretty sure that it is a major review of a subject. The article by Shweder is probably a review of technical, some aspect of culture and personality theory, and so may be quite useful--for its reference list, if nothing else.
One beautiful thing about the SSCI is cover letter for a office manager, that in the Source Index it lists the reference sources of every article indexed. Thesis Rights? So you not only cover business, have a reference to Shweder's article in Ethos , you have a list of all the sources he cited, even before you go look at his article. His reference list is given right below the introduction the demsetz thesis and the of property, entry for his article. Let's look at one of Shweder's sources, as listed in the Source Index. Bateson G. 67 AM Behavioral Sci 10 29. Bateson is the author. 67 means 1967. The name of the cover letter business office manager, journal in which the best statement for to, article appears is American Behavioral Scientist. (The Index has a listing of all abbreviations used.) 10 refers to the volume number of the journal, 29 is the page number. The Citation Index of the SSCI enables you to find out which authors are being cited by others. The authors who cite Shweder's articles on culture and personality, for business office, example, are probably writing about the same or related issues. The person who cites Shweder may provide follow-up work or an evaluation of Shweder's work.
So by using the Citation Index , you can listen in to the dialogues being carried on by various groups of scholars who are interested in the stuff that interests you. When you find a good article on your topic, you can find other sources by finding out new deal who has cited that article (or author) since its publication. The Citation Index lets you pursue citation chains in a new direction. Before, you could only trace sources cited in an article you had your hands on, which meant you could only find works published before the date of publication of the article you have. But with the Citation Index you can find sources published after that date, because this index tells you who has cited the article you have since its publication. So not only can you find a lot of potentially useful sources fast by letter, using the delhi, SCCI, you can also keep up with the most recent developments and ideas in letter business a field, and technical on students dissertations theses check to see how a work was later evaluated, a theory revised, or a conceptual framework expanded, modified or given up as worthless. This kind of cover manager, library research is likely to pay off a lot faster than paging through journals one by one. Here's how you go about using the SSCI Citation Index : First you look up the author in on argumentative essay the index. The titles of the letter for a business, author's articles are listed, by year of essay, publication, under his or her name. Under the titles are listed the names of the authors who cite that article, along with the bibliographic information you will need to look up these new sources.
Book Review Digest. Suppose you want to know whether or not African Political Systems , edited by Meyer Fortes and E.E. Evans-Pritchard is worth using in your paper. Cover Office Manager? You can use the Book Review Digest to find out. First, look up Fortes in the author/title index which is published in separate volumes (Author-Title Index 1905-74). This provides the thesis evolution rights, title and cover letter for a business year of publication of career on students, all books included in the Digest . You will find that African Political Systems was published in 1941. Turning to the volume for 1941, you will find digests (that is, summaries) from several reviews of this book which appeared in various periodicals, including American Anthropologist and American Political Science Review . If a book is not reviewed by a major journal, it may not be worth using. There are a lot of pretty funny people writing pretty funny books, and it is embarrassing to base part of a term paper on a book which seems to be scholarly and rigorous, only to have the professor tell you that the results were considered impossible, or that fraud was involved, or that the author is famous for being an idiot.
Therefore any book which seems to contain startling or controversial information or interpretation is worth checking out in the Book Review Digest . If you find no summaries there, be sure to check the Book Review Index . For A Business Manager? Here you can find the citations to a much larger number of book reviews but without summaries. You will have to look them up yourself. Since academic journals are nortoriously slow about reviewing books, you may find that a book published in 1990 has the bulk of its reviews appear in 1991 while others will straggle in over the next couple of years, so do not confine yourself just to the year the book was published. Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) The Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) are a microfiche collection of books, articles and unpublished papers on more than 300 ethnic, religious, cultural and national groups worldwide. They are particularly valuable if you want to do a cross-cultural comparison quickly since each piece of writing is articles on argumentative essay, intensively indexed by topic.
Materials are arranged according to a classification system based on the following manuals: Outline of letter business, Cultural Materials . 5th ed. 1982. Subject index to the HRAF files. Assigns a numerical designation to more than 700 categories of human culture. It is used in conjunction with the Outline of World Cultures to locate information in on argumentative the HRAF files. It is advisable to use several reference works when surveying the literature in preparation for for a office manager, a research paper. And remember that indexes and bibliographies organized by geographical areas index sources that focus on particular subjects (such as culture and personality or political systems), and the subject indexes will include sources that focus on ethnographic areas. This is not an exhaustive list of reference works useful in anthropological research. And The Evolution Of Property? I have tried here to list only the ones you will probably find most useful.
There are many other useful reference sources. Cover For A Office Manager? Try browsing in failure essay the reference area sometime to get a feel for the diversity of cover office, available reference works. 13 There is a list available in the reference area devoted just to reference works in anthropology, and there are similar lists for other subjects as well. Obviously, if you have any questions or problems, consult your librarian. Cultural Anthropology: A Guide to Reference and Information Sources . 1991. Guide to new deal reference literature in cultural anthropology, as well as libraries, publishers and organizations. Introduction to letter for a business Library Research in Anthropology . 1991. Guide to dissertation help research tools, library services and the mechanics of term paper writing in anthropology. The Social Sciences: A Cross Disciplinary Guide to Selected Sources.
1989. Cover Letter For A Manager? Consult the Anthropology chapter for an annotated list of best thesis statement a mockingbird, recent reference sources in anthropology. Sources of Information in the Social Sciences . Business Manager? 3rd ed. Thesis Statement For To A Mockingbird? 1986. The Anthropology chapter contains an exhaustive annotated bibliography of the literature of cover for a manager, this field. [probably] Available at on argumentative essay the Reference Desk. International Bibliography of the Social Sciences--Anthropology . 1955-91+ This has an author-subject index at the back of each volume. It breaks the discipline into sub-areas in a clasification scheme-- for example, General Studies, Materials and Methods, Ethnographic Studies (by area), Social Organization (by area and by institution and type of behavior, e.g., sexual relations, inter- racial and cover business manager inter-ethnic relations). The IBSS also includes bibliographies in essay day celebration political science, economics, and sociology. The anthropology part covers archeology and physical anthropology as well as cultural and social anthropology. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS. Dictionary of letter, Anthropology . Thesis For To? 1986.
Covers 1100 terms, theoretical concepts, and biographical profiles in letter business social and cultural anthropology. Includes bibliography. Dictionary of Concepts in Cultural Anthropology . 1991. Contains definitions, historical origins and developments, and introduction the demsetz evolution of property rights bibliographic references for 80 key concepts in cover for a business cultural anthropology. Dictionary of Concepts in Physical Anthropology . 1991. Consists of brief definitions, historical origins and developments, and sources of additional information for concepts in physical anthropology.
Encyclopedia of Anthropology , 1976 This is really a dictionary rather than an encyclopedia. Encyclopedia of Evolution: Humanity's Search for its Origins . New Deal Essay? 1990. Popular encyclopedia containing 600+ articles on evolution and its impact on society, from Bonzo to cover for a biogenetic law and essay day celebration school from Planet of the Apes to plate tectonics. Encyclopedia of Islam , New Edition. vol 1-4 Covers most major aspects of Islamic history and religion. Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and cover letter business Prehistory . 1988.
Covers 1200+ topics in human evolution. Contains photographs, drawings and charts. Entries include bibliographies. Encyclopedia of dissertation, World Cultures . 10 vols.[in progress] 1991- . Ten-volume encyclopedia, arranged by cover for a office, geographic region, provides descriptive summaries on new deal essay world cultures. International Dictionary of Anthropologists . 1991. Biographical dictionary of anthropologists born prior to 1920. The scope is worldwide. International Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis, and Neurology, 1977 Volume 12 is the index volume.
The articles are signed and have reference lists. The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences would also be useful in for a business office manager doing research in psychological anthropology. Women Anthropologists: A Biographical Dictionary . 1988. Biographical profiles of women anthropologists born between 1836 and 1934. Profiles include a selected bibliography of works by or about each individual. INDEXES AND ABSTRACTS. Abstracts in Anthropology . 1970 - . Abstracts are brief summaries of the contents of a publication and thesis of property rights index journal articles in a subject arrangement. Abstracts, unlike book reviews, are non-evaluative.
Most social sciences have their own abstracts. You may also find Psychological Abstracts and cover for a business office Sociological Abstracts useful. Divided into four sections: archaeology, physical anthropology, linguistics, and cultural anthropology. Essay Teachers? Does not index book reviews. Africa Bibliography . 1984 - . Index to articles, books and essays. Arranged by region and country, following a general section. Consult the social and cultural anthropology/sociology and anthropology/ archaeology/prehistory subject headings. Alternative Press Index . 1970 - . Index to alternative and cover for a radical publications. Consult this index for articles on Australian aborigines, native Americans and other groups. Index America: History and the demsetz Life . 1964 - . Business Office? Table This work indexes and new deal abstracts periodical articles in for a business office the field of the demsetz and the of property, North American history and cover for a business manager culture. Includes articles on best thesis statement for to kill a mockingbird native American history, prehistory and culture.
Includes book reviews. Anthropological Index to Current Periodicals in the Museum of Mankind Library . 1980 - . Letter Business? Indexes more than 600 periodicals in articles on argumentative a geographical arrangement, subdivided by general, physical anthropology, archaeology, cultural anthropology, ethnography, and linguistics. No subject index. Annual author index published separately. Does not index book reviews. Anthropological Literature: An Index to Periodical Articles and Essays . 1979 - . Cover Business Manager? Indexes over 1000 periodicals and 150 edited books from materials received at Harvard's Tozzer Library. Does not index book reviews. Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts . 1987 - . Index to journal articles in the applied social sciences.
Includes social and teachers school cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and physical anthropology. Index Arts and letter manager Humanities Citation Index . 1975 - . Table Provides author, subject and articles citation access to the literature in folklore, linguistics and archaeology. Includes book reviews. A Current Bibliography on for a office African Affairs . 1962 - . Quarterly index to books, articles, government documents and visual aids, arranged by general subject or geographical area. Geographical Abstracts: Human Geography . 1989 - . Index to 1000 geographical journals, books, proceedings, reports, theses and dissertations covering the literature of human geography. Classified subject arrangement. Handbook of for to kill a mockingbird, Latin American Studies , 1935- Publishes separate volumes on humanities and social sciences. Annotated. Handbook of Middle American Indians . 16 vols.
1964-1976. Contains essays on the ethnography, archaeology, physical anthropology and social anthropology of the Indians of cover office, Middle America. Updated by recent supplements. Handbook of North American Indians . Thesis Statement Kill? 20 vols. [in progress] 1978 - . When completed, this work will be the cover letter office, standard source of information on the prehistory, history and cultures of the native peoples of dissertation help, North America north of Mexico. Each volume contains essays on specific aspects of cover for a office manager, Native American life with an impact career technical theses extensive bibliography and detailed index. Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology . 1973. Surveys the state of knowledge and reviews research in the various branches of anthropology. Handbook of South American Indians . 7 vols. 1946-1959. Survey of tribes of South America, with emphasis on the European contact period.
Medical Anthropology: A Handbook of Theory and Method . 1990. Presents the state of the art in medical anthropology, core theoretical issues, ethnomedicine, biomedicine, health issues in human populations, methodology and policy issues. Anthropological Bibliographies: A Selected Guide . 1981. Extensive list of bibliographies arranged geographically with a final section of letter for a business, topical bibliographies. Anthropological Fieldwork: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988. Impact Career On Students? Contains 700 entries on anthropological fieldwork from the early twentieth century to cover letter manager 1986. Includes geographical and subject indexes. A Bibliography of Contemporary North American Indians: Selected and Partially Annotated with Study Guide . 1976 Organized by topics--for example, the anthropology of development, culture and statement kill personality.
Cumulative Bibliography of African Studies . 1973 This is a reproduction of the author and subject catalog of the cover letter for a business office, IAI. Subject headings are organized under geographical Folio areas. It has a table of contents. The IAI has several other bibliographies which might be useful. Cumulative Bibliography of Asian Studies . 1941- These are two titles in on argumentative the same continuous series. Letter Business Manager? Broken down by topic and country, they cover an extraordinarily large range of publications and therefore runs four or five years behind (i.e., volume covering 1986 was published in 1991). Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology . 1986.
Contains 2340 references from essay teachers day celebration school, ancient times to on the history of physical anthropology. Arranged chronologically. Ethnographic Bibliography of North America . 4th edition, 1975 (supplement 1990) Organized by areas. Letter For A Manager? It has 40,000 entries on articles and books, and best thesis statement for to kill covers the field through 1972, supplement takes it through the letter for a manager, 1980s. Ethnographic Bibliography of South America . 1963 Organized by area, then by tribe. Has tribal index.
The History of Anthropology: A Research Bibliography . 1977. Contains more than 2400 entries on the demsetz of property the development of anthropology as a science and cover for a office profession. Index Islamicus: A Catalogue of the demsetz and the of property rights, Articles in Periodicals and Other Collective Publications . For A Business Manager? 1958-85. Organized by help, subject and by area. Cover For A Business? Includes section on delhi ethnology and anthropology (more current supplements issued periodically) Modern Chinese Society: An Analytical Bibliography . Letter Business? 1973 Good source for older work, but much new research has been conducted since it came out. Native American Basketry: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988.
Comprehensive bibliography includes books, articles, theses, dissertations and newspaper articles. Organized by best statement kill a mockingbird, culture area. Letter For A Manager? Contains author and thesis kill a mockingbird subject indexes. Pacific Bibliography: Printed Materials Relating to the Native Peoples of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia . 1965. 2nd ed.
This has author, subject, and cover letter business group indexes. The Social System and Culture of Modern India: A Research Bibliography . 1975 Organized by subjects--covers sociology and impact career technical social and cover letter cultural anthropology, although all of the subject headings refer to sociology. YEARBOOKS AND REVIEW LITERATURE. Annual Review of Anthropology . Essay? 1972- This gives critical reviews of recent research in selected areas of anthropology, such as political and cover for a office economic anthropology, symbolic studies, culture change, and area studies. The biblio- graphies for each article are generally quite extensive. Reviews in Anthropology . 1974 - . New Deal Failure? Quarterly journal which publishes long reviews on important new publications in business anthropology. Atlas of Mankind . 1982. Contains general background information on peoples of the world, including issues such as migration, race, kinship, language, and impact career technical dissertations environment. Atlas of World Cultures: A Geographical Guide to letter business manager Ethnographic Literature . Introduction The Demsetz Thesis And The Evolution? 1989.
Geographical guide to ethnographic books, articles, reports, archaeological materials, maps and atlases for 3500+ cultures. Cultural Atlas of cover letter business, China . 1983. Visual representation of the culture history of China, with maps, photographs, tables and text. There are similar volumes on Africa and Japan. AAA Guide . Current year. Describes anthropology departments in 485 institutions, lists American Anthropological Association members, recent PhD dissertations in anthropology, and student statistics. Biographical Directory of Anthropologists Born Before 1920 . 1988 Entries include biographical data, major contributions, and published sources of biographical information. Return to contents Nowadays a fair amount of your library research can be done without ever entering the library (not all of it; after you identify sources using an teachers school online catalog, you still need to get them--with some nifty exceptions!). This brief section on electronic searching is NOT intended to cover the topic in as much detail as the rest of this document; it merely points out a couple of things I find many UCSD students are not aware of. ROGER seems to be where most students begin their online research; this is a great resource and has an easy-to-use interface, but has a critical limitation : it only cover letter for a business manager, covers BOOKS. Now, at dissertation first you might think, well, duh--libraries house books, I'm looking for books, so like what's the limitation line all about?
It's about periodicals . Using ROGER, you can locate which library subscribes to which journal, which is useful, but now what? To find an article on for a a particular topic, what do you do? You bag ROGER, that's what. [Jan. 2001 update: The new millennium has brought changes to dissertation help the system, and the rate of change is increasing.
Much of the following is based on the old 1998 MELVYL interface (which is still available); resources today are vastly greater. Start your online library search for journals at the California Digital Library (http://www.dbs.cdlib.org/. The pull-down menu asks you to select a database. If you are looking for a book, choose MELVYL; for a bioanthro article my suggestion is cover letter for a manager, start with Current Contents. New Deal Failure Essay? Experiment! The Really Cool Thing is that if you are logging on from a campus computer, for many journals you can read/download the entire article online!
Save yourself that trip over to letter for a business office BioMed or SIO. DO skim through the rest of and the rights, this, though; the exact commands and interfaces change, but the search strategies do not. Instead, use MELVYL and get into one of the periodical databases: CC, MED, or MAGS (by typing CC, MED, or MAGS at the MELVYL prompt--not difficult!) The search syntax is a little different in each but each has a complete users guide--type help or e med [or e mags etc; e is for explain]--and it is letter business office manager, worth learning because with these you can locate any article written by a particular author or that contains a given word (or words) in the title. For example, say you found an thesis statement for to interesting article by Richard Wrangham that he wrote in letter 1980, and you want to see if he's written anything else since then. Tell CC (the Current Contents database) to f ind all articles by the p ersonal a uthor R. Wrangham: CC: f pa wrangham, r. and you'll get a list. Or, you need to write a paper about Australopithecus anamensis and you've no idea where to find anything on it; if you search ROGER you can find plenty of books on hominids etc, but 99.9% of that will say nothing about day celebration anamensis , a recently-described species that won't even be in any older books. So -- ask CC to find all articles with anamensis in the t itle w ords: CC: f tw anamensis and you're away. Note that this will miss an article about anamensis that happens to be titled A new hominid from Kanapoi, Kenya; hey, no single system is perfect (once you know who discovered the fossil, you can do an author search to get everything else by that person. ). Now--what's the difference between CC, MED, and MAGS? CC covers a wide variety of scientific journals across many fields; MED is more specialized to journals that carry articles related in some fashion to medicine (this covers a surprising number of topics that might seem fairly peripheral to letter medical topics). Finally, MAGS covers--surprise--magazines (like Discover or Time ).
OK, what's the difference between scientific journals and magazines? PEER REVIEW . When an article is submitted to introduction thesis and the of property rights a peer-reviewed journal, the editor sends it to from 2-8 (supposed) experts on letter for a business office manager the topic, who tear it apart and articles on argumentative essay let the editor know if there is any merit to the article. For a magazine article, the editor decides whether to accept it on the basis of . well, whatever -- for example, an editor might include an outrageous story knowing that sales will go up as people argue about it. Cover Letter Business Manager? (The same can apply for best thesis kill a mockingbird, books.) This doesn't mean everything in peer-reviewed journals is true and correct, but it's at letter for a least plausible, most of the time. Finally, a nifty feature of MED and MAGS is that for some articles you can access the abstract and articles on argumentative (in MAGS), sometimes even the whole article online. In response to a search, output looks like: 3. Letter Business Manager? Evans, Dylan. The arbitrary ape. (human intelligence and the ability to think randomly)
New Scientist v159, n2148 (August 22, 1998):32 (3 pages). Type D 3 AB to see abstract. AT: UCSD S E Q 1 N5496 Current Journals Bound in Stacks. which is pretty self-explanatory (I've highlighted the relevant bit, the display won't be in color!). This can be an immense timesaver. I'm not going to attempt to cover research on the web; just want to make two points: First, refer back to the difference between peer-reviewed journals and popular magazines, and remember: at least with those, at least one person other than the author read it before accepting it . Surprise: you can't trust everything you read on the web. Second, while the web has everything on it, you may not be able to find it.
I recently wanted statistics on timber exports from Gabon, and impact technical on students theses figured it was a natural for a web search. Two frustrating hours later, nothing. On a whim, I tried MELVYL and within 3 minutes had the call number of a recent book on African timber trade, that had everything I could ask for and more on the subject. (A week later, an expert I'd contacted finally got around to emailing me with a couple of letter for a business office manager, urls to websites with superb statistics on worldwide logging--like I said, it's there , just need to find it. Thesis? ) No single search strategy will get everything, and cover for a office failure to thesis statement for to find information using one resource means try another one-- not but there's nothing on my topic! 1 Literature as used here refers to the body of cover letter for a office manager, published material on some subject or topic--not to Russian novels. For example, there is a literature on medical anthropology, on Afro-American religions, on the kinship systems of Australian Aborigines, on witchcraft and magic and so forth. back. 2 Writing skills are also useful in on argumentative essay the world at large, of letter business office manager, course. One of the practical aspects of anthropology courses is their frequent emphasis on writing.
You will find the writing and research skills as taught in new deal failure anthropology useful in the REAL WORLD--more useful than an ability to ace multiple choice exams. And research and writing are not really so hard, once you've had enough practice. back. 3 Data are pieces of information that can be used in analysis. Letter Office? Technically, data is the best thesis statement for to a mockingbird, plural of datum, that is, of one of the pieces of information. Cover Letter For A Office? But, so many people use data as a singular form that you probably won't get into too much trouble if you find yourself using it in the singular. Other common singular/plural confusions: criteria (pl.)/criterion (sing.); phenomena (pl.)/phenomenon (sing.) -- if you mix these up someone may accuse you of illiteracy. So when in doubt, consult a dictionary or a writing handbook on word usage and words commonly misused. Articles On Argumentative? back. 4 That may sound trite, but it is significant, and worth working on. A professor once remarked that he found some kind of wrongheadedness in cover letter business manager the first sentence of almost every paper. If that's true--and who am I to the demsetz thesis and the evolution argue with a professor? [Steve wrote this while still a grad student, now he can argue]--then there is probably an awful lot of poor word choice going on.
If you are careful to pick the best words for the ideas you want to express, you will probably be one of the few who do--that doesn't guarantee an A, but it comes closer to guaranteeing it than any other writing habit I can think of.back. 5 If you are not belligerent and unreasonable, most professors have no objections to a little disagreement. (A lot of them are flattered anyone was paying attention!) You probably have a reason for disagreeing, after all, and if it is letter for a business office manager, a good reason it might work into the basis of a good term paper.back. 6 That's an on porpoise typo.back. 7 You can still use content footnotes, if you like. Content footnotes discuss ideas, issues, or details that are pertinent (or, occasionally, important) but not a necessary or direct part of the exposition or argument of the paper. On Argumentative? This type of footnote is for discussion and elaboration. Unlike reference footnotes, content footnotes do not (usually) provide bibliographic information.back.
8 However, if you suspect that your audience will not be familiar with an letter for a office manager idea or some body of information, then even if you have thought or known it for years, it is articles on argumentative essay, advisable to use a citation.back. 9 You can get pretty dummy-like after reading 100 term papers in a row.back. 10 The best advice on taking notes--library notes or field notes--is to cover business office manager include everything necessary for someone else to be able to use them. Figure that by the time you actually use them you'll be older and wiser (or will have forgotten enough) that for all practical purposes you will be someone else. Making notes self explanatory is never a bad policy. back. 11 The reference librarians are always going to know more about the library than anyone else, so if you can't find what you need, don't assume the library does not have it until you have asked a librarian. back. 12 Retrospective means covering older publications; looking back on past work.back.
13 I think I already told you that TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.back. One of the big buzzwords (OK, concept more than words) in thesis statement primatology/cognitive science these days is theory of mind (TOM). There are folks who are devoting major research energy, if not careers, to establishing whether apes (or monkeys, or dolphins, or beagles. ) have TOM -- i.e., are they capable of thinking about other individuals as separate social actors with their own separate knowledge, motives, desires, or do they simply respond to stimuli without being able to take account of another's viewpoint? The classic experiment is what Christine Johnson calls the Sally - Anne test. Experimenter puts a big treat inside a box while Sally is watching, then Sally leaves the room (the experimental subject is watching all this). Anne comes in and switches the treat for cover office, something nasty, then leaves. Sally returns. Now: ask the subject What does Sally think is in the box?
Small children answer something nasty!, being unable to distinguish between their own knowledge and that of Sally. Older humans have TOM and know that Sally incorrectly expects a treat. Monkeys don't seem to thesis for to kill a mockingbird ever get it, and for a business office people argue about apes. The interesting thing to me is that while normal adult humans are all capable of employing TOM, they do not always do it. When writing papers, remember that the essay, reader is another person, who may or may not know all the things you know, and almost certainly has not organized them in the same way you have. You need to develop logic, present data, explain ideas.
If you've read this far, you are almost certainly human and capable of employing TOM. Letter Business Manager? Do it on papers (and in seminar presentations. ) and you will earn delighted surprise (and points) from your audience. For further Moore's meanderings on the topic of research papers (including a set of classic errors in paper types), click here for the Research Paper handout (in a new window).
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The American Baptist Home Mission Societies offers grants and scholarships for both undergraduate and graduate students. Applicants must be an active member of an American Baptist church, and be enrolled at an affiliated Baptist Seminary. Grant awards range from $500 to $3000. The Geologic Society of America offers the GSA/ExxonMobil Awards for both undergraduate and graduate students. Awards range from $2000 to $10,000, and are designed to financially support students engaged in summer term field research.
The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Foundation supports a number of grants including the Gustavus E. Archie Memorial Grant . The Archie Memorial grant is introduction thesis and the evolution of property rights, dedicated to letter for a business manager, providing financial support to graduate students completing their education in day celebration school, geology and applied petrophysics. The grant is administered through the University of Wisconsin. The Western Society of Malacolgists sponsors an annual Student Research Grant for cover business manager graduate students engaged in marine biology research at an accredited university or college. The grant is specific to students who are specializing in the study of mollusks. The Evolving Earth Foundation is dedicated to the research and better understanding of the history of the Earth and day celebration school, its environmental future. The EEF sponsors a Student Grant Program for students pursuing their studies in earth sciences at the graduate level. Historically underrepresented groups, such as African-Americans, Native-Americans, Asian-Americans and Hispanics, are often eligible for higher education grants. Funding for these grant programs comes from a variety of sources, both public and private. Many grant programs are dedicated to increasing diversity in the traditionally white male dominated fields of science and business. The American Anthropological Association sponsors a large number of education grants, including the Minority Dissertation Fellowship Program.
The program is open to students from historically underrepresented minority groups who are pursuing their doctoral degree in Anthropology. The American Association of Advertising Agencies supports a large number of grants and scholarships. Cover For A Office Manager! Of particular interest to minority students is the Multicultural Advertising Intern Program which offers a paid 10 week internship to undergraduate and graduate level students pursuing a degree in advertising. The Hyatt Hotels Fund for Minority Lodging Management Students provides financial aid to minority students enrolled in a hospitality management course at the demsetz evolution rights an accredited college or vocational school. The program is open to African-American, Hispanic, Native-American and cover manager, Asian-American students.The annual award is school, $2000. The Asian American Journalists Association is dedicated to the advancement of Asian-Americans in both broadcast, print and digital media journalism. The AAJA sponsors both the Internship Grant for Broadcasting and the Chicago Tribune Print and New Media Internship Grant . Awards amounts range from $1500 to $2000. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants sponsors a variety of cover letter for a office manager, grants and scholarships for minority students pursuing a career in accounting. The AICPA Minority Doctoral Fellowship awards $12,000 to minority students completing their doctoral program in accounting. The fellowship is open to African-American, Native-American and Hispanic students. The American Society of Criminology offers it’s annual Graduate Fellowship for Ethnic Minorities.
The program is designed to encourage students of color to pursue a career in criminology. Applicants are eligible for an annual award of essay, $6000. Women still face many challenges when entering the professional workforce. While progress continues to be made, women remain underrepresented in a number of critical fields including science, medicine and business. In an effort to letter for a office manager, redress this imbalance, many lucrative grant opportunities are made available for female college students. The Margaret McNamara Memorial Fund, supported by the World Bank Group, offers an annual grant of $12,000 to impact on students, female students from developing countries who are studying in the Unites States. Eligible recipients must be planning to return to their home country to use their degrees for the betterment of for a business manager, their homeland. The American Association of University Women supports a number of failure, Selected Profession Fellowships designed to encourage women to return to college to letter for a, expand their career opportunities. Grants are available for women pursuing careers in best thesis, law, engineering, medicine and computer science. The International Federation of letter business manager, University Women sponsors fellowships and grants for graduate students who wish to study abroad as they complete their doctoral research.
Applicants must be student members of the IFUW to be considered for any award. On Argumentative Essay! Award amounts vary depending on course of study, and travel costs. The Jeanette Ranking Foundation awards need-based education grants to women 35 and older. The foundation’s purpose is to give women the educational power they need to break the cycle of poverty. Zonta International is dedicated to advancing the status of women worldwide. Zonta sponsors the annual Amelia Earhart Fellowship, which provides a grant of $10,000 to women pursuing their PhD in cover office manager, Aerospace studies. Grants for students with disabilities come from a variety of sources, and address a variety of different needs.
Some grant programs are designed to help disabled students find their place in a traditional college campus environment, while others may offer financial aid to students attending a special needs school. Most grants for introduction evolution rights disabled students are specific to the applicants handicap, though some may be broadly applied to all disabled students. The Chair Scholars Foundation provides grant and scholarship opportunities to students with physical disabilities. Cover Office! The foundation is dedicated to helping low-income students with physical disabilities afford college or vocational training. The Jewish Guild for the demsetz thesis evolution of property the Blind is one of the longest established advocacy groups for the visually impaired.
JGB sponsors the annual Guild Scholar Award for college-bound students who are legally blind. Cover For A Business! Applicants are eligible for up to introduction of property rights, $15,000 in award money. The Ethel Louise Armstrong Foundation offers an annual scholarship for women with disabilities. Applicants must be currently enrolled in a Masters degree program at an accredited college or university. Award amounts range from $500 to $2000. Non-traditional students include those people who are returning to college after a prolonged absence, or those students returning for specific training for career advancement. Often women returning to college after raising a family, or single parents pursuing career advancement through education will fall into this category.
Non-traditional students may also refer to those students who are changing from a technical school to a four year college or university. Soroptimist International of the Americas funds the Women’s Opportunity Awards, which provide financial aid for letter for a business office manager women who wish to return to college. Applicants must be the primary financial support for their household, and teachers day celebration school, must be returning to school to improve their career skills. Executive Women International sponsors the Adult Students in Scholastic Transition Award . Letter Manager! ASIST is available to failure essay, adult students who are facing economic and for a business, social challenges, and who want to improve their situation through higher education. The annual award is $2500. P.E.O. Technical! International is dedicated to providing educational opportunities to business office, women. P.E.O. supports a number of grants for women returning to college after a prolonged absence. Emphasis is on career training and advancement in traditionally male dominated fields.
Denny’s Single Parent Scholarship Fund provides need-based grants for single parents of Hispanic background who are returning to college to advance their education. Award amounts range from $500 to help delhi, $1500. Students with Severe Medical Conditions/Diseases. All college-bound students face enormous challenges when it comes to financing their education. Students who are fighting, or have survived, a serious disease face an cover letter for a business additional emotional challenge as they plan for dissertation help delhi their college education. Many charitable organizations provide much needed financial support for students with severe medical conditions, helping them achieve their dreams of a higher education. Letter For A! The Diabetes Scholars Foundation provides grants and scholarships for college students with Type 1 Diabetes. Awards are decided on a combination of academic merit, community service and financial need.
The Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network offers an annual $1500 award for students with severe allergies. Applicants must submit an essay on the effect their allergies has had on their lives. This program has been discontinued. The Susan G. Komen Foundation is introduction the demsetz and the evolution of property, one of the best known advocates for cover letter for a business the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. The foundation sponsors both grants and scholarships for students who have lost a parent to breast cancer. Awards of up to $10,000 are available, and are decided on a combination of scholastic achievement, community service and new deal failure essay, financial need. The Cancer Survivors Fund provides an abundance of financial aid for survivors of cancer, including scholarships and grants to help offset the cost of a college education.
The search for college grants can lead to some very unique financial aid opportunities. Letter Business! College-bound students looking for education grants will soon find there are programs to address almost any interest. The following grants are examples of the diverse types of financial aid programs that are available to the enterprising student searching for a way to offset the cost of their higher education. These examples also prove that focusing on teachers school, your interests can lead you to financial aid opportunities which could otherwise go overlooked. The Harry S. Truman Library Institute Research Grants Program offers a number of fellowships and scholar awards for cover for a manager graduate students working on research relating to articles essay, former President Harry Truman. Award amounts vary depending on the program, anywhere from $2500 to $16,000. The American Association of Cereal Chemists International sponsors a number of annual fellowship grants for graduate students pursuing research into cereal and grain-based food science. Awards range from letter business $2000 to $3000. Applicants must be student members of the AACC to be considered for the award.
The Massage Therapy Foundation provides grants to on argumentative, students and individuals conducting research in the field of massage therapy. Award amounts are decided by review board, and applicants must submit an outline of their research project for consideration. Team America Rocket Challenge annually rewards ten high school teams for cover business manager their excellence in model rocket design. Annual awards include $60,000 in cash and best thesis statement for to kill, scholarships to letter business, be shared amongst the help delhi ten finalists. The National Make It With Wool Contest is open to college students aged 17 24. The competition involves the design, manufacture and modeling of an cover for a business manager original woolen garment. Essay! First prize at cover office manager the national level is a $1000 education grant. The American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) sponsors the thesis for to kill Rhoads Research Foundation Grants. These grants are open to graduate students and letter office, post-graduate professionals conducting research into clinical nutrition. Award amounts range from $16,000 to $25,000. The Jewish Vocational Services of Chicago offers grant opportunities to Jewish college students who are residents of Cook County and the Chicago Metropolitan area.
Preference is essay teachers day celebration, given to those students who are pursuing careers in community service. Cover For A Office! The Council on International Education Exchange supports the John Bowman Travel Grant for career technical students who are studying abroad. Emphasis is on non-traditional regions including Africa, Asia and Latin America. Cover For A! All awards are $1000. Huntingdon College supports a number of grants for both undergraduate and graduate students. These programs include the Scarlet and Grey Grant for members of the college’s marching band and dance team, and the Cross and Flame Grant for active members of the Methodist church. Award amounts range from $4000 to $10,000. The Endangered Language Fund supports grants for graduate and post-doctoral students who are studying ancient languages.
Special emphasis is given to the preservation of failure, Native-American languages. For more information on college grants, and how to find them, see our section on Education Grant Benefits and Opportunities.
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Office Manager Cover Letter Sample
cno resume The USS PREBLE was the fifth ship to be named in honor of Commodore Edward Preble. PREBLE was commissioned on business office manager May 9, 1960 as DLG-15 and was one of the first ships built from the keel up to impact on students dissertations theses fire Terrier guided missiles. PREBLE's keel was laid on 16 December 1957 at the Bath Iron Works. PREBLE was launched on 23 May 1959. PREBLE was commissioned on 9 May 1960 and completed outfitting on 19 July. PREBLE operated out of the Boston Navy Yard and Norfolk Naval Base until 30 July. PREBLE then proceeded via New Orleans, LA, Tampico, Mexico, and Puerto Cortes, Honduras to pass through the Panama Canal on 17 August.
PREBLE reported to the US Pacific Fleet on 17 August and remained in port at Rodman Naval Station, Panama Canal Zone until 20 August. While at Rodman, PREBLE received an official call by the President of the cover business manager, Republic of Panama. PREBLE then proceeded via Acapulco, Mexico to arrive at and the of property rights San Diego on 2 September. A restricted availability at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and a training period with Fleet Training Group (FTG) preceded the cover letter for a, final acceptance trials during October. PREBLE then conducted further training with FTG and thesis of property rights blast tests during November. The year ended with a Post-Shakedown availability at Long Beach Naval Shipyard. During January and letter business February 1961, PREBLE completed the Post-Shakedown availability and participated in First Fleet Operations off Southern California. On 27 February, in company with USS TOPEKA (CLG-8) with COMCRUDESFLOT SEVEN embarked, and dissertation help delhi several destroyer types, PREBLE proceeded to cover for a business office manager WESTPAC via Pearl Harbor and failure essay Midway Island. During the letter for a office manager, WESTPAC tour, PREBLE participated in various Seventh Fleet Operations and visited Yokohama, Yokosuka, Iwakuni, Beppu, Sasebo, and Ito, Japan; Hong Kong; and Buckner Bay, Naha, Okinawa. COMDESRON THREE was embarked from 29 May to 27 June.
On 26 July, CDR S. Career On Students Theses? T. SADLER, USN relieved CAPT E. G. FITZ-PATRICK as CO. PREBLE Returned to cover for a office manager CONUS on 28 September and participated in local fleet demonstrations and operations for the remainder of the year. PREBLE received the following awards and new deal failure essay presentations during 1961: Battle Efficiency Award. Departmental E Awards in letter for a office Engineering and Missilery. During January through June 1962, PREBLE participated in essay day celebration various fleet operations including Operations AIR GUN and for a POTSHOT and visited Seattle, WA during April to commemorate the opening of the impact technical on students dissertations theses, 1962 World's Fair. The first regular overhaul period was from June - October during which the AN/SPS-48 (XN-1) three-dimensional radar was installed. Cover For A Business? From 19 October to the end of the year, PREBLE participated in O/S 62 FY 62 CNO AA evaluation project under the supervision of DEPCOMOPTEVFORPAC to test the new radar equipment. PREBLE's initial TERRIER and ASROC Nuclear Technical Proficiency Inspection (NTPI) were successfully completed on 18-20 December. PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1962: Departmental ASW A and Gunnery E Awards.
Evaluation of the new radar continued until 29 April 1963 under O/S 62 FY 62 CNO project. COMDESRON ONE, CAPT E. H. SIMPSON, USN broke his flag on dissertation help 12 January. CDR A. R. Office? CAMERON, USN relieved CDR S. T. SADLER, USN as CO on 23 March. From 1 May through 6 June, PREBLE rehearsed for and participated in the demonstration conducted by COMFIRSTFLT for the late President John F. Kennedy. From 10 June through 31 July, PREBLE participated in career on students dissertations theses C/S 30 FY 63 CNO A evaluation project to cover letter business office further evaluate the AN/SPS-48 (XN-1) radar. New Deal Failure Essay? CAPT E. H. Cover Letter For A? SIMPSON, USN was relieved by CAPT D. S. APPLETON, USN as COMDESRON ONE on 27 July. COMDESRON ONE then shifted his flag to the U.S. Naval Station, San Diego.
An extended restricted availability was assigned from 1 August to 21 October at Long Beach Naval Shipyard to remove the AN/SPS-48 (XN-1) radar and install the help, AN/SPS-39A radar. During October, PREBLE successfully completed the TERRIER BT(N) certification. Refresher training was conducted under the operational control of letter for a business office manager COMFLETRAGRU from 4 November to 13 December. On 17-18 December the second annual NTPI was successfully completed. During January 1964, PREBLE conducted operations in the Pacific Missile Range area and failure commenced a restricted availability at Long Beach Naval Shipyard that extended to 14 February. Cover Business Office Manager? On 26 February, PREBLE departed for a tour of duty in technical on students dissertations theses the Far East in cover letter business company with USS SAINT PAUL (CA-73) with COMFIRSTFLT embarked. Impact Technical? After stops at Pearl Harbor and Midway Island, PREBLE arrived at letter office manager Yokosuka, Japan on articles on argumentative 13 March. During the for a office manager, deployment, PREBLE visited the dissertation, ports of Buckner Bay, Okinawa; Sasebo, Japan; and Hong Kong, B.C.C.
On 6 July CAPT A. R. CAMERON, USN was relieved as CO by CDR A. Business Office Manager? M. BOWEN, JR, USN. PREBLE departed Yokosuka, Japan on the demsetz and the rights 7 July, in business company with USS KITTY HAWK (CVA-63) and USS DEHAVEN (DD-727) and impact technical on students arrived in San Diego on 20 July. In August, off of the coast of Vietnam, PREBLE was called upon to provide Naval Gunfire Support, commonly called shobom, in cover business manager support of the new deal failure, Vietnamese Second Army Division against the Viet Cong at targets located approximately 80 miles southeast of DaNang. PREBLE fired 330 rounds of 5/54 and 3/50 ammunition at the targets with good results. In firing these missions, PREBLE became the FIRST missile equipped destroyer ever to letter business office fire any weapon in combat. In September, Preble had the distinction participating in the first overland rescue of articles a downed aviator by a sea-based helicopter in the Vietnam war. PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1965: PREBLE began 1966 moored to Pier 2 an the U.S. Naval Station, San Diego, California.
On 25 January, she departed for the San Francisco Navy Yard for a scheduled overhaul. Embarked were RADM ALEXANDER S. GOODFELLOW, USN, Commander Cruiser-Destroyer Flotilla Nine and CAPT JEROME H. KING, USN, COMDESRON ONE. On 26 January, PREBLE passed under the Golden Gate Bridge and moored at the Naval Ammunition Depot, Mare Island, California to offload ammunition prior to entering the shipyard. Cover Letter For A Business Office? On 27 January, PREBLE departed Mare Island and moored at Berth 4, San Francisco Bay Naval Shipyard, Hunters Point Division. PREBLE remained at essay Berth 4 until 5 February. She was then shifted to Drydock 3, where she was docked along with the USS Henry B. Wilson (DDG-7). On 4 March a Change-of-Command Ceremony was held aboard PREBLE where CDR ALVA M. Cover? BOWEN, Jr., USN was relieved by essay teachers day celebration school, CDR KENNETH G. HAYNES, USN as Commanding Officer of PREBLE.
On 28 June, PREBLE in cover letter for a office the company of dissertation help delhi USS Brooke (DEG-1) conducted two successful Terrier missile firings on the Pacific Missile Range. PREBLE then headed back to San Diego arriving at Pier 4, U.S. Naval Station on 29 June. On 7 July a Change-of-Command Ceremony was held aboard PREBLE where CAPT BRIAN McCAULEY, USN relieved CDR CARL J. BOYD, USN as COMDESRON ONE. PREBLE remained in port until 18 July when she began Refresher Training with Fleet Training Group, San Diego. The start of cover for a business office 1967 found USS PREBLE attached the U.S. Seventh Fleet and in port at essay Subic Bay, Republic of the Philippines. Embarked aboard PREBLE was CAPT A.L. KOBEY, USN, COMDESRON TWENTY ONE. On 15 January, PREBLE departed Subic Bay made a brief stop at Da Nang, Republic of Viet Nam and arrived on station in the Tonkin Gulf to perform Search and Rescue (SAR) duties on 23 January.
On 18 February, RADM M. Letter For A Business? W. New Deal Failure Essay? WOODS, USN, COMCRUDESFLOT NINE came aboard PREBLE for a visit and brief on the ship's SAR organization. On 23 February, PREBLE was relieved by USS Henry B. Wilson (DDG-7). PREBLE then returned to Subic Bay, arriving on 25 February. On 4 March PREBLE departed Subic Bay for Buckner Bay, Okinawa for a practice missile shoot. One missile was fired with successful results. PREBLE departed Buckner Bay on 6 March arriving at Kobe, Japan on 10 March for an RR visit of four days.
On 14 March, PREBLE departed Kobe for Yokosuka, Japan, arriving on 15 March for her last port call in the Far East. On 20 March, PREBLE, in cover letter office company with USS Floyd B. Articles? PARKS (DD-884) and USS MULLANY (DD-528) departed Yokosuka for San Diego. After a brief fuel stop at Midway Island on 25 March and an overnight stop at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on 28-29 March, PREBLE arrived at San Diego on 4 April. After arriving at San Diego, COMDESRON TWENTY ONE shifted his flag to USS RICHMOND K. TURNER (DLG-20) and COMDESRON ONE, CAPT BRIAN McCAULEY, shifted his flag to PREBLE. PREBLE conducted Type Training off the coast of Southern California on 15-16 May.
On 17 May, PREBLE loaded missiles and ammunition at Seal Beach, California and returned to San Diego on cover 18 May. On 20 May, PREBLE conducted a Family Cruise for new deal, ships personnel, family and cover for a business office friends. From 22-25 May, PREBLE conducted a Secretary of the Navy guest cruise which included Terrier missile firings on the Pacific Missile Range. During the firings, PREBLE scored a direct hit with a warhead shot and destroyed the drone. On 12 June, PREBLE embarked 40 midshipmen from the U.S. Naval Academy and various college NROTC units throughout the United States. The weeks of 12 June and delhi 19 June were spent at sea in Southern California waters conducting orientation training for the midshipmen in all phases of ship handling and shipboard procedures. PREBLE departed San Diego on 26 June as a unit of the for a business office manager, Pacific Midshipman Training Squadron (PACMIDTRARON) and continued Type Training in Southern California waters which included Terrier missile firing exercises at the Pacific Missile Range on 27 June. From 21-24 August, PREBLE acted as Host Ship for a Secretary of the Navy Guest Cruise during which the guests had the opportunity to observe missile exercises and other fleet operations. Two missiles were fired during the missile exercises at technical theses a special test drone.
The first missile was a complete success and cover the second was no-test as the new deal failure essay, missile failed. PREBLE stopped briefly in Seal Beach, California to cover letter office load missiles on 23 August and thesis statement a mockingbird returned to San Diego. On 16 September, CDR P.C. Letter Business Office Manager? GIBBONS, Jr, USN, relieved CDR KENNETH G. HAYNES, USN as Commanding Officer, USS PREBLE. On 25 September, PREBLE was again underway for 5 days of Type Training.
From 9-16 October, PREBLE participated in the First Fleet Exercise MOON FESTIVAL and demonstrated her ability in on argumentative all phases of modern naval warfare. PREBLE served as Flagship for RADM JOHN. B. DAVIS, Jr., COMCRUDESFLOT Nine, who was the Chief Observer for the exercise. During the exercise, two telemetered missiles were fired. For A Manager? One was a success. PREBLE returned to port on 17 October for an upkeep period. On 21 October. CAPT A. T. EMERSON, USN, relieved CAPT BRIAN McCAULEY, USN, as COMDESRON ONE in ceremonies conducted aboard PREBLE. Essay Day Celebration? COMDESRON ONE then shifted his flag to USS JOUETT (DLG-29). On 6-9 November, PREBLE participated in letter office Type Training exercises off Southern California designed to bring her to a high level of readiness for a forthcoming Far East deployment. On 11-12 November while PREBLE was Public Visit Ship at the Broadway Pier, San Diego, over 4000 people received a tour of the ship.
On 14 November, PREBLE returned to Seal Beach to again load missiles then conducted an ORI enroute to San Diego on 15 November. During the remainder of November and December, numerous pre-deployment inspections were conducted. As the teachers school, year ended, PREBLE conducted her final leave and upkeep period and was ready for the forthcoming deployment in January 1968. PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1967: 1 January found USS PREBLE at cover for a manager her home port of San Diego, California where she remained until 16 January when she departed in the company of USS JOUETT (DLG-29) and USS HULL (DD-945) for a six month Western Pacific tour. Enroute PREBLE stopped at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii from impact career theses, 21-25 January, Guam, Marianas Islands, on 3 February and Subic Bay Republic of the Philippines from letter manager, 8-10 February. Upon arrival with the SEVENTH Fleet, PREBLE was assigned as rescue destroyer for on argumentative essay, USS TICONDEROGA (CVA-14) on Yankee Station in the Tonkin Gulf. Cover For A Business Office Manager? On 1 March, PREBLE made a port call to Sasebo, Japan for upkeep. PREBLE departed for operations in the Sea of Japan on 1 March. In late March, PREBLE returned to Yankee Station and dissertation delhi then made a port visit to for a office Hong Kong, B.C.C from 3-7 April. PREBLE departed Hong Kong arriving in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, for upkeep and tender availability.
On 14 April, PREBLE departed Kaphsiung and on students theses resumed operations at Yankee Station in support of, successively, USS KITTY HAWK (CVA-63), USS RANGER (CVA-61), USS ENTERPRISE (CVAN-65) and cover letter business USS BON HOMME RICHARD (CVA-31). On 21 May, PREBLE departed Yankee Station for Subic Bay arriving on 23 May. PREBLE was in and out of Subic Bay conducting training in preparation for SAR duties off the impact dissertations, coast of Viet Nam. During this period, PREBLE conducted Air/Surface Gunnery, Shore Bombardment and Missile Firing exercises. During the Missile exercises, two direct hits on missile drones were achieved. PREBLE left Subic Bay on 30 May stopping briefly in Da Nang for a day of training arriving on AAW/SAR station the first week of June. Shortly after midnight on 19 June, PREBLE's embarked UH-2A Seasprite SAR helo took off on a heroic mission to rescue a downed Navy F-4 Phantom crew some 20 miles south of Hanoi. For A? The pilot of the helo, LTJG Clyde Lassen of Helicopter Combat Support Squadron SEVEN, later received the Congressional Medal of Honor for his daring night mission, flown against on argumentative intense enemy ground fire. On 24 June, PREBLE departed for Yokosuka, Japan, Arriving on letter for a manager 29 June. New Deal Failure Essay? This would be her last port visit before returning to the United States. PREBLE departed Yokosuka on 2 July, stopping at letter for a office Midway Island on articles essay 8 July for fuel and arriving at Pearl Harbor on 10 July.
PREBLE departed on 12 July for San Diego. While in the Western Pacific with the SEVENTH Fleet, PREBLE completed her 453rd helicopter recovery, conducted 50 underway replenishments, and cruised more than 50,000 miles. The Remainder of July and August was spent performing upkeep and allowing leave for crew members. September, October, and for a office manager November saw PREBLE under way for local training exercises and a Secretary of the Navy Guest Cruise. The Guest Cruise was highlighted by operations at the Pacific Missile Range which included two successful Terrier missile exercise firings and a port visit to San Francisco from 25-28 October. Following PREBLE's return from WESTPAC in July, extensive preparations were made for a complete yard overhaul and AAW modernization at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard commencing in January 1969. On 27 December PREBLE departed San Diego for Philadelphia.
After a brief fuel stop in impact career technical on students dissertations theses Manzanillo, Mexico, PREBLE arrived in Acapulco, Mexico on 30 December. PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1968: THIRD and cover business manager FOURTH Campaign Star for the Vietnam Service Medal. As part of the Navy's Anti-Air Warfare Modernization Program, PREBLE was decommissioned 31 January 1969 for an extensive conversion in failure essay the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. New Radar and letter for a business manager electronics equipment were installed to replace less effective units. The missile system was modified to introduction thesis evolution of property rights allow the simultaneous firing of letter business two missiles and to provide for operation against help delhi sophisticated enemy counter-measures. The Navy Tactical Data System was also installed, enabling PREBLE to exchange digital information by cover for a manager, computer-to-computer radio links with similarly equipped ships and aircraft. PREBLE was re-commissioned on 23 May 1970 (CDR K. S. MASTERSON, Commanding), and shortly afterward-left Philadelphia for her new homeport, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. On 11 July 1970, PREBLE passed through the essay teachers, Panama Canal and returned to the Pacific.
Upon her arrival at cover for a business Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 22 August, she became the first TERRIER and NTDS equipped ship to be based there. PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1970: Departmental ASW A, Gunnery and articles essay Missilery E Awards. In March, PREBLE participated in Operational Readiness Inspections, and loaded out for a forthcoming WESTPAC deployment. On April 14, 1971, PREBLE, with COMDESRON 25 (CAPT Art Franch) and his staff embarked, deployed to for a business office WESTPAC. Accompanying PREBLE on the first leg of the transit across the essay teachers day celebration school, Pacific were USS RATHBURNE (DE-1057), USS EDSON (DD-946) and USS O’CALLAGHAN (DE-1051).
Before leaving Hawaiian waters, PREBLE successfully launched a Terrier missile shot against an aerial target drone off Kauai, then all units proceeded to Midway Island for refueling on April 17, and continued the transit to Yokosuka, arriving April 24. In May, following upkeep and installation of additional equipment in cover business office manager Yokosuka, PREBLE’s WESTPAC operations commenced. Through the months of May and June, PREBLE participated in the Peacetime Aerial Reconnaissance Program (PARPRO) operations in the Sea of Japan, monitoring aerial and surface activities in the waters between Japan and the coasts of China, Korea and the Soviet Union. During this period, PREBLE paid several visits to Sasebo Naval Base and, of a more historic nature, visited the statement for to, Japanese port of Shimoda in business manager mid-May for the Black Ship Festival, the commemoration of the introduction the demsetz evolution of property, 1854 visit of Commodore Perry to Japan, which opened Japanese ports to the United States and the western world. On June 15, PREBLE departed Japanese waters enroute to cover manager Subic Bay. Best Statement Kill A Mockingbird? After a brief upkeep and cover letter office replenishment in Subic Bay and Olongapo City, on June 28, PREBLE headed for essay, where the action lay: the South China Sea and cover office the Gulf of Tonkin, off the coast of North Viet Nam. Best For To? PREBLE’s first “line period” lasted for cover letter for a business, 29 days in the Viet Nam combat zone, including stints as north SAR (search and rescue) unit in day celebration school the Gulf and subsequently, as PIRAZ ship (Positive Identification Radar Advisory Zone), stationed some 90 miles north of the Task Force 77 carriers (ENTERPRISE, ORISKANY and cover for a manager MIDWAY) operating off Viet Nam on Yankee Station. During this time, PREBLE brought to bear the full capabilities of her NTDS (Navy Tactical Data Systems) suite. The mission as PIRAZ ship included operating as a forward radar advisory unit for TF 77, reporting all contacts via data link and essay teachers school NTDS to task force commanders; controlling carrier-launched combat fighter aircraft patrolling further north in the Gulf of Tonkin, close in to North Viet Nam; using her embarked helicopter units to perform search and rescue for downed aircraft in the Gulf; and finally monitoring all aerial activities, including reconnaissance, throughout the Gulf of Tonkin. The end of the first line period in the Gulf was rewarded with a seven-day visit to for a business manager Hong Kong, beginning on new deal July 27, with the first order of letter for a business business being the change of command on July 29. Our outgoing CO, CDR K.S.
Masterson, plankowner, who had brought the and the of property rights, PREBLE through its NTDS modernization and letter recommissioning to this point, was relieved by the new CO, CDR Peveril Blundell. Phase II of PREBLE’s WESTPAC deployment commenced. PREBLE spent the month of August and early September involved in her second line period in the Gulf of Tonkin as PIRAZ ship (squeezing in brief visits to Kaohsiung, Taiwan and Subic Bay). Best Thesis Kill A Mockingbird? Again, PREBLE was involved heavily in surveillance and air control in the Gulf of Tonkin, until relieved in early September by letter for a manager, the USS HORNE (DLG-30). Thereafter, PREBLE turned southward, and commenced an unforgettable series of show-the-flag port visits enroute home. First stop for PREBLE was Thailand’s seaport at Sattahip on September 14, adjacent to essay teachers the U. S. Air Base at U-Tapao, where B-52s were observed launching for strike missions. For A Office? Ship’s company were able to visit Bangkok and the now well-developed coastal resort of the demsetz thesis and the of property rights Pattaya Beach, on the Gulf of Thailand.
Underway a few days later, PREBLE’s next stop was at the Crossroads of the East, Singapore, for cover letter business, a two day visit, thence onward, through the domain of Neptunus Rex and essay teachers school his Trusty Shellbacks, to Djakarta, Indonesia, on cover letter for a office September 23, the first American Navy ship to visit since 1967. Dissertation Delhi? The previous year (1966) had seen the Sukarno government of letter office manager Indonesia overthrown by help, President’s Suharto’s regime, potentially friendlier to the United States. In the course of the three day visit, PREBLE hosted a “visit ship” for the general public, and PREBLE’s missileers particularly wow’ed the locals, including the Indonesian General Staff, with “birds on the rails” demonstrations of missile doors flying open and for a business office Terrier missiles racing out onto the launcher rails. The crew was warmly hosted and entertained throughout the visit by U. S. embassy personnel stationed in Djakarta. Not through yet, PREBLE left Djakarta, sailed through the narrow straits between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra and into the Indian Ocean, down the delhi, west coast of Australia to the City of Perth, arriving at for a business office Perth’s seaport, Fremantle, on essay October 1. During this three-day visit, the Aussies, through their hospitality, proved up to their reputation of having enduring affection for cover letter for a business office, the Yanks. Simultaneous to PREBLE’s visit, Perth was the site of Australian National Football championships and National Horse Racing events, and seemingly, for that weekend, the theses, entire population of the Outback. After this all-too-short visit, PREBLE headed further south, around the Great Bight and along the southern coast of Australia enroute (with a brief fuel stop at cover business office manager Melbourne) to New Zealand. First, however, PREBLE had to cross the Tasman Sea, the worst stretch of seas encountered in the entire WESTPAC deployment, but then, again, almost as a reward -- the port visit to Wellington, New Zealand.
During this extended port visit, the dissertation, ship was warmly received by letter for a business office manager, the residents of Wellington and crew members enjoyed and explored the varied attractions of New Zealand, literally “from the mountains to best kill the sea.” On October 17, PREBLE departed Wellington for cover letter for a office manager, the last leg of WESTPAC ‘71; on October 21, PREBLE stopped for a brief 6-hour liberty call/refueling at Pago Pago, American Samoa, and thence headed home, arriving at Pearl Harbor on October 27, 1971. For those who were soon to leave PREBLE, memories of the ‘71 WESTPAC cruise would stay with them forever. Essay Teachers School? For those remaining, WESTPAC would beckon again in cover for a business ‘72. PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1971: FIFTH and SIXTH Campaign Star for the Vietnam Service Medal. During the spring of 1972, PREBLE participated in local exercises and continued training for her next WESTPAC deployment. On 31 July, PREBLE departed Pearl Harbor, enroute WESTPAC. Career Technical Dissertations Theses? PREBLE stopped at Midway Island on 3 August for fuel, 10 August at Guam for fuel and finally arriving at business office Subic Bay, Republic of the Philippines on 13 August. Teachers? PREBLE departed Subic Bay on 18 August for duties in the Tonkin Gulf.
On the night of cover manager 22 August, PREBLE sailed into the combat zone, off Quang Tri Province, South Vietnam, and took station near the gun line. She was assigned picket ship duty in the Gulf of introduction thesis and the of property rights Tonkin, performing the functions of both North and Mid SAR commander, concurrently, the first and only warship to carry out such a simultaneous assignment during the letter for a business manager, entire course of the war. On 28 August, ADM ELMO R. ZUMWALT, Jr., CNO, and VADM J. L. HOLLOWAY, III, COMSEVENTHFLT visited PREBLE. On 30 August, PREBLE was assigned duties as South AAW/SAR controlling ALPHA air-strikes and air activity in the Hon La Anchorage. On 12 September, PREBLE's combat information center picked up a distress beeper from a downed A-7 Corsair off the USS SARATOGA (CVA-60). And The? PREBLE vectored USS WILTSIE (DD-716), the closest rescue ship, to the exact spot for letter for a manager, a successful recovery. Four days later, on 16 September, PREBLE picked up the beeper from an Air Force F-4 Phantom downed in the Gulf, near Dong Hoi. Articles? Within 25 minutes of the cover letter office, aircraft hitting the water, PREBLE had pinpointed the dissertation help delhi, downed pilots, launched her motor whaleboat, and safely recovered both air crewmen. On 19 September, PREBLE was relieved and proceeded to Subic Bay, R.P arriving on cover for a business office 21 September. On 23 September Martial Law was declared in the Republic of the delhi, Philippines.
On 1 October, PREBLE departed Subic Bay, R. P., arriving on Yankee Station in the South China Sea on 3 October, to become plane guard for the USS SARATOGA (CVA-60). On 15 October, PREBLE was detached from SARATOGA and returned to the Gulf off Dong Hoi to resume South SAR/AAW picket duties. At times the monotony of the 'box patrol' was broken, when PREBLE was called on to maintain small arms proficiency by intercepting the tide of full rice bags which enemy supply vessels often loosed toward the shore. Operation Pocket Money, the mining of North Vietnam's ports and rivers, had made it too hazardous for cover letter business office, the communist freighters to get their cargo ashore otherwise. On 2 November, armed reconnaissance aircraft under PREBLE's control spotted an enemy convoy of some 150 trucks. Articles? The ship requested additional aircraft and directed them to the target area.
After the letter for a business office, smoke cleared, the on argumentative essay, final bombs damage assessment stood at 80 per cent. Soon thereafter, combat operations against North Vietnam were curtailed, as the Paris Peace Talks progressed. Cover Letter For A Business Office Manager? PREBLE departed the Gulf of Tonkin for articles, port visits to Hong Kong and cover letter for a manager Kaohsiung (Taiwan), before proceeding to Subic Bay for reprovisioning and repairs. PREBLE returned to her South SAR station on 27 November. During mid-December, from the 18 th on, PREBLE's forward air controllers participated in essay day celebration directing concentrated nighttime B-52 raids against Hanoi and Haiphong: part of Operation Linebacker II. As Christmas approached, PREBLE completed her third gunline period, and was enroute Japan for holiday RR, when a change of orders directed her to take position on the gunline, off the Cua Viet River and the Demilitarized Zone. PREBLE arrived on station 25 December, and cover letter for a office got her first fire mission. On 27 December, she encountered her first enemy shore-battery counterfire receiving 7 rounds. Fragments from teachers school, 122mm shells littered the weatherdecks after each fire mission, attesting to the numerous near misses that the letter business office, ship received. Equipped with FLIR (forward-looking infrared) detection, the ship's gunfire interdicted a truck convoy traveling down the coast on the night of 28 December, and essay teachers school destroyed several vehicles, setting off numerous secondary explosions and fires. On 29 December, after having fired 532 rounds of 5-inch/54-caliber ammunition in four days on the gunline, PREBLE was relieved and departed the Gulf for Sasebo, Japan.
PREBLE arrived in Sasebo, Japan on 1 January.Transiting the Taiwan Straits, enroute the South China Sea, on 12 January 1973, PREBLE diverted to assist in coordinating the rescue and recovery of two air crewmen from an letter manager, F-4 Phantom II downed in nearby waters. From 14 through 23 January, PREBLE took up picket station between Hon Gio Island and the Dong Hoi coast. Impact? Relieved by USS WORDEN (DLG-18) on cover letter for a business the 23 rd , the ship returned to the DMZ and gunline duty in support of a South Vietnamese offensive. On 24 January, having laid down gunfire to disrupt an enemy truck convoy and suppress an dissertation delhi, attacking tank column, the business office, ship took hits from 130-mm shore batteries. And The Of Property Rights? An antenna atop the aft mast was destroyed and for a business office manager a shell burst off the port side amidships ripped holes in the superstructure. The Commodore's Cabin was severely damaged, and the port lookout received some minor wounds. (The ship did not know it at the time, but this was the last hit on an U.S. Navy warship by North Vietnamese shore batteries in the Vietnam War.) Over the next four days, PREBLE fired 431 rounds supporting the advance of a South Vietnamese battalion. In return, some 169 rounds of North Vietnamese counter-battery fire harassed the ship.
At 0800, on 28 January 1973, the ship's 1MC announced that the Vietnam War was over. PREBLE remained on the gunline until 1 February, when she was relieved to dissertation help delhi begin her eastward transit to cover manager Hong Kong and Subic Bay, and career dissertations thence to Pearl Harbor. Cover Business Office Manager? On 20 March 1973, CDR M. E. TOOLE, USN, relieved CDR P. BLUNDELL, USN, as Commanding Officer. PREBLE's actions during the period 8 August 1972 through 24 February 1973 would, subsequently, see her awarded the Meritorious Unit Commendation. For participating in an exchange of hostile fire with the enemy on 27 and 28 December 1972 in the vicinity of the Cua Viet River, she would, also, be authorized to display the Combat Action Ribbon. At Pearl Harbor, the ship resumed an intense rotation of maintenance and upkeep, watch qualification, and sea trials, in dissertation delhi preparation for a fall deployment to the Indian Ocean area.
On 24 September 1973, PREBLE departed Pearl Harbor for a six-month deployment. After calling at Midway Island and Guam, she reached Subic Bay on 14 October. On 19 October, after fueling and reprovisioning, PREBLE commenced her westward sail. During two months of special operations, as part of the first Attack Carrier Task Group excursion into the Arabian Sea, she crossed the South China Sea, transited the Straits of Malacca, entered the Bay of for a business office Bengal, and proceeded onward to visit the Gulf of Oman and the Gulf of Aden. Finally, retracing her route, PREBLE returned to Subic Bay on 17 December. PREBLE received the following awards during 1973: With three weeks of upkeep and RR behind her, PREBLE departed Subic Bay on 14 January 1974.
She began to the demsetz of property wrap up her deployment, with port calls at Hong Kong, Kaohsiung, Manila and Singapore, interweaving two more stops in cover letter office Subic Bay before returning home via Guam and Midway Island. On 22 March, PREBLE was again berthed at Pier Bravo in Pearl Harbor. After a brief stand down, the teachers, ship resumed her local operational and watch qualification schedules. These included workups for forthcoming Propulsion Examining Board (PEB) evolutions, to for a business office manager be held after her ROH. PREBLE entered the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard on impact career on students theses 24 June for a 10 month ROH which included updates to the Combat Systems along with major engineering plant refits. On 14 September 1974, CDR D. Cover For A Office Manager? E. JEREMIAH, USN, relieved CDR M. E. TOOLE, USN, as Commanding Officer of USS PREBLE.
Sadly, the command was informed that crewmember ETN3 RICHARD A. CARSTENSON was killed in a bicycle accident on 13 November. PREBLE received the articles essay, following awards and cover presentations during 1974: DESRON TWENTY FIVE Battle Efficiency E Departmental ASW A, Gunnery, Missilery, Engineering and Operations E Awards. PREBLE completed her overhaul in March 1975. Then began a more intense period of PEB and LOE (Light Off Exam) qualifications for the ship's underway watch officers and the engineering ratings. During the overhaul, NTDS Upgrades and TERRIER Guided Missile Fire Control System Upgrades had, also, been installed. With successful LOE behind her, PREBLE commenced a succession of refresher training and ship control and weapons system performance trials. On 1 July 1975, USS PREBLE (DLG-15) was re-designated USS PREBLE (DDG-46). PREBLE's return to full operational readiness was certified by her performance in the ten-day underway training exercise, COMPUTEX 3A-76.
PREBLE continued building her reputation for excellence when she deployed again in 1976. Following her 1976 deployment, PREBLE conducted extensive training in thesis and the evolution the Hawaiian operations area and in June of 1978 transited to San Diego to for a business office manager spend five months operating her engineering plant. Returning to Pearl Harbor in November, PREBLE operated in the MIDPAC area, conducting carrier operations as well as ASW and AAW exercises. In November of 1976 a Change-of-Command Ceremony was held aboard PREBLE where CDR D. E. JEREMIAH, USN was relieved by CDR E. E. KILLINGER, USN as Commanding Officer of PREBLE. PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1976: Departmental Communications C , ASW A, Operations and Missilery E Awards. In July of 1978 a Change-of-Command Ceremony was held aboard PREBLE where CDR E. E. KILLINGER, USN was relieved by CDR FRED W. BAILEY, USN as Commanding Officer of PREBLE. In February 1979, PREBLE earned her seventh consecutive Efficiency Award in Missilery, a period of almost ten years that the missile area of Preble's Weapons Department has been evaluated as excellent, an accomplishment virtually unparalleled in the Pacific Fleet.
On 2 March 1979, PREBLE entered the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard for a 13-month overhaul. PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1979: Departmental Communications C and Missilery(7th) E Awards. In April 1980, PREBLE departed the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard completing her 13-month baseline overhaul. Help Delhi? New, more advanced and sophisticated equipment was added to complement Preble's basic systems. In June 1980 a Change-of-Command Ceremony was held aboard PREBLE where CAPT FRED W. BAILEY, USN was relieved by cover for a business office, CDR THOMAS E. STONE, USN as Commanding Officer of PREBLE. In September 1980 PREBLE said Aloha to teachers Pearl Harbor for the last time, destination, her new homeport of Norfolk, Virginia via the Panama Canal. On the way, port calls were made in for a San Diego, CA, Rodman Naval Station, Panama, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and Ft Lauderdale, FL. Upon arrival at Norfolk Naval Base, PREBLE began operating with Destroyer Squadron Two of the career on students dissertations theses, Atlantic Fleet. On 14 April 1981, Preble, in company with USS America (CV-66) and USS California (CGN-36). departed Norfolk Naval Station for deployment to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf.
Enroute, the Battle Group made port calls in Cartagena and cover for a business Palma de Mallorca, Spain. On 6 May 1981, PREBLE and USS AMERICA became the first carrier battle group to transit the Suez Canal in over twelve years. USS CALIFORNIA, due to teachers being a Nuclear powered ship, was not allowed to transit the Suez Canal. Therefore she was forced to transit around Africa and meet up with the Battle Group in the Indian Ocean. Upon arrival in the Indian Ocean, PREBLE was attached to COMIDEASTFOR and sent into cover manager, the Persian Gulf to act as Radar Picket.
After about help, 30 days of Condition-3 steaming, PREBLE left the Persian Gulf and made a Port Call in Singapore. After Singapore, PREBLE was sent back to cover business manager the Persian Gulf for another month. During this month PREBLE made a one day Port Call to Bahrain. Impact Career Technical On Students Theses? In August, PREBLE rejoined the USS AMERICA Battle group. The Battle Group proceeded Southeast where she crossed the equator on 10 Aug 1981 at 74.51 East. Many Pollywogs received cleansing that day. The Battle Group continued Southeast making Port Calls at Diego Garcia and cover business office manager Perth, Australia. Upon leaving Australia, the USS AMERICA Battle group returned to the Indian Ocean where operations continued. The Battle Group was relieved and on 6 Oct within one day of a Northern Transit of The Suez Canal, Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, was assassinated. The Battle group was immediately placed in a state of readiness in case of trouble.
The transit was uneventful and the Battle group arrived back in Norfolk in November of 1981. PREBLE was on deployment for 212 days of which 190 days were at sea. PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1981: PREBLE departed Norfolk in articles on argumentative June to participate in UNITAS XXIII. The deployment took the for a office, ship down through the Panama Canal and around South America. On the way to Panama, PREBLE made port calls in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands; Kingston, Jamaica; and Cartagena, Columbia. After transiting the Panama Canal, port calls were made in Valparaso, Santiago, and Concepcin, Chile. Over the next 2 months PREBLE operated with the Chilean Navy making many port visits along the the demsetz thesis and the evolution of property rights, way. While in-port, PREBLE crewmembers participated in the construction of an Orphanage. Also, while in Chilean waters, a Chilean Pilot guided the PREBLE through the Straits of Magellan.
While in cover letter manager the middle of the straits, the ship anchored and local Indians rowed out in canoes and traded hats, belt buckles, shirts, flour, sugar, etc. for fresh seafood, which was used for thesis rights, a BBQ on the fantail. Upon finishing local operations with the Chilean Navy, port calls were made in Punta Arenas, Chile; Montevideo, Uruguay; Rio De Janeiro, Brazil; Caracas, Venezuela; Trinidad; and Ft. Lauderdale, FL. PREBLE arrived back in Norfolk in November. Departmental ASW, CIC, Communications, Damage Control, Electronic Warfare, Harpoon Operations, Missilery(8th) E Awards.
1983 found PREBLE in the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. PREBLE returned to cover letter for a business office manager Norfolk in February. In November 1984 a Change-of-Command Ceremony was held aboard PREBLE where CAPT ROBERT SUTTON, USN was relieved by CDR C. F. VOTAVA, III, USN as Commanding Officer of articles essay PREBLE. In June, PREBLE entered the Ingalls Shipyard in Pascagoula, MS for for a business office, overhaul. This overhaul included an SM-2 missile conversion. PREBLE left the Ingalls Shipyard, Pascagoula, MS, 14 June. In December 1986 a Change-of-Command Ceremony was held aboard PREBLE where CDR C. F. The Demsetz Thesis Evolution Of Property Rights? VOTAVA, III, USN was relieved by CDR PETER W. BULKELEY, USN as Commanding Officer of PREBLE. In June, PREBLE deployed with the USS Saratoga CV-60 Battle Group to the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, returning in November. PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1988: Departmental ASW, Communications, Damage Control, Electronic Warfare, Engineering Navagaion, and for a office Seamanship E Awards.
1989 began with PREBLE moored at Pier 21, Naval Station Norfolk. All hands were preparing for deployment with the Standing Naval Force, Atlantic (SNFL). On 5 January, PREBLE embarked RADM J. SCOTT REDD, Commander, Standing Naval Force, Atlantic and his staff. PREBLE sailed from essay, Norfolk on 14 January. She headed south to rendezvous with the remainder of SNFL; HMS SCYLLA, FGS LUTJENS, HMCS MARGAREE, and HMNLS BLOYS VON TRESLONG. Letter For A? SNFL conducted several familiarization exercises which were a prelude to the more advanced and demanding events conducted as the deployment progressed. On 20 January, the force enjoyed it's first liberty with a port visit to Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico. SNFL sailed from Puerto Rico on 23 January, enroute to Mobile, Alabama.
During the transit, Naval Gunfire Support exercises were conducted off the best thesis for to a mockingbird, island of Vieques. During these exercises, the force was joined by letter for a office manager, USS IOWA (BB-61). From 6-13 February, SNFL visited the port of Mobile Alabama. On Argumentative Essay? After a brief transit, the next stop was Port Everglades (Fort Lauderdale), Florida from cover business, 17-21 February. On 18 January, CDR THOMAS FROHLICH, USN, relieved CDR PETER W. BULKELEY, USN as Commanding Officer of USS PREBLE. On 22 February, SNFL departed Port Everglades enroute to Charleston, South Carolina. SNFL arrived in teachers school Charleston on 3 March for a three-week maintenance availability. During the repair period, PREBLE accomplished major repairs, including a changeout of her starboard propeller. On 21 March RADM KLAUS LAUDIEN, FGN, relieved RADM J. SCOTT REDD as Commander, Standing Naval Force, and shifted his flag to FGS RHIELAND-PHALZ which relieved FGS LUTJENS. SNFL departed Charleston on 28 March enroute for cover letter for a office manager, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
SNFL arrived in Halifax on 4 April for a 7 day port visit. While in port, HMCS SAGUENAY relieved HMCS MARGAREE as the Canadian representative ship within SNFL. SNFL left port on 10 April to conduct NATO Electronic Warfare exercises. Career Dissertations? SNFL returned to Halifax briefly for fuel, and began the transit of the Atlantic on 13 April. Following an cover letter business office, overnight stop for fuel in essay day celebration Punta Delgada, Azores, SNFL was underway to participate in operation OPEN GATE '89. Business Office? The approaches to the straits of Gibraltar comprised the exercise area. PREBLE briefly entered the help, Mediterranean during work-ups for the final exercise. The exercise was designed to simulate the movement of allied replenishment forces in to the Mediterranean during wartime. Upon completion of the exercise, SNFL made a port call in Lisbon, Portugal on 3 May.
SNFL departed Lisbon on 9 May for Cadiz, Spain. Enroute, SNFL was joined by NRP ROBERTO IVENS, the Portuguese representative to SNFL. SNFL arrived in Cadiz on 13 May, departing on 15 May for cover office, Portsmouth, England. The force arrived in Portsmouth on 19 May. At this time, HMS BOXER relieved HMS SCYLLA as the English representative to new deal essay SNFL. From 24 May to cover business office 6 June, SNFL was underway participating in essay teachers day celebration school operation VENDETTA '89, an exercise designed to simulate re-enforcing Norway during wartime. The operation was centered around training for shallow water ASW prosecution and aircraft carrier defense in the fjords. During this exercise, PREBLE conducted around-the-clock flight operations as refueling station for Royal Navy helicopters from the HMS ARK ROYAL. On 27 May, the force crossed the Arctic Circle at 010' 04.3 E Longitude. The event was marked by the traditional Blue Nose ceremony. On 7 June SNFL entered the port of Tromso, Norway for a 5 day visit.
On 11 June, SNFL departed Tromso traveling south to Stavanger, Norway for a one day visit. The force then made for Den Helder, Netherlands. Scheduled maintenance was performed while in Den Helder as well as celebrating Dutch Navy Day. Cover Letter Business Manager? On 3 July, PREBLE set sail for Norfolk, Virginia. After brief stops in Loch Ewe, Scotland on 4 July and St. Johns, Newfoundland on failure essay 9 July, PREBLE prepared to embark the Operational Propulsion Plant Examining (OPPE) Board to assess engineering material and training readiness prior to arriving in letter business office Norfolk. Following a successful examination, PREBLE moored Pier 25 Norfolk Naval Station ending a demanding, high-tempo deployment. From 14 July until 14 August, PREBLE was in a post-deployment leave and upkeep period. On Argumentative? From 21-25 August, PREBLE conducted independent operations in the Virginia Capes Operations Area (VCOA). Letter Business Office Manager? During this time, she carried one scientist as a guest of the Navy and a Boy Scout Troop from Bethesda, Maryland. After a brief stay in Norfolk from 26 August to 10 September, PREBLE was again underway, this time for the Caribbean.
From 11-20 September, PREBLE was underway under COMDESRON TWO for rights, Type Commander Core Training (TCCT) 5-89 exercises. Similar to cover letter office manager exercises conducted on deployment, TCCT 5-89 exercised all facets of PREBLE's war fighting capabilities. After successfully evading hurricane Hugo and following a brief anchorage near Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico to assess storm damage to the harbor, PREBLE was detached to participate in Coast Guard Law Enforcement Operations in the Caribbean. She operated as a Radar Picket Ship in the Coast Guard's effort to essay interdict drug operations in the Caribbean. Following two brief stops for cover letter for a business, fuel in on argumentative Guantanamo Bay, Cuba on 25 and 29 September, PREBLE headed back to Norfolk for a maintenance period. From 3-30 October, PREBLE was alongside USS VULCAN (AR-5) for an IMAV. Following the IMAV, PREBLE had two brief underway periods, 1-3 November for sea trials and 6-8 November for submarine services. Upon arrival in Norfolk, preparations were made for a command inspection and a weapons offload prior to a planned maintenance shipyard availability. On 15 November, PREBLE was given the task of traveling to Perth Amboy, New Jersey to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the signing of the Bill of Rights.
Twenty Two hours after notification, PREBLE was underway. From 17-20 November, PREBLE was moored at letter business manager Perth Amboy. PREBLE arrived back in essay day celebration Norfolk on 21 November and manager made final preparations for teachers day celebration, the Command Inspection on 23 November and cover office manager a Combat Systems Assessment on 5 December. The Command Inspection was a complete success. On 5 December, PREBLE set sail for weapons offload at school the Naval Weapons Station in Earle, New Jersey.
During the transit to Earle, COMDESRON TWO conducted a Combat Systems Assessment (CSA). PREBLE passes all phases of the CSA. On 6-7 December PREBLE offloaded weapons and returned to Norfolk on 11 December where she remained until the end of the year. On 28 December, PREBLE departed Norfolk on what would be her final deployment. Her destination was the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. Early 1991 found PREBLE on picket station in for a business office manager the northern Red Sea providing AAW cover in support of best kill carrier strikes launched from the Red Sea carrier battle force. Letter Office? PREBLE was then assigned to thesis statement kill a mockingbird the Maritime Interception Force in the northern Red Sea. PREBLE was later transferred to escort duty with the letter for a office manager, Red Sea battle force. In February a Change-of-Command Ceremony was held aboard PREBLE where CDR THOMAS W. FROHLICH, USN was relieved by CDR L. Impact Career Technical On Students Theses? V. KESTER, USN as Commanding Officer of PREBLE. In mid-March, PREBLE accompanied the USS KENNEDY (CV-67) Battle Group through the Suez Canal into the Mediterranean where she joined the 41st Naval On-Call Forces Mediterranean (NAVOCFORMED). During this assignment, PREBLE represented the U.S. at the 41st NAVOCFORMED deactivation ceremony in Naples, Italy.
On 11 April PREBLE rescued the crew of the Irish sailing yacht Meermin, which took on water while crossing the Mediterranean sea. PREBLE took the yacht, which had a two inch hole near her keel, under tow to letter for a business manager Palma de Mallorca. From Mid-April to impact career dissertations theses mid-May, PREBLE escorted the USS THEODORE ROOSEVELT (CVN-71) and provided AWA protection during Operation Provide Comfort, the humanitarian relief effort assisting the Iraqi Kurds. This marked the fourth carrier battle group in which PREBLE operated during the deployment. Cover For A Manager? PREBLE returned to Norfolk, VA on 14 June 1991. During this deployment, PREBLE steamed over 30,000 nautical miles, spent 109 days under way and 60 days in school port visiting seven countries in the Mediterranean and cover letter for a business Red Sea. PREBLE was decommissioned on 15 November at Pier 21, Norfolk Naval Station, Norfolk, VA.
PREBLE received the following awards and presentations during 1991: Many thanks to Charles Arnold, Joe Patton, Keith Ford, Jim Breslin, Jay Eischen and Bill Calhoun for articles on argumentative essay, contributing to letter this page.
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Le Complexe d'Oedipe - Analyse d'un mythe fondateur. Je met sur cette page, la disposition de tous, cet admirable expos, crit par Eve PREVOT et Estelle GUIZOL, qui explique la lgende d'Śdipe, le complexe qu'en a tir Sigmund Freud, ainsi que la place que le hros grec occupe dans le milieu artistique et dans l'art lui mme. Analyse d'un mythe fondateur. III/ Extraits de la pice Śdipe Roi. L'histoire d'Oedipe, qui appartient au cycle des lgendes thbaines, est l'une des plus importantes de la mythologie grecque.
Le personnage a inspir des chefs-d'śuvre tragiques, qui ont trac de lui le portrait d'un homme tortur par un destin insupportable. Business Office. Les diffrentes versions du mythe d'Oedipe divergent sur de nombreux points, qui modifient parfois sensiblement le sens des pisodes. De ce fait, il nous a paru normal et essentiel d'aborder dans le but d'une tude de la mythologie, une grande phase travers ce mythe incontournable. Thesis A Mockingbird. Ainsi, tout au long de ce dossier, c'est une unique version de cette lgende, la plus raconte au fil des sicles que nous aborderons. En plus de l'histoire du hros, des extraits de la pice comptant son rcit mais aussi une explication du complexe d'Śdipe seront ultrieurement dvelopps au cours de notre travail. La lgende d'Śdipe a t reprise par Sophocle (-496 -406) qui en a fait une pice de thtre, Oedipe-Roi. Cover Letter For A Business Office Manager. Cet auteur, qui a vcu Athnes retransmet travers ses pices l'cho de ce qu'il juge bon tre exprim.
Le combat d'Oedipe est porteur d'espoir : la civilisation, symbolise par Athnes o il se rfugie, l'emporte sur les forces obscures. Thesis Of Property. Aussi, symbole de l'homme traqu par le destin, Oedipe est un hros qui a de tout temps inspir les crivains comme par exemple Eschyle, ou encore Sophocle (vers 425 avant J.-C., souvent considr comme le chef-d'śuvre de la tragdie grecque), comme nous l'avons dj mentionn. Śdipe, fils de Laos et de Jocaste, est le personnage central des mythes grecs. Cover Office Manager. L'oracle avait prdit Laos que, s'il avait un fils, celui-ci le tuerait, pouserait sa femme et prendrait son royaume. Statement. Ds sa naissance, Śdipe est donc condamn mort. Cover Letter Business Manager. Mais celui qui doit le tuer ne peut s'y rsoudre et l'abandonne dans la montagne. Technical Dissertations Theses. Un berger au service du roi de Corinthe passe par l, recueille l'enfant et l'lve comme son propre fils. Cover Letter Office Manager. Brillant par son courage et son intelligence, Śdipe est finalement adopt par le roi Polybe, qui n'a pas d'enfant. Thesis A Mockingbird. Il en oublie lui-mme son origine. Business Office Manager. Quittant peine l'adolescence, Śdipe consulte l'oracle de Delphes et apprend avec pouvante qu'il tuera son pre et pousera sa mre. Best Thesis Kill A Mockingbird. Pour fuir son destin, il quitte Corinthe et se rend Thbes.
Sur la route, il croise l'quipage d'un cortge et une altercation se produit alors : durant celle ci, il tue un vieillard inconnu. Letter For A Business. Ce vieillard est en ralit son pre, Laos, mais Śdipe ne l'apprendra que plus tard. Lorsqu'il arrive Thbes, un double malheur vient de se produire : en effet, le roi vient d'tre assassin. Essay Teachers Day Celebration School. En plus de cela, le pays est boulevers par une bte monstrueuse, le Sphinx, qui dvore chaque jour des jeunes gens du pays. Letter For A Office Manager. Jocaste, la reine, annonce alors qu'elle pousera celui qui dlivrera la cit de ce monstre, et que son royaume sera sien, en remerciement de cet acte de bravoure et de hardiesse. Best Thesis. Śdipe, se prsente alors devant ce Sphinx insolent et rpond le premier l'nigme que celui-ci pose tous ceux qui tombent entre ses mains, et que par ailleurs, il massacre lorsque la rponse ne vient pas leurs esprits audacieux. Triomphant de cette preuve, Śdipe pouse Jocaste et devient le matre de ce grand pays. Cover For A Business Office. Pre de quatre enfants ports par son pouse Jocaste il jouit d'un grand bonheur lorsqu'un malheureux jour, la peste s'abat sur la cit de Thbes. Best. Questionn sur le moyen de faire cesser l'pidmie, l'oracle de Delphes rpond qu'il n'existe qu'un seul et unique remde ce drame : chasser le meurtrier de Laos, dont le crime impuni rpand la souillure sur tout le pays. Letter For A. Śdipe mne alors lui-mme l'enqute. Failure Essay. Se croyant toujours le fils de Polybe, il dcouvre peu peu avec effroi et horreur son double crime : d'une part, l'assassinat de son pauvre pre, et de l'autre, l'inceste.
Effondre, choque a tout jamais, Jocaste ne trouve aucune autre issue que celle du suicide, elle se pend. Cover Business Manager. Śdipe, tout aussi dgout de ses actes criminels se crve les yeux pour ne plus voir la lumire du jour et part en exil, poursuivi par la maldiction de tous. The Demsetz Thesis. Seule sa fille Antigone lui restera fidle jusqu' la mort. Business Office. La maldiction s'abat cependant sur toute sa descendance : ses deux fils s'entretueront pour la possession du royaume. Essay Teachers School. Antigone, quant elle sera excute sur l'ordre de Cron le tratre, frre de Jocaste, qui convoitait depuis toujours la succession de ses neveux. Aussi bien ton destin n'est-il pas de succomber par moi : Apollon s'en charge; c'est lui d'en finir avec tout cela. C'est de Cron ou de toi, tout ce roman-l ? Cron n'est pour rien dans ton malheur: c'est toi que tu le dois. richesse ! trne royal ! savoir qui a su l'emporter sur la science ! Quelle jalousie vous veillez contre une existence que vous faites trop envier!
Pour l'amour de ce sceptre dont la cit m'a fait hommage, qu'elle m'a mis en main sans que je l'aie sollicit, Cron. Cover Letter. Ce fidle, cet ami de toujours, se livre des menes souterraines ; il ne rve que de me supplanter, en soudoyant cette espce de sorcier, avec ses tissus d'intrigues. Articles. ce charlatan retors, qui n'y voit que pour ses profits, mais dans son art, radicalement aveugle ! Car voyons, dis-moi, o est-elle, ta clairvoyance divinatrice ? D'o vient qu'aux jours o le Sphinx faisait ici peser ses enchantements tu n'ouvrais pas la bouche pour en dlivrer tes concitoyens ? Cette nigme, il n'tait pas donn au premier venu d'en donner le mot : il y fallait le don de divination - tu as assez montr que tu ne le possdais pas, ni d'aprs le vol des oiseaux, ni par inspiration divine. Cover For A Office Manager. J'arrive alors, moi qui ne sais rien, Oedipe la dupe, et je suis venu bout du Sphinx. Dissertation Delhi. C'est ma sagacit qui m'a fait tomber juste : je n'avais pas eu d'oiseaux pour me renseigner !… Et voil celui que tu entreprends de chasser ? Tu comptes trouver une place aux cts de Cron sur les marches de son trne ! M'est avis qu'elle cotera lourd, toi et son instigateur, cette puration sacre ! Tu as de la chance que je te voie si vieux, sans quoi tu aurais dj appris tes dpens ce que vaut au juste ton discernement. notre sens, c'est la colre qui a dict ses paroles, mais elle dicte aussi les tiennes, Śdipe, semble-t-il. Vous devriez quitter ce ton. Cover Letter For A Business Manager. Comment satisferons-nous le mieux l'oracle ? Voil la seule chose examiner. Tu es le roi, c'est entendu. On Argumentative Essay. Mais il y a au moins une galit que je revendique : celle de rpliquer en gal. Business Office Manager. Moi aussi en cela j'ai des droits souverains. Career On Students Dissertations. Ma vie n'est pas tes pieds, mais ceux de Loxias : je n'aurai pas recourir au patronage de Cron.
Je te le dis - puisque tu es all jusqu' me faire une insulte d'tre aveugle - toi, tes yeux sont ouverts, et tu ne vois pas dans quelle horreur tu baignes, sous quel toit tu demeures, et avec qui. Cover Letter Business. Sais-tu de qui tu es le fils ? Tu ne te doutes pas que tu es abominable aux tiens, en ce monde comme dans l'autre. Teachers Day Celebration. Doublement assene sur toi par ta mre et ton pre, te chassera de ce sol, affreuse, talonnante, la Maldiction…Tu vois clair prsent, mais alors tu ne verras plus que tnbres ! En quel lieu ton cri n'ira-t-il pas jeter l'ancre, et de quelle falaise ta voix bientt n'veillera-t-elle pas les chos, lorsque tu auras reconnu en quelles pousailles. Letter For A Manager. sur quels brisants tu es venu te jeter pour btir ton foyer, aprs ton heureuse croisire ! Les maux qui t'attendent encore en foule, tu ne les connais pas : ils te rendront ton vrai rang, et mme rang qu' tes enfants – Aprs cela, tu peux cracher sur Cron, et sur moi qui te parle : jamais homme ici-bas n'aura t plus atrocement broy que tu ne vas l'tre. Peut-on tolrer les normits de cet individu ? Va t'engloutir o tu le mrites! Et plus vite que cela ! Oui ou non, vas-tu faire demi-tour, vider ma demeure et t'en retourner ? Va-t'en ! Je ne serais pas venu de moi-mme. New Deal Essay. C'est toi qui m'as convoqu. Pouvais-je savoir que tu tiendrais des propos dlirants ? Sinon j'aurais regard deux fois avant de te mander en mon palais ! Ainsi va de moi : pour toi, je dlire, mais pour tes parents - ceux dont tu es n ! J'avais tout mon discernement.
Quels parents ? Attends! Quel est donc ici-bas dont je suis n ? Ce jour t'apportera ta naissance et ta perte. Comme tu parles toujours mots couverts, nigmatiques ! N'est-ce pas ta spcialit de les claircir ? C'est un don que tu as. Des insultes de ce genre, soit : tu ne sauras en cela qu'clairer ma grandeur. C'est pourtant prcisment cette chance-l qui t'a perdu. Si j'ai sauv cette cit, peu m'importe le reste. Eh bien, je me retire. Cover For A Manager. [ l'enfant qui l'accompagne.] Allons, mon enfant, emmne-moi. Qu'il t'emmne, oui. Statement For To Kill A Mockingbird. Dbarrasse-moi de ta prsence, elle m'est odieuse. Cover Office Manager. Disparais, ce sera un soulagement pour moi. Je me retire, mais je te laisse la rponse pour laquelle je suis venu.
Ton sourcil ne me fait pas peur, tu ne peux rien pour m'abattre. New Deal Failure Essay. En vrit, je te le dis, cet homme que tu cherches depuis quelque temps, en faisant des proclamations comminatoires sur le meurtre de Laos, cet homme est ici. Business Manager. Il passe pour un tranger, un immigr, mais son origine se rvlera: il est authentiquement thbain. Essay. Et il n'aura pas se louer de l'vnement. Cover Letter For A Business. Car il sera aveugle, lui, dont les yeux sont ouverts; il mendiera, lui, qui est dans l'opulence ; vers le sol tranger, ttonnant devant lui avec son bton, il ira cheminant. Essay Day Celebration School. On dcouvrira qu'il a prs de lui des enfants dont il est tout ensemble le frre et le pre ; que de la femme dont il est n, lui, le fils, il est aussi l'poux; qu'il a ensemenc le mme sillon que son pre; et qu'il est son meurtrier. Letter Office. Va, rentre chez toi, mdite mes paroles. Best Thesis Statement A Mockingbird. Et si tu me prends t'avoir menti, alors je te permets d'affirmer que je n'entends rien la divination.
Śdipe, devenu roi de Thbes, s'entretient avec le devin Tirsias, qui est venu lui prdire un oracle hors du commun : celui de l'assassin de Laos, homme que recherche Śdipe. Si Śdipe ne fait pas le lien entre l'homme concern par l'oracle et sa propre personne, c'est sans doute car sa position d'homme puissant, et la sensation de servir pour le bien de sa cit l'aveugle trop. Cover Letter Business. Il chasse mme avec une attitude discourtoise ce devin qui selon lui n'est qu'une perte de temps, et un profanateur d'neries. Dissertation Delhi. Srement Tirsias sait-il qu'Śdipe perdra sa prestance et son honneur quand sera faite la lumire sur ses origines et la gravit de ses actes, mais il ne s'tend pas plus loin que sur son oracle. Ignorant du drame ancien, Śdipe a couru sa perte, et plus rien ne pourra l'en sortir : il a accomplit son terrible destin, et occuper le trne royal ne peut rien y changer. Nous avons affaire un pisode particulirement important qui installe le drame et claire son protagoniste d'un jour trs cru. Letter Manager. l'ouverture de la pice, Cron, porte-parole d'Apollon, a clairement pos le problme, trouver et vacuer la souillure qui affecte Thbes. Dissertation Delhi. Dans cet pisode, qui consiste en un change particulirement violent entre le devin Tirsias et l'enquteur Śdipe, Sophocle attire d'emble l'attention sur Śdipe, et sur le destin.
Plus prcisment, sur celui qui est l'objet ou le jouet du destin, sur les modes d'nonciation de ce dernier, et sur ses ractions. Cet pisode ouvre vritablement la pice, en mettant nu la fois le protagoniste (Śdipe), le ressort (retournement), et en rvlant sa potique fonde sur le mystre. Letter For A. On a parl parfois d'Śdipe Roi comme d'une pice policire, et elle a mme t rcemment rcrite dans cette perspective. Thesis Kill. Ce rapprochement n'est acceptable qu'en prcisant que le coupable est mis jour ds la premire scne. Cover Business Manager. Il faut accepter Śdipe Roi pour ce qu'elle est, c'est dire une tragdie, fonde davantage sur l'aveuglement de l'homme en proie des forces qu'il ne contrle pas, que sur une enqute qui suppose la matrise d'un sujet sr de lui-mme. Essay Teachers. Un statut auquel Śdipe, au terme de cet pisode, ne peut plus prtendre. Le complexe d'Śdipe est un ensemble organis de dsirs amoureux et hostiles que l'enfant prouve l'gard de ses parents. Cover Business Office. Sous sa forme dite positive, le complexe se prsente comme dans l'histoire d'Śdipe-Roi : dsir de la mort de ce rival qu'est le personnage du mme sexe et dsir sexuel pour le personnage du sexe oppos. Introduction The Demsetz Thesis Rights. Sous sa forme ngative, il se prsente l'inverse: amour pour le parent du mme sexe et haine jalouse du parent du sexe oppos.
En fait ces deux formes se retrouvent des degrs divers dans la forme complte du complexe d'Śdipe. Nombreux ont t les psychanalystes intresss par le complexe d'Śdipe. Cover For A Business. L'un d'entre eux, Freud s'y est tout particulirement pench. L'expression de «complexe d'Śdipe» n'apparat que tardivement dans l'śuvre de Freud (1910). Best Statement For To. Sa dcouverte est cependant prpare depuis longtemps. Cover Office. Freud est amen par son auto-analyse reconnatre en lui l'amour pour sa mre, et envers son pre une jalousie en conflit avec l'affection qu'il lui porte. En 1897, il crit son ami Fliess: «J'ai trouv en moi comme partout ailleurs des sentiments d'amour envers ma mre et de la jalousie envers mon pre, sentiments qui sont, je pense, communs tous les jeunes enfants.» Freud ajoute: «Le pouvoir d'emprise d'Śdipe-roi devient intelligible, […] le mythe grec met en valeur une compulsion que chacun reconnat pour avoir peru en lui-mme des traces de son existence.» C'est ainsi que d'emble Freud affirme l'universalit de l'śdipe: « Tout tre humain se voit imposer la tche de matriser le complexe d'Śdipe… » Il s'agit de l'ensemble organis des dsirs la fois amoureux et hostiles que l'enfant prouve vis--vis de ses parents lors de la phase phallique*. Teachers School. Selon Freud, cette phase se situe chez l'enfant entre 3 et 5 ans. For A Business Office. Son dclin correspond pour lui l'entre dans la priode de latence*. On Argumentative. Lors de la pubert, le complexe d'Śdipe connat une sorte de rsonance que l'adolescent surmonte avec plus ou moins de succs.
Le complexe d'Śdipe est un «procs» qui doit conduire la disparition de ces dsirs. Selon Freud, le complexe d'Śdipe joue un rle fondamental dans la structuration de la personnalit et dans l'orientation du dsir humain. On pourrait relier Śdipe et son complexe l'actualit. For A Business Manager. Dans la vie courante, bon nombre de jeunes garons admirent leur mre et la voient comme une divinit, comme le modle exemplaire suivre et esprent dtrner leur pre en pousant leur mre un jour. On Argumentative. Ce fait prouve que l'humanit n'a pas chang et d'ailleurs ne changera pas de sitt, Śdipe est donc encore bel et bien d'actualit.
On peut aussi aisment retrouver le contexte similaire celui d'Śdipe dans un cadre de famille contemporain mais sans le dsir de mariage ou bien la haine envers un parent que peut prouver l'enfant dans une autre situation. Un peintre comme Picasso en est l'illustration mme. Ainsi, quand Picasso avait 13 ans, son pre, amateur passionn de peinture, lui cda ses pinceaux avant de cesser totalement de peindre. Cover For A. Cet vnement prit une grande signification psychologique dans la vie de l'artiste qui fit un parallle entre le parricide* et le fait d'avoir tu la crativit de son pre. Articles On Argumentative Essay. Puis, Picasso dclara un jour : En art chacun doit tuer son propre pre. Picasso reconnaissait la relation troite entre le meurtre symbolique de son pre et le complexe d'Śdipe selon Freud. Office. Il adopta mme Śdipe comme un alter ego secret. Dissertation Delhi. Śdipe fut un thme la mode chez les surralistes et chez ceux qui frquentaient Picasso dans les annes '20. La ccit* tait un autre thme trs important pour Picasso, pour qui la peinture tait un mtier d'aveugle. Cover Letter For A Manager. On peut percevoir un lien entre ce thme et Śdipe puisqu'il se creva les yeux lorsqu'il ralisa qu'il avait tu son pre et qu'il s'tait mari avec sa mre. Une tude d'Śdipe rvle instinctivement un lien avec la ralit malgr les apparences. Articles On Argumentative. Certes, l'aventure de ce Roi et le tragique de sa destine peuvent paratre compltement absurdes et fantaisistes de par son surralisme et l'incrdibilit qu'il en mane.
Mais, il faut prciser qu' l'origine, se cache derrire cette tragdie un phnomne rel et pas si irraliste que cela n'y parat. Le scnario de mythe n'est qu'une couverture derrire laquelle se dissimule une ide philosophique importante et toujours d'actualit. Ces raisons nous ont rendu cet expos agrable raliser puisque attirant d'une part grce son ct fantastique mais aussi et surtout grce ce que l'on peut en tirer et en analyser. Letter Office. Comparer un mythe aussi ancien l'actualit est il est vrai intressant et nous a motiv approfondir ces recherches incessantes et les rendre moins superficielles. Cette lgende incomparable autant qu'incontournable a bel et bien travers les poques ainsi que les ges proposant encore au moderne les plus hautes leons de morales et de posie. Tous ces lments, on the demsetz thesis of property rights l'espre, vous auront satisfait et auront t traits comme il se doit, la hauteur de ce sujet incomparable. Stade phallique : stade durant lequel a lieu le dveloppement de la sexualit infantile, qui succde au stade oral et pendant lequel l'intrt de l'enfant mle se porte sur la verge. Priode de latence : temps d'arrt dans le dveloppement de la sexualit, du dclin de la sexualit infantile au dbut de la pubert. Parricide : meurtre commis par un enfant l'gard d'un parent.
Ccit : tat d'une personne prive de la vue. Merci d'avoir lu cet expos, j'spre qu'il vous a plu ! N'hsitez pas passer voir mes autres articles !