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book report kuhn Guide to Thomas Kuhn#146;s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Note: I have tried to government, let Kuhn speak for himself whenever possible. The make is easier to distinguish the quotes from the paraphrases, I have written the renaissance essay quotes in boldface. All references are to the 1970 edition of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . 1. A Paradigm is . Kuhn baptizes his famous notion of a scientific paradigm as originating from the great works of science, like Copernicus#146;s De Revolutionibus or Newton#146;s Principia. These great works became paradigms because they were sufficiently unprecedented to attract an government enduring group of adherents away from competing modes of scientific activity , and sufficiently open-ended to leave all sorts of problems for the redefined group of practitioners to resolve. (p.10) The activity spurred by such great books goes by the name of essays faulkner, normal science.

There are . only three normal foci for factual scientific investigation. (p.25.) 1. Determination of significant fact: Attempts to increase the accuracy and scope with which facts like the specific gravities and compressibilities of material, electrical conductivities and contact potentials occupy a significant fraction of the literature of experimental and observational science. This kind of activity is largely independent of the reigning paradigm - the Newtonian measurement of specific gravities, for example, was unchanged by federal the advent of Einstein's theory of mechanics. 2. Matches of fact with theory: (p.26) A second usual but smaller class of factual determinations is directed to those facts that, though often without much intrinsic interest, can be compared directly with predictions from the paradigm theory . In support of the claim that these cases are rarer, Kuhn mentions that (p.26) No more than three such areas are even yet accessible to Einstein's general theory of ref william faulkner, relativity . Government! 3. The articulation of theory , which is . Je Essayist! empirical work undertaken to articulate the paradigm theory . This is broken up into three sub-categories. (i) experiments aimed at articulation are directed to the determination of physical constants. (ii) experiments aimed at quantitative laws: E.g. Boyle's Law relating gas pressure to volume. (iii) experiments to choose among alternative ways of applying the federal essay paradigm to new areas of customer, interest. (p.29) This is one of the federal government many places in which Kuhn might do well to pro and essay, make a distinction between theory and models. Essay! Let us stipulate that models are the sets of equations derived from theory plus auxiliary assumptions such that estimates of all adjustable parameters may be obtained from extant data (Kuhn uses the poetry essay term #145;model#146; in federal government essay a different sense). Thus, the set of Newton#146;s equations of motion is not a model because it is impossible to make a precise quantitative comparison with data without (approximate) solutions of those equations. When Kuhn talks about the articulation of theory as a part of normal science, he is really referring to the development of essays ref william, models.

While normal science is federal essay, a highly determined kind of activity, Kuhn is quick to deny that he is slipping back to naive inductivism: (p.42) In a footnote, Kuhn acknowledges the je essayist work of government, M. Polanyi, Personal Knowledge , Chicago, 1958, in which scientists#146; success is said to depend on poetry tacit knowledge acquired through practice, which cannot be articulated explicitly. The point, expanded in essay the postscript, is that scientists gain tacit knowledge of a theory through working through textbook or laboratory examples (called exemplars ). Poetry Essay! In summary, Kuhn#146;s argument is something like this: 1. Federal Government! All novelties of school essay, fact (discoveries) or theory lead to the end of normal science. 2. Normal science does not aim at government essay its own demise. Therefore, normal science does not aim novelties of fact or theory and, when successful, finds none. In sum, Kuhn seeks to explain the ross essay difficulty of discovery as an instance of the general psychological fact that our expectations cloud our perception of the world.

For example, Ptolemy#146;s system of astronomy certainly faced discrepancies, but it was only when those discrepancies built up to federal government, crisis point that the conditions were ripe for change (p.68): Given a particular discrepancy, astronomers were invariably able to advertising pro and, eliminate it by making some particular adjustment in Ptolemy#146;s system of compounded circles. But. Federal! astronomy#146;s complexity was increasing far more rapidly than its accuracy and that a discrepancy corrected in one place was likely to review of literature in car industry, show up in another. Notice that Kuhn mentions complexity as requisite condition for paradigm change in this example. It is a necessary part of what defines a crisis in federal normal science. For, a sufficient number of que sais, compounded circles would provide perfect fit with the data at any one time. Federal! That Ptolemaic model would provide no discrepancies with existing data . But the crisis is revealed by the way it changes over time, for as Kuhn puts it, the astronomy#146;s complexity was increasing far more rapidly than its accuracy and that a discrepancy corrected in one place was likely to show up in pro and cons essay another. On the other hand, Kuhn presents the Copernican revolution as an example which the crisis in the reigning Ptolemaic paradigm was almost the only reason for the change (pp.75-6): Copernicus#146; more elaborate proposal was neither simpler nor more accurate than Ptolemy#146;s system. Available observational tests, as we shall see more clearly below, provided no basis of a choice between them . For example, Copernicus saw as counterinstances what most of Ptolemy#146;s other successors had seen as puzzles in the match between observation and theory. (p.79) As Copernicus complained (quoted from Kuhn (1957), p.138), in his day astronomers were so inconsistent in these [astronomical] investigations . that they cannot even explain or observe the constant length of the seasonal year . Essay! With them , Copernicus continues, it is as though an artist were to gather the hands, feet, head and other members for his images from diverse models, each part excellently drawn, but not related to essay, a single body, and since they in no way match each other, the result would be monster rather than man. Again, we may note that Copernicus is not complaining about discrepancies per se, but about the fact that discrepancies in Ptolemy#146;s system are only removed ad hoc adjustments to the model.

From within a paradigm, from the viewpoint of normal science, anomalies are not seen as testing the theory . Yet Kuhn concedes (p.80) that Normal science does and must continually strive to bring theory and fact into closer agreement, and federal government, that activity can easily be seen as testing or as a search for confirmation or falsification. But science students accept theories on critical ref william faulkner the authority of teacher and text, not because of evidence. (p.80) Hence the standards of critical rationality ascribed by federal essay Popper are not present. There is customer review of literature industry, a need to clarify what Kuhn is saying here. While uncritically taking the federal essay background theory for granted, normal science does subject the models derived from the theory to severe critical scrutiny. None of Kuhn#146;s examples undermine that idea that models are falsified (although there are independent reasons for thinking that such a view is too simple). So normal science strives to bring theory and advertising cons essay, fact into closer agreement by calling its models into question without ever criticizing the background theory itself. Kuhn does make use of a distinction between approaches to problems (models?) and the paradigm later in the book. Thus, while scientists will (p.144) try out and reject a number of alternative approaches, rejecting those that fail to yield the desired result, he is not testing the paradigm when he does so. The same point that is now often used in criticism of Popper#146;s falsificationism: Theories are never tested in isolation.

And when they are tested, as in government the Leverrier-Adams discovery of que sais, Neptune, it is the auxiliary assumptions (the assumption that Uranus was the outermost planet) that was criticized, and not Newton#146;s laws of motion. 6. New Paradigms Place New Relations Amongst the federal Data: When normal puzzle solving fails to resolve anomalies, crisis looms, and school of business essay, the nature of scientific activity gradually changes. (p.91) The proliferation of competing articulations, the willingness to try anything, the federal government essay expression of explicit discontent, the recourse to philosophy and to debate over fundamentals, all these are symptoms of a transition from normal to que sais je essayist, extraordinary research. When the transition is complete, the profession will have changed its view of the field, its methods, and its goals. One perceptive historian, viewing a classic case of government, a science#146;s reorientation by paradigm change, recently described it as picking up the other end of the stick , a process that involves handling the same bundle of data as before, but placing them in a new system of renaissance poetry essay, relations with one another by giving them a different framework. [Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science , 1300-1800 (London, 1949), pp.1-7] Others who have noted this aspect of federal government essay, scientific advance have emphasized its similarity to a change in poetry essay visual gestalt: the marks on paper that were first seen as a bird are now seen as an antelope, or vice versa. (p.85) Butterfield#146;s description of theory change is an important clarification of Kuhn#146;s poetic reference seeing a duck and then seeing a rabbit. For there is a danger that we might take Kuhn#146;s duck-rabbit analogy too seriously, and view theory change as literally involving a change in perception , and therefore a change in federal essay the data themselves, rather than just a change in customer in car industry the relations amongst the government data. Another noteworthy feature of the school of business above quote is the idea that the goals of science change when the essay paradigm changes. Presumably, this is because the goal of science is problem-solving, and this changes as the que sais problems change. Yet one might also define problem-solving in a paradigm independent way (e.g., as the federal government essay goal of finding predictively accurate models), in which case the goal would not change. Advertising Pro And Cons! But Kuhn does not appear to subscribe to such a view of science. . the federal essay reception of a new paradigm often necessitates a redefinition of the pro and corresponding science. Some old problems may be relegated to another science or declared entirely unscientific. [e.g. Federal! alchemy] Others that were previously non-existent or trivial may, with a new paradigm, become the very archetypes of significant scientific achievement. [e.g., tidology, the study of the tides] The normal-scientific tradition that emerges from a scientific revolution is not only incompatible but often actually incommensurable with that which has gone before. (p.103) As far as the main conclusion is concerned, Kuhn#146;s argument is convincing. There is no doubt that the world view that emerges from a scientific revolution may be incommensurable in the weak sense described above - that new terms are not straightforwardly translatable, and of literature in car industry, the new paradigm leads to at least some incompatible predictions.

However, there is a concomitant claim that should not go unchallenged. Are there really no objective standards on the acceptance of primitive entities, as Kuhn insinuates? Surely, it is government, reasonable to demand that postulated entities can at least be measured. Isn#146;t it conceivable that Molire#146;s disdain for the term #145;dormitive potency#146; arose from the fact that the label adds nothing but a new way of saying soporific? The man who first saw the exterior of the essays faulkner box from federal government essay above later sees its interior from below. Customer Satisfaction! Transformations like these, though usually more gradual and almost always irreversible are common concomitants of federal government, scientific training.

Looking at a contour map, the student sees lines on paper, the cartographer a picture of ross of business essay 2011, a terrain. Looking at a bubble-chamber photograph, the student sees confused and federal essay, broken lines, the physicist a record of familiar subnuclear events. (p.111) In one psychological experiment, volunteers fitted with inverting lenses report that everything appears up side down at first, but they grow accustomed to the inversion. They learn to accurately predict where their hand should move in order to intercept an manufacturing object, say, and report the experience of seeing everything the right side up. (And when the lenses are first removed, everything appears to be up side down again!) According to Kuhn, (p.112) literally as well as metaphorically, the man accustomed to inverting lenses has undergone a revolutionary transformation of vision. Federal Essay! Yet Kuhn is quick to acknowledge that these known psychological facts about vision do not tell the affect, if any, of que sais je essayist, scientific training on vision. (p.113) And prima facie , it is somewhat implausible to naively extend the idea to, say, the convert to a new paradigm. For example, Looking at the moon, the convert to Copernicanism does not say, #145;I used to see a planet, but now I see a satellite.#146; That locution would imply a sense in federal government essay which the que sais Ptolemaic system had once been correct. Instead, a convert to the new astronomy says, #145;I once saw the moon to federal government, be (or saw the moon as) a planet, but I was mistaken#146;. (p.115) At the same time, there are clear analogies to the psychological phenomenon of seeing what one expects to see as in the case of seeing a black three of of business essay, hearts as a three of spades. For instance: Sir William Herschel#146;s discovery of Uranus provides a first example and federal essay, one that closely parallels the anomalous card experiment. On a least seventeen different occasions between 1690 and 1781, a number of astronomers, including several of Europe#146;s most eminent observers, had seen a star in positions that we now suppose must have been occupied at the time by Uranus. Herschel, when he first observed the same object twelve years later, did so with a much improved telescope of own manufacture.

As a result, he was able to notice an apparent disk-size that was at least unusual for stars. Something was awry, and advertising essay, he therefore postponed identification pending further scrutiny. That scrutiny disclosed Uranus#146; motion among the stars, and Herschel therefore announced that he had seen a new comet! Only several months later, after fruitless attempts to fit the observed motion to a cometary orbit, did Lexell suggest that the orbit was probably planetary. (p.115) The question is whether there is evidence for the more radical conclusion that new paradigms can change the way we see the government world, as opposed to changing the critical faulkner way we interpret what we see. Federal Government Essay! Or maybe we should say that new paradigms actually change the world in which scientists work?! Using traditional instruments, some as simple as a piece of thread, late sixteenth-century astronomers repeatedly discovered that comets wandered at advertising pro and cons essay will through the space previously reserved for federal government the immutable planets and stars. The very ease and essays, rapidly with which astronomers saw new things when looking at old objects with old instruments may make us wish to federal, say that, after Copernicus, astronomers lived in a different world. In any case, their research responded as though that were the case. (pp.116-7) Cautiously, Kuhn pushes the thesis a little further: At the very least, as a result of discovering oxygen, Lavoisier saw nature differently. And in the absence of some recourse to that hypothetical fixed nature that he saw differently, the principle of economy will urge us to poetry, say that after discovering oxygen Lavoisier worked in a different world. (p.118) So far Kuhn has provided no detailed argumentation to support his analysis. Those details are really quite interesting in their own right, irrespective of whether they actually succeed in supporting the stronger conclusion.

By way of elaboration, Kuhn contrasts the Aristotelian and Galilean view of a simple pendulum: To the Aristotelians, who believed that a heavy body is moved by its own nature from a higher position to a state of natural rest at a lower one, the federal swinging body was simply falling with difficulty. Ross Essay! Constrained by the chain, it could achieve rest at its low point only after tortuous motion and a considerable time. Galileo, on the other hand, looking at the swinging body, saw a pendulum, a body that almost succeeded in federal government essay repeating the same motion over and over again ad infinitum. And having seen that much, Galileo observed other properties of the pendulum as well and critical essays faulkner, constructed many of the most significant and original parts of this new dynamics around them. From the properties of the pendulum, for example, Galileo derived his only full and federal, sound arguments for the independence of weight and rate of ross school essay, fall, as well as for federal government the relationship between vertical height and terminal velocity of motions down inclined planes. [Galileo Galilei, Dialogues concerning Two New Sciences, trans. H. Crew and A. de Salvio (Evanston, Ill., 1946), pp.80-81, 162-66.] All of these natural phenomena he saw differently from the way they had been seen before. (pp.118-9) But the conclusion drawn from essays this example is that until that scholastic paradigm was invented, there were no pendulums, but only swinging stones, for the scientists to see. Pendulums were brought into government, existence by something very like a paradigm-induced gestalt switch . (p.120) This is a radical conclusion. Cons Essay! What occurs during a scientific revolution is federal government, not fully reducible to a reinterpretation of individual and stable data.

In the first place, the data are not unequivocally stable. A pendulum is not a falling stone, nor is oxygen dephlogisticated air. Consequently, the data that scientists collect from these diverse objects are, as we shall shortly see, themselves different. More important, the process by which either the individual or the community makes the transition from constrained fall to the pendulum or from dephlogisticated air to oxygen is not one that resembles interpretation. How could it do so in the absence of fixed data for the scientist to customer satisfaction review of literature in car industry, interpret? Rather than being an interpreter, the government scientist who embraces a new paradigm is like the man wearing inverting lenses. (pp.121-22) Scientists then often speak of the scales falling from the eyes or the lightning flash that inundates a previously obscure puzzle, enabling its components to que sais je essayist, be seen in a new way that for the first time permits its solution. On other occasions the relevant illumination comes in sleep.

Nor ordinary sense of the term #145;interpretation#146; fits these flashes of intuition through which a new paradigm is born. Though such intuitions depend upon the experience, both anomalous and congruent, gained with the old paradigm, they are not logically or piecemeal linked to particular items of that experience as an interpretation would be. Instead, they gather up large portions of that experience and transform them to the rather different bundle of experience that will thereafter be linked piecemeal to the new paradigm but not to the old. (pp.122-23) The last sentence in the quotation is another reference to Butterfield#146;s description of theory change (§7, above). There is a sense in which this description strengthens the case against interpretation, since to exploit new relations is not to reinterpret old relations. However, it offers no support for a stronger incommensurability thesis. For the relations amongst data can change without the data themselves changing. Other philosophers of government, science, like Popper, have denied the existence of any verification procedures at all. Theories are never justified (because of problems with induction), but they may be disproven. Popper#146;s philosophy is that of falsificationism: Theories should be severely criticized in an attempt to falsify them. Que Sais Je Essayist! Survivors of such critical scrutiny are rationally acceptable, and are said to be corroborated. . the role thus attributed to falsification is much like the one this essay assigns to anomalous experiences, i.e. to experiences that, by evoking crisis, prepare the way for a new theory. Nevertheless, anomalous experiences may not be identified with falsifying ones.

Indeed, I doubt that the latter exist. As has repeatedly been emphasized before, no theory ever solves all the federal government puzzles with which it is renaissance, confronted at an given time; nor are the solution already achieved often perfect. On the contrary, it is just the incompleteness and imperfection of the existing data-theory fit that, at any time, define many of the puzzles that characterize normal science. If any and every failure to fit were ground for theory rejection, all theories ought to be rejected at all times. On the other hand, if only severe failure to fit justifies theory rejection, then the Popperians will require some criterion of improbability or of government, degree of essay, falsification. In developing one they will almost certainly encounter the same network of difficulties that has haunted the advocates of the various probabilistic verification theories. (pp.146-47) In the first place, the proponents of competing paradigms will often disagree about the federal list of ref william, problems that any candidate for paradigm must resolve. . Lavoisier#146;s chemical theory inhibited chemists from asking why the metals were so much alike, a question that phlogistic chemistry had both asked and answered.

The transition to Lavoisier#146;s paradigm had, like the transition to Newton#146;s meant a loss not only federal of a permissible question but of an achieved solution. (p.148) The second fundamental aspect of review, incommensurability might be called meaning variance, and is often simply equated with incommensurability: Communication across the essay revolutionary divide is inevitably partial. Consider, for another example, the men who called Copernicus mad because he proclaimed that the customer satisfaction of literature industry earth moved. They were not either just wrong or quite wrong. Part of what they meant by #145;earth#146; was fixed position. Their earth, at least, could not be moved. (p.149) The third and most fundamental aspect of the government essay incommensurability of essay, competing paradigms might be referred to as world changes: In a sense that I am unable to explicate further, the proponents of competing paradigms practice their trades in different worlds. One contains constrained bodies that fall slowly, the federal essay other pendulums that repeat their motions again and again. . in some areas they see different things, and que sais, they see them in different relations one to the other. Government! (p.150) I will not repeat what has already been said about the merit of ross of business essay, these theses. The first is the claim to have solved crisis-provoking problems: Probably the single most prevalent claim advanced by the proponents of a new paradigm is that they can solve the problems that have led the old one to a crisis. . Copernicus thus claimed that he had solved the long-vexing problem of the length of the calendar year, Newton that he had reconciled terrestrial and celestial mechanics, Lavoisier that he had solved the problems of federal essay, gas-identity and advertising cons essay, of weight relations, and Einstein that he had make electrodynamics compatible with a revised science of motion. (pp.153-54) The second road to conversion follows a claim to novel predictions: . particularly persuasive arguments can be developed if the new paradigm permits the prediction of phenomena that had been entirely unsuspected while the old one prevailed.

Copernicus#146; theory, for example, suggested that planets should be like the earth, that Venus should show phases, and that the universe must be vastly larger than had previously been supposed. As a result, when sixty years after his death the telescope suddenly displaced mountains on the moon, the phases of federal essay, Venus, and an immense number of school, previously unsuspected stars, those observations brought the new theory a great many converts, particularly among non-astronomers. In the federal government essay case of the ross school of business essay 2011 wave theory, one main source of professional conversions was even more dramatic. French resistance collapsed suddenly and relatively completely when Fresnel was able to demonstrate the existence of a white spot at the center of the shadow of a circular disk. That was an effect that not even he had anticipated but that Poisson, initially one of his opponents, had shown to be a necessary if absurd consequence of government, Fresnel#146;s theory. (pp.154-55) The third and final category of claim that may cause conversion is the claim to simplicity: Fortunately, there is advertising pro and cons essay, also another sort of federal government, consideration that can lead scientists to of business essay 2011, reject an old paradigm in favor of a new. Essay! These are the arguments, rarely made entirely explicit, that appeal to the individual#146;s sense of the appropriate or the aesthetic-the new theory is said to #145;neater,#146; #145;more suitable,#146; or #145;simpler#146; than the old. Probably such arguments are less effective in the sciences than in ross essay 2011 mathematics. . Federal Government! Nevertheless, the importance of aesthetic considerations can sometimes be decisive. Que Sais! . To see the reason for the importance of these more subjective and aesthetic considerations, remember what a paradigm debate is federal, about. When a new candidate for paradigm is first proposed, it has seldom solved more than a few of the problems that confront it, and most of advertising pro and essay, those solutions are still far from essay perfect. Until Kepler, the Copernican theory scarcely improved upon the predictions of planetary position made by Ptolemy. . In short, if a new candidate for paradigm had to be judged from the start by manufacturing letter hard-headed people who examined only relative problem-solving ability, the sciences would experience very few major revolutions. Federal Government! (pp.155-57) These three considerations are parallel those put forward by William Whewell circa 1840, and predate that time.

Whewell referred to the three tests of hypotheses as being (1) the prediction of phenomena of the same kind as those which the hypothesis was invented to explain, (2) the prediction of facts of a different and cons, novel kind (the consilience of inductions), and (3) the tendency to simplicity and unity. . crisis alone is not enough. There must also be a basis, though it need be neither rational nor ultimately correct, for faith in the particular candidate chosen. Something must make at least a few scientists feel that the federal government new proposal is on the right track, and manufacturing cover, sometimes it is only personal and federal essay, inarticulate aesthetic considerations that can do that. Customer Of Literature In Car Industry! When first introduced, neither Copernicus#146; astronomical theory nor De Broglie#146;s theory of matter had many other significant grounds of appeal. Federal! . Renaissance Essay! This is government essay, not to suggest that new paradigms triumph ultimately through some mystical aesthetic. On the contrary, very few men desert a tradition for these reasons alone. Often those who do turn out to have been misled. But if a paradigm is ever to triumph it must gain some first supporters, men who will develop it to the point where hardheaded arguments can be produced and multiplied. (p.158) As currently used in philosophy of science . #145;theory#146; connotes a structure far more limited in nature and scope than the one required here.

Until the term can be freed from its current implications, it will avoid confusion to adopt another. Letter! For present purposes I suggest #145;disciplinary matrix#146;: #145;disciplinary#146; because it refers to the common possession of the practitioners of a particular discipline; #145;matrix#146; because it is composed of ordered elements of various sorts, each requiring further specification. (p.182) He then proceeds to define four components of essay, a disciplinary matrix: symbolic generalizations, metaphysical presumptions, values, and essay, exemplars. Symbolic generalizations. (p. 182) One important sort of component I shall label #145;symbolic generalizations#146; like f = m a , or I = V / R , or elements combine in constant proportion by weight, or action equals reaction. This corresponds most closely with what have been traditionally referred to government, as #145;theories#146; or #145;laws#146;. Metaphysical presumptions. Poetry! (p.184) Rewriting the book now I would describe such commitments as beliefs in particular models, and I would expand the category models to include also the relatively heuristic variety: the electric circuit may be regarded as a steady-state hydrodynamic system; the molecules of government essay, a gas behave like tiny elastic billiard balls in random motion. Probably the most deeply held values concern predictions: they should be accurate; quantitative predictions are preferable to renaissance, qualitative ones; whatever the federal margin of permissible error, it should be consistently satisfied in a given field; and so on. There are also, however, values to be used in advertising pro and cons essay judging whole theories: they must, first and foremost, permit puzzle-formulation and solution; where possible they should be simple, self-consistent, and plausible, compatible, that is, with other theories currently deployed. . Other sorts of government, values exist as well-for example, should (or need not) be socially useful-but the preceding should indicate what I have in satisfaction review of literature in car industry mind. (pp.184-85) Turn now to a fourth sort of element in the disciplinary matrix. For it the term #145;paradigm#146; would be entirely appropriate, both philological and autobiographically; this is the component of a group#146;s shared commitments which first led me to the choice of that word. Because the term has assumed a like of its own, however, I shall here substitute #145;exemplar.#146; By it I mean, initially, the concrete problem-solutions that student encounter from the start of their scientific education, whether in laboratories, in government essay examinations, or at the ends of chapters in science texts. Renaissance! . All physicists, for example, begin by learning the same exemplars: problems such as the inclined plane, the conical pendulum, and government essay, Keplerian orbits; instruments such as the renaissance essay vernier, the calorimeter, and the Wheatstone bridge. (pp.186-87) The first three components of a disciplinary matrix are familiar in the philosophical literature.

Kuhn#146;s fourth idea of an exemplar is the most interesting element, especially in light of denial of the traditional presumption that theories and laws determine the empirical content of science. Government! Kuhn#146;s claim is startling at first: (p.188) In the absence of such exemplars, the laws and theories he has previously learned would have little empirical content . Que Sais Je Essayist! How do exemplars determine empirical content? As an example: Galileo found that a ball rolling down an incline acquires just enough velocity to return it to the same vertical height on essay a second incline of review in car industry, any slope, and government, learned to see that experimental situation as like the pendulum with a point-mass for a bob. Huygens then solved the problem of the center of oscillation of a physical pendulum by imagining that the extended body of the latter was composed of advertising cons essay, Galilean point-pendula, the federal bonds between which could be instantaneously released at any point in poetry the swing. . Finally, Daniel Bernoulli discovered how to make the federal flow of water from an orifice resemble Huygens#146; pendulum. . The three problems in the example, all of them exemplars for eighteenth-century mechanicians, deploy only one law of nature. Known as the Principle of vis viva, it was usually stated as: #145;Actual descent equals potential ascent.#146; (pp.190-91) Kuhn denies the charges of ross school essay, subjectivity and irrationality that usually follow close on the heels of such psychological solutions (remember Hume), at least on two counts: (p.191) First, if I am talking at government essay all about intuitions, they are not individual. The sort of ref william faulkner, tacit knowledge, manifested in intuition, which Kuhn appeals to is common to all members of a community. There is no variation within a community. Second they are not in principle unanalyzable.

On the government essay second count, Kuhn suggests that neuropsychology might provide such an renaissance poetry essay analysis, in stark contrast with the rule-based analysis that philosophers have traditionally sought (p.192). Kuhn#146;s suggestion predates the federal government essay current explosion of research into neural networks, parallel distributed computers, or connectionism. A possible objection is that neural states must be subject to customer satisfaction in car industry, laws, and therefore we may properly conceive of it as something we achieve by applying rules and criteria. Kuhn responds, in effect, by drawing the distinction familiar to the philosopher of mind between a merely rule-governed process (which covers everything) and a rule-following procedure, which follows a program or set of rules. Neural processing is rule-governed, but not rule-following: . the fact that the system obeys the same laws . provides no reason to suppose that our neural apparatus is programmed to operate the same way in interpretation as in perception or in either as in the beating of our hearts. What I have been opposing in this book is therefore the government attempt, traditional since Descartes but not before, to analyze perception as an interpretive process, as an unconscious version of poetry, what we do after we have perceived. What makes the integrity of perception worth emphasizing is, of course, that so much past experience is federal government, embodied in the neural apparatus that transforms stimuli to sensations. (p.195) Without providing any answers, it is worth raising some questions. (1) Exactly how much past experience is embodied in the neural apparatus that transforms stimuli to essays ref william faulkner, sensations? (2) Assuming that scientific judgment (or intuition?) is a distinct neuropsychological process that accompanies or follows perception, is essay, judgment an renaissance automatic unconscious process molded by educational experience? Or is judgment a slow, interpretive, rule-following procedure of the classical kind?

In what follows, I will assume that Kuhn wishes to conflate perception (sensation) and judgment, and say the same about both - they are automatic, unconscious, non rule-following, procedures highly adapted to past educational experiences. (p.196) Educational training results in a stock of neurally encoded information that is used to make scientific judgments of essay, various kinds - judgments of the engineer relevance of federal essay, data to theory, judgments of confirmation, judgments of what models to renaissance essay, try next, judgments of simplicity, judgments of family resemblance. This does not fit the federal traditional view of knowledge, but the fact that it is subject to change through the discovery of misfits with the essay environment makes it worthy of the term: But it is federal government, strange usage, for one other characteristic is missing. We have not direct access to what it is we know, no rules or generalizations with which to express this knowledge. Rules which could supply that access would refer to review of literature industry, stimuli not sensations, and stimuli we can know only through elaborate theory. In its absence, the knowledge embedded in federal the stimulus-to-sensation route remains tacit. Renaissance Poetry! (p.196)

. what the participants in a communication breakdown can do is recognize each other as members of different language communities and then become translators. Taking the differences between their own intra and inter-group discourse as itself a subject for study, they can first attempt to discover the terms and government essay, locutions that, used unproblematically within each community, are nevertheless foci of trouble for inter-group discussions. (Locutions that present no such difficulties may be homophonically translated.) Having isolated such areas of difficulty in scientific communication, they can next resort to cover letter, their shared everyday vocabularies in an effort further to elucidate their troubles. Each may, that is, try to discover what the other would see and say when presented with a stimulus to which his won verbal response would be different. If they sufficiently refrain from explaining anomalous behavior as the federal essay consequence of mere error or madness, they may in time become very good predictors of each other#146;s behavior. Each will have learned to translate the other#146;s theory and its consequences into advertising pro and cons, his own language and simultaneously to describe in his language the world to which that theory applies. That is what the historian of science regularly does (or should) when dealing with out-of-date theories . (p.202) Part of what had previously obscured Kuhn#146;s view of the matter was his conflation of #145;persuasion#146; with #145;conversion.#146; In his original essay, Kuhn assumed that the only way that someone could understand the federal essay opposing viewpoint was to be converted to the new paradigm. Such conversion would not facilitate inter-group communication since the converted would no longer debate. But now Kuhn concedes that someone may see the other point of view, and manufacturing letter, even be persuaded by government it, without being converted to the new paradigm (p.204) Though scientific development may resemble that in other fields more closely than has often been supposed, it is school of business essay, also strikingly different. . Consider, for example, the reiterated emphasis, above, on the absence or, as I should now say, on government the relative scarcity of competing schools in ref william the developed sciences. . Or think again about the essay special nature of scientific education, about puzzle-solving as a goal, and about the engineer value system which the scientific group deploys in periods of crisis and decision . (p.209) The implication is that if the scientific community weren#146;t like that, then it would not accumulate problem-solutions. Kuhn reports that (p.207) Some critics claim that I am confusing description with prescription, violating the time-honored philosophical theorem: #145;Is#146; cannot imply #145;ought.#146; By some kind of inference to the best explanation, he thinks his theory is warranted because scientists behave as the government theory says they should . If we include the suppressed premise that scientists behave rationally (so they behave as they ought to behave), then it might be a good argument. Je Essayist! But it seems just all too quick and federal government, easy! For one thing, there is no reason why the same argument can#146;t be used to essays ref william, argue, say, that religious fundamentalists ought to federal essay, read the bible if their goal is to know the truth about evolution, since their methods have been developed and selected for their success, do in fact behave as the theory says they should.

I think that Kuhn would be better of if he denied that his claims are prescriptive, or normative, at all. For example, the implication above is not that scientists ought to aim at the accumulation of problem-solutions, only that if that is their goal, then certain structural features of their community will be causally influential in bringing about this end. There would be no claim that any person or community ought to solve problems. The causal claim would be argued along the same lines as arguments of other causal claims: E.g., switch A controls that light because the cons essay light goes on or off when I flick switch A, but the light does not respond when I flick switch B. Likewise, problem-solutions are achieved by communities of type A, but such achievements are not replicated by essay community B. There is no inference of #145;ought#146; from #145;is#146;; just a causal conclusion being inferred from relevant evidence. Satisfaction Review! The problem is government essay, that Kuhn#146;s causal inferences are unsupported.

As in the light switch example, no clue is given of the causal mechanisms behind those problem-solving achievements. What are the cons essay quite special characteristics of the world that allow for federal government such achievements? As Kuhn stated in of literature industry the closing paragraph of his original essay, such questions like what must the world be like in order for us to know it? are left unanswered.

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litereary essay How to government Write a Literary Exegesis. C ollege-level papers about a piece of literature must have a thesis sentence. Manufacturing Cover? To write the essay thesis sentence, you can take one of two approaches: you can base the thesis on an analysis of literary devices in the piece of literature or you can base the thesis on a theme from the piece of literature. A Literary-Device Thesis Sentence: First, let’s talk about writing a thesis using literary devices. Essays? Literary devices are character, conflict, point of view, symbolism, irony, metaphor, simile, denotation, connotation, etc. Remember two things about using literary devices to write an federal government essay essay: (1) all pieces of literature—fiction, poetry, drama—contain literary devices, and renaissance poetry, (2) the purpose of writing an essay about a literary device is to help the reader understand a theme of the work. Suppose your assignment is to write an essay on the play The Glass Menagerie . Here are some possible thesis sentences using literary devices: 1. 1. Tom is the protagonist of The Glass Menagerie because the self-conflict he experiences—the rage he feels at his entrapment and the pity he feels at government, leaving the others trapped—leads us to understand how the play teaches us that sometimes any decision we make causes pain to those involved. 2. 2. Laura’s glass menagerie is a symbol both her delicate personality and of the fragile world which she shares with her family, both of which are designed to cope with a world that can’t be easily faced and neither of advertising cons essay which can survive long in the real world. 3. 3. Tom’s highly poetic language when he functions as narrator contrasts with his very plain language as a character, pointing up the split between the imaginative world of the mind and the everyday world of the federal essay body that the characters live in but are unable to reconcile.

Your best bet in writing a thesis sentence that depends on a literary device is to mention both literary device and how the literary device illustrates the theme. Theme-Driven Thesis: Your other option is to write a thesis based on the theme of the work, what you think the work means. Generally, this approach will lead you to essays write a cause-effect essay, where you state the theme and then develop the essay by giving the reasons why you think your statement of theme is federal valid. Here are some possible thesis sentences using theme: 1. 1. In The Glass Menagerie , we learn that we can never escape entrapment from looking at the way Amanda is pro and trapped by federal government, the past, Laura by her insecurity, and Tom by critical essays ref william faulkner, his desire for adventure and love for his family. 2. 2. In the play, we see that waiting for government, future events to guarantee happiness is no guarantee because each of the characters receives what she or he waited for, but none are happy with the result. Organization and Outlining.

Whether or not you believe in outlining and in car industry, whether or not you can outline, one clear fact remains: the college essays that receive the best grades look as though they have been outlined. Your thesis sentence will suggest the federal government organization of your paper. Let’s take one of the thesis sentences from the section above to use as our guide: Tom is the protagonist of The Glass Menagerie because the manufacturing engineer letter self-conflict he experiences—the rage he feels at his entrapment and the pity he feels at leaving the others trapped—leads us to understand how the play teaches us that sometimes any decision we make causes pain to federal essay those involved. I. Tom feels unhappiness at his entrapment. A. A. He longs for advertising pro and cons essay, adventure and involvement in the important events of his time. B. Federal Essay? B. He feels anger at the guilt he feels for wanting to leave, focusing that anger on his mother. II. The guilt he feels comes from je essayist, a true sense of pity for his mother and sister who cannot escape. A. A. He feels some pity for Amanda. B. B. He feels even more pity for Laura. C. C. Neither one can escape even though Tom can.

III. Tom’s conflict between these two emotions helps us to federal understand one of the themes of the essay play: that sometimes any decision we make has painful consequences. A. A. Federal Essay? Tom’s staying causes pain for himself and poetry essay, his family because of the bitterness his resentment creates. B. B. Federal Essay? Tom’s decision to critical faulkner leave. 1. 1. probably causes pain for his family for they will most likely not escape and. 2. Essay? 2. definitely causes pain for Tom because of the remorse he feels at having had to leave. When this outline develops into the essay, most likely the writer will have eight body paragraphs. Developing the Essay. In an essay where each section of the paper is developed by several paragraphs, it is important to allow your topic sentences to organize a section of the paper. What follows is a sample of customer in car how you would write the topic sentences for the eight paragraphs of the essay:

Paragraph 1 : Tom feels unhappiness at his entrapment because he longs for adventure and involvement in the important events of his time and de feels anger at federal essay, the guilt he feels for wanting to leave, which he focuses on his mother. Paragraph 2 : His frustration at not being able to follow his dreams easily becomes anger at the guilt he feels for critical essays ref william, wanting to leave, which he focuses on his mother. Paragraph 3 : His constant anger makes it hard to see, but Tom truly is a good man who feels pity for his mother, his sister, and their circumstances. Paragraph 4 : Though we primarily see his pity for Amanda in his insistence as narrator that she be seen with dignity, the pity he feels for Laura seems clear in the gentle and sympathetic way he treats her. Paragraph 5 : Overriding any individual pity he feels for either character is the pity he feels at their entrapment for they, unlike him, have no way out. Paragraph 6 : Tom’s conflict between these two emotions helps us understand one of the federal essay themes of the que sais je essayist play: that sometimes any decision we make has painful consequences, in Tom’s case, staying or going. Tom’s staying causes pain for himself and his family because of the bitterness his resentment creates. Paragraph 7 : Tom’s decision to leave probably causes pain for his family for they will most likely not escape.

Paragraph 8 : This decision to leave definitely causes pain for Tom because of the remorse he feels at having had to leave. Developing the Paragraphs. In the section on outlining above, I only outlined the essay down to the topic sentence. A common mistake that student make in writing literary analysis is essay explaining too little of their logic and thoughts, assuming that the reader knows more about the work that the writer. Yet, when the very same student sits in literature teacher’s class, she expects the teacher to explain the work fully, without assuming that the renaissance student understands much of anything. Federal Government? A good literary analysis needs to explain in critical essays ref william faulkner the same way, using the same sort of logic and examples, that a student would expect a good teacher to use. Let’s take the first topic sentence outlined above: Tom feels unhappiness in federal government essay his entrapment because he longs for adventure and involvement in the important events of his time . Before you even begin looking for evidence to prove your point, it’s important to explain you topic sentence. One way to figure out what needs to be explained in to imagine what question an interested listener would ask you based on your topic sentence. My interested reader would want to know, “Why does his longing to take part in the interesting things going on in the world make him so unhappy?” It’s okay (although unnecessary) to state the question in the paragraph if it helps keep you focused. Then, based on advertising essay your own understanding of the character, without referring to anything specific in the play yet, you simply talk the answer.

Tom feels unhappiness in his entrapment because he longs for government, adventure and involvement in the important events on advertising essay his time.. Why does his longing to federal essay take part in the interesting things going on manufacturing cover letter in the world make him so unhappy? We know that he is federal essay a poet from review in car, what he tells us in federal essay his first speech, and poets typically are sensitive, romantic, and idealistic. The setting of the play, which Tom emphasizes, is during primarily with surviving while Europeans, particularly the Spanish, were involved in idealistic struggles for advertising pro and essay, freedom and federal government essay, human rights. Try to keep in renaissance mind that you are the expert on what you have to say. Paraphrases and Quotations. Having written the topic sentence and explained it, now it is time to find evidence from the play to back up the federal government essay explanation. You can either paraphrase a passage from the work or you can quote directly. If you paraphrase, you tell in your own words something specific from the essay work. Government? For might want to refer to Tom’s father’s departure in a specific way without quoting the manufacturing engineer cover passage directly.

Thus, a paraphrase might be: Like his father before him who was a telephone operator who fell in love with long distances, he also wants to cover long distances in his own life. Government? Though technically paraphrases are a particular incident in a play; it’s much easier to supply a general plot summary, thinking that you are paraphrasing when you are not. You are only paraphrasing if you are taking a specific number of lines out of work and rewording them in your own voice. In addition to paraphrase as example, you can also directly quote from the primary source (the piece of literature you are writing about). There are two kinds of direct quotation: block and run-in. A block quotation is used when you are quoting more than three lines. A block quotation (1) is indented five spaces on the left margin; (2) lacks quotation marks; and (3) places the end punctuation before the parenthetical page citation. You should use block quotations rarely because it you quote a large passage of a work in your paper, you are also obligated to spend adequate time interpreting the passage you quoted. A run-in quotation is critical used when quoting less than three lines. You can quote a piece of a sentence, a full sentence or several short sentences in a run-in quotation.

A run-in quotation (1) in incorporated into federal, the text of your essay; (2) separated from the essay with quotation marks; and (3) places the end punctuation of the sentence after the parenthetical page citation. You can find examples of both kinds of quotation in the following paragraph: Tom feels unhappiness in his entrapment because he longs for adventure and involvement in the important events of his time. Why does his longing to take part in essay the interesting things going on in the world make him so unhappy? We know that he is a poet from what he tells us in his first speech, and poets typically are sensitive, romantic, and idealistic.

The setting of the play, which Tom emphasizes, is during the 1930s when the people of the United States , in the middle of the Depression, concerned themselves primarily with surviving while Europeans, particularly the Spanish, were involved in idealistic struggles for freedom and human rights. Tom compares what’s going on in America with what’s happening in the rest of the world in his first speech to the audience. He characterizes the federal government Depression as a time “when the huge middle class of America was matriculating in a school for the blind. Their eyes had failed them, or they had failed their eyes, and so they were having their fingers pressed forcibly down on the fiery Braille alphabet of a dissolving economy” (957). The language he uses suggests contempt for the ineptitude of the Americans, who were suffering from a mess they had made themselves from their blindness and renaissance essay, who lacked enough awareness to federal realize their own mistakes and were having to be taught, forcibly, and advertising cons, brutally. He says moments later, “In Spain there was revolution.

Here there was only shouting and confusion” (957). “Elsewhere, people who saw undesirable circumstances were working vigorously to change them; here, people were too unfocused and confused to do more than complain. Later on in the government essay play, to the music of “All the World is Waiting for the Sunrise ,” he contrasts once mote the imminent disaster in Europe with the superficial coping devices around him. Commenting on the activities at the Paradise Dance Hall across the alley, Tom notes the couples who sneak out into the alley to in car kiss do so as “compensation for federal, lives that passed like mine, without any change or adventure” (973). Que Sais Je Essayist? Tom sees all the government essay rest of the world “waiting for bombardments” while those around him sedate themselves with “hot swing music and liquor, dance halls, bars, and movies, and sex that hung in 2011 the gloom like a chandelier and flooded the federal government world with grief, deceptive rainbows” (973). His desire to join the Merchant Marines certainly comes strongly from his awareness that changes are taking place in the world that will affect the world for years to come. Like his father before him who was a telephone operator who fell in love with long distances, he also wants to cover long distances in his own life. He wants to review be a part of those changes.

Ironically, of course, leaving doesn’t guarantee escape from government, his entrapment. In his concluding speech, he talks about how on customer of literature can feel trapped even when running free: I didn’t go to the moon, I went much further. I traveled around a great deal. The cities swept out federal essay, me like dead leaves, leaves that were brightly colored but torn away from the renaissance branches. I would have stopped, but I was pursued by something….Oh, Laura, Laura, I tried to leave you behind me, but I am more faithful than I intended to be! (1000) No matter what Tom does, he feels trapped, both by government, his own needs and essay, desires and by his love for his family. Government Essay? The lure of the world becomes empty, like dead leaves, beautiful but unnaturally taken from their branches. Engineer Cover? Ultimately, Tom cannot be happy, no matter what he chooses.

You should supply several direct quotations to support every assertion you make. Every quotation must be introduced, meaning that before you quote you should make clear (1) why you are quoting these lines and (2) in what context in the original work these quotations occurred. Ideally, your essay should make sense to someone intelligent who has not read the primary source. What follows is an example of a paragraph where the federal government quotations are inadequately introduced. Unless you know the poem already, it’s a hard paragraph to follow: In all of these poems, the speakers are self-deceived and deceitful. Shakespeare’s “When my love swears she is made of je essayist truth” shows a couple deceiving each other and themselves.

They know their relationship is based on lies. “I do believe her though I know she lies” (2). He pretends to believe her to insure her cooperation so that he can continue to use her. Essay? She deceives herself and him when the poem says, “That she might think me some untutored youth/Unlearned in advertising essay the world’s false subtleties” (2-3). She pretends he is government essay younger than he really is, so that she can ensure his cooperation. They lie to each other in order to keep the relationship together. They want to believe these lies because it keeps them happy. “Therefore I lie with her and she with me/ And in our faults by lies we flattered be” (13-14). They believe the other one believes their lies and that their lying relationship is a trusting one. “Oh, love’s best habit is in seeming trust” (11). Faulkner? Their love comes from federal essay, deceiving one another. The mistake in this paragraph is engineer letter that the student assumes that the government essay reader is a familiar with the poetry essay poem as the student is. Always, always, always introduce your quotations by essay, giving enough of the context of the work so that the reader does not necessarily have to have read it. Here is the same paragraph with the que sais je essayist quotations introduced more completely:

In all of these poems, the speakers are self-deceived and government essay, deceitful. Shakespeare’s “When my love swears she is made of truth” shows a couple deceiving each other and themselves. They know their relationship is advertising pro and essay based on lies. Government Essay? In the very first line of the poem, the speaker tells us that when his girlfriend swears that she is advertising essay faithful to him, “I do believe her though I know she lies” (2). He pretends to believe her to ensure her cooperation so that he can continue to use her. Government? But he has yet an even more complicated reason for manufacturing cover, believing her lies to him; only government essay, a very young and nave man would believe her story, since it is apparently so transparent, so by claiming to believe her, he presents himself to her as younger than he really is. He believes her lies so “That she might think me some untutored youth/ Unlearned in the world’s false subtleties” (2-3). Cover Letter? She, of course, knows his real age, so she is pretending he is younger than he really is, so that she can ensure his cooperation. Federal Government Essay? They lie to each other in order to keep the relationship together.

They want to believe these lies because it keeps them happy. At the end of the poem, having made clear that the man and the women are both lying to one another and are clearly aware that they are being lied to, the speaker sums up the ultimate reason behind the falsehood: ”Therefore I lie with her and she with me/ And in cons our faults by lies we flattered be” (13-14). Government? Out of individual vanity, they believe the other one believes their lies and that their lying relationship is a trusting one. Manufacturing Engineer Cover? “Oh, love’s best habit is in seeming trust” (11). Their love, as self-serving and questionable as it is, comes from essay, deceiving one another. Notice how the transition words introducing the quotation help place the quotation in the context of the larger poem. Notice also how the last sentence provides an opinion or interpretation of the topic sentence.

All examples must be properly introduced. Miscellaneous Details About Quotation Usage and Paper Writing. 1. 1. Only quote the material that you need to prove your point. You can omit irrelevant parts of the quotation through use of the ellipsis (…). For example, “I didn’t go the que sais moon, I went much further….I traveled around a great deal” (1001).

In fact, if you have several quotes from the same page that fit together and that you want to use to make one point, use ellipsis to connect them and government, use just one parenthetical citation for all of them. 2. 2. If you need to add an explanatory word inside of a quotation, use brackets to enclose your added material. Thompson calls Tom “the prodigal son who shares [his father’s] escapist impulse” (146). 3. 3. Customer Review? If you are quoting lines of essay poetry either from satisfaction of literature in car industry, a poem or from a verse play like Oedipus , as a run-in quotation, you should use a slash with a space on each side (/) to separate the lines from one another: In Julius Caesar , Anthony begins his famous speech: “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; / I came to essay bury Caesar not to praise him.” Verse quotations of critical essays ref william more than three lines should begin on essay a new line. Add no quotation marks that do not appear in the original.

It is in act 2 of essays ref william faulkner As You Like It that Jacques is given the speech that many think contains a glimpse of federal government essay Shakespeare’s conception of customer review in car drama: All the world’s stage. And all the men and women merely players: They have their exits and federal government, their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts,

His acts being seven ages. Jacques then proceeds to enumerate and je essayist, analyze these ages. 4. 4. Federal Government Essay? Always cite page numbers at the end of renaissance poetry prose quotations and line numbers at the end of poetry quotations. 5. 5. Always write in present tense and double space if you type. 6. Essay? 6. Always mention the title and author in the introduction and deal with the theme at least by the conclusion.

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new media resume The New Media Institute (NMI) is a research and fact finding organization whose mission is to improve public understanding of issues surrounding the Internet and other forms new media communications. NMI works directly with the news media, researchers, academics, government and industry professionals and serves as a primary resource of facts, statistics and analysis. By Bailey Socha and essay Barbara Eber-Schmid. New Media is a 21 st Century catchall term used to define all that is related to the internet and critical essays ref william faulkner the interplay between technology, images and sound. In fact, the definition of new media changes daily, and will continue to federal government essay do so.

New media evolves and morphs continuously. What it will be tomorrow is cover letter virtually unpredictable for most of us, but we do know that it will continue to evolve in fast and furious ways. However, in order to understand an federal government, extremely complex and amorphous concept we need a base line. Since Wikipedia has become one of the most popular storehouses of knowledge in manufacturing the new media age, it would be beneficial to begin there: “… a broad term in federal government media studies that emerged in the latter part of the advertising cons 20th century. For example, new media holds out a possibility of on-demand access to content anytime, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content. Another important promise of new media is the democratization of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. What distinguishes new media from traditional media is the digitizing of content into bits. There is also a dynamic aspect of content production which can be done in real time, but these offerings lack standards and have yet to gain traction. Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, is an example, combining Internet accessible digital text, images and video with web-links, creative participation of contributors, interactive feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors and donors for federal essay, the benefit of non-community readers. Facebook is an example of the social media model, in which most users are also participants.

Most technologies described as new media are digital, often having characteristics of being manipulated, networkable, dense, compressible, and interactive. [1] Some examples may be the Internet, websites, computer multimedia, computer games, CD-ROMS, and DVDs. New media does not include television programs, feature films, magazines, books, or paper-based publications – unless they contain technologies that enable digital interactivity.“ As a consequence of the quick embrace of New Media by business, causes, communications, and advertising a multitude of others, the question of “what is new media?” did not receive an official or standardized response. Instead, responses to this question have often entailed a series of hackneyed keywords or empty phrases whose effectiveness is yet to be determined. The question of new media isn’t a question that merely indexes new toys and tools.

Rather, there is a qualitative question that lurks beneath the shining surface of the screen brandishing the images we associate as products or elements of government, New Media. A good question to ask instead of “what is new media?” is “what isn’t new media?” To be sure, there are some definite signposts to guide the twenty-first century user’s query. The term “new media” seems to escape its very definition. Loosely, new media is je essayist a way of government, organizing a cloud of technology, skills, and processes that change so quickly that it is impossible to fully define just what those tools and processes are. Ref William Faulkner? For example, the federal essay cell phone in letter the late 1980’s could be thought of as part of new media, while today the term might only apply selectively to a certain type of phone with a given system of applications, or even more commonly, the federal government essay content of those apps. Part of the difficulty in defining New Media is that there is an cons essay, elusive quality to the idea of “new.” The very prospect of government, being new denotes an event just beyond the horizon, something that has only just arrived and which we are just beginning to get our hands on. Perhaps in searching for a suitable characterization for this network of tools and ideas is the idea of que sais, limitless possibility. Limitless possibility for communication, for innovation, and education is certainly a fundamental element that shapes our conceptions of essay, new media usage from renaissance, now on. Nevertheless, in seeking a definition of “New Media” we need some basic tenets that can help us get a better positive understanding of what New Media is beyond what New Media isn’t. New media can be characterized by the variegated use of images, words, and sounds.

These networks of images, sounds, and text data are different from old media formats such as hardcopy newspapers because of the nesting characteristic . Nesting is a way of organizing of the presentation of information according to subjects while paying secondary attention to federal government context. In the place of context, nesting (most commonly seen in text or image hyper-linking) is a format that fosters organization in a way in cons essay which elements interact with one another instead of simply following a straight order. This new organization of data does not require a “back story” and each interactive element of information stands alone. New media requires a non-linear interpretation, since many sources are often oriented around the same subject-center, but are not always collated. At the end of the day all this means is federal that one of the primary characteristics of school essay, new media is that it is freed from the linear restrictions of older formats such as newspapers, books, and magazines. Perhaps this conception of new media is only part of the whole picture and the skeletal outlines of a much more profound discussion. We recognize that many online interfaces enrich university and office experiences, making nested and comprehensible write-ups, drop-boxes, and support-based chat centers. The first thing that anyone using “new media” in the twenty first century realizes is that the technology and federal capability for innovation does not necessarily determine its usefulness or it’s potential. Je Essayist? Of course, that all rests on the shoulders of the user, or does it?

New media has had a profound effect on three of the federal most essential categories of society in critical essays the twenty-first century: economics politics, and the exchange of ideas. Of course, the scope of this article is limited in its ability to name the types of changes that are a product of government essay, new media, let alone a sufficient treatment of manufacturing, each category. However, it is essay important to sketch a brief schematic life of new media in the Information Age. Economically, new media is the globe’s commercial skeleton. Renaissance Poetry? Fiber optic wiring networks between the world’s cities connect one to another to another…. Not only does this simple fact make global finance and trade a physical reality, since data networks between firms and investors are universally accessible, but it also impacts the federal government possibilities and school conceptions of so-called “old commercial” enterprises while giving rise to new ones. Every time a customer goes online to shop for that rare book title, or that overstocked iPod, or even the digital camera from a large retail store available down the block, new media is on both sides of that transaction. New media is not only the product but helps to mould the process of electronic commerce.

This means that manufacturing and federal essay production are largely focused on making the hardware that supports new media, while “softer” enterprises like news agencies, programmers, and pro and cons artists adapt their crafts to the flows of the electronic current. If it seems abstract, that’s because it is. New media processes and communications add another dimension to the business and consumers’ practices we were already use to. Perhaps the most interesting part of government essay, new media has to renaissance poetry essay do with the restructuring of federal, research, global economics, social interaction, and the currents of writing and dissemination of que sais, all information that have accompanied its emergence. Web and blog-writing in particular are not particularly revolutionary or ground-breaking because it changes the way people use language or construct basic sentences. It is ground breaking because it allows people to structure and nest information into documents differently. Essay? In today’s average web/blog post, news articles, op-eds etc. are not only entries in mixed media (photos, writing, video) format, but they are organized according to hyperlink organization.

Hyperlink organization is one of the definitive features of new media, and its implications run deep as well as wide. . Nesting, which is frequently in cons essay the form of government, hyperlinking, requires extensive interpretation and research. This organization is beneficial since old media representation often asserts an artificial context into an article or media piece in order to provide continuity. In nested new media, hyperlinking fosters the ultimate citation resource-apparatus. Essay? In traditional reporting found in a print newspaper, scholarly research article, or encyclopedia, information and references are contained within the body of the text. There are certain citations and allusions, but for government essay, the most part, the sweeping or narrow nature of the text depends on the structural organization of the piece as well as the reader’s contextual understanding of a given subject. It is well known that data organization differs greatly in twenty-first century new media. Renaissance? Take for government essay, instance, the single most influential tool in casual research and data-storage: Wikipedia . It is engineer cover virtually impossible to search an government essay, article that is published on Wikipedia without coming across a hyperlink to another page of data; in fact, it is satisfaction of literature more accurate to say that it’s difficult to come across an entry with fewer than ten hyperlinks. In addition to essay the classical mode of citing sources at the end of a document with trusted texts and data, Wikipedia exemplifies a style of je essayist, information technology that is based on the interconnectedness of ideas and events.

Here it is federal government essay important to note one way that “new media” may not actually be all that new: During the French Enlightenment, the authors of the famed Encyclopedie created a system of footnotes that referred to certain other entries. The subtle structure of such an organization underlies a profoundly partisan representation of facts and images. The same is largely true in hyperlink writing. While the content that is mentioned and presented within an article may be empirically accurate, it is important to note that the selection of sources and outside connections may still be highly subjective. This quality makes research a more shaded and que sais je essayist complex enterprise and sometimes even enriches the reader’s understanding of a given issue. [i] We need to note that new media is also characterized by an astonishing and uncharted level of personal experience/exposure.

Online companies and essay sites can track the content of personal emails and site visits in order to target advertisements on users’ sidebars and preferences. There are websites whose sole purpose is to compile and share personal data with web surfers. One example is Speokeo.com , a website that uses publically cached information (phone numbers, family members, emails, addresses, even shopping trends) and shares them, albeit sparingly without a membership, to all those who wish to search. Concerns over privacy in new media are legitimate: the customer review biggest concern is government essay whether or not to be concerned. Perhaps in the fog of critical essays ref william, shared and linked information across social sites, business networking, as well as email messages and publically recorded data, personal privacy for those who work with new media technology may be a thing of the government essay foggy and distant twentieth century. In reality, there is one all important caveat: Don’t write or reveal anything on line that you wouldn’t want the world to ross school of business 2011 know! There is government essay indeed something about new media that is defined by its capability to manufacturing engineer cover letter reach outside of stagnant information pools. Perhaps the term new media is more apt to federal describe the network of networks that overwrites traditional relationships in exchange for new ones.

In many ways, traditional media outlets now rely on new media sources for data and information. One recent article from the French newspaper Le Monde charted the evolution of political blogs across Europe in order to assess emerging trends and advertising pro and opinions in the region. What this signals is twofold: not only does new media enable the average person to engage in political, cultural, social, and economic action, but it also suggests that old-style reporting and data outlets are secondary and not primary sources for many. New media is an enabler and the new primary source. The exchange of ideas and images are is of primary importance in considering the federal government potential for new media. Not only are political horizons widened but so too are artistic and educational ones. Today, there is manufacturing a tremendous ability for individual users who write, paint, report, educate, etc. to make connections to one another in a way that might allow them to circumvent the conventions of institutional and closed opportunities. One thing is very clear: New Media is experiencing the government growing pains of “the Wild West.” New Media itself is essay neutral new technology evolving all the time. Federal Essay? It is of business 2011 up to the user as to whether it is government good or bad.

Conclusion: rhetorical questions of potential. So much of what defines new media is subtle, unrestricted, and not standardized. But is that good or bad? Just what determines the information and renaissance communication traffic across mobile phones, fiber optic wires, and essay online encyclopedias? Where is new media really going, and are we, as users, constructing the destination or are we blindingly falling into its clutches through necessities and ross school 2011 paradigms? Perhaps the potential of new media is a function of its intermediate development and our social, political, and economic transition within and outside of it.

Either way, it remains to be seen whether or not it really is up to us to define the digital frontier. Regardless, new media and new media communications is continually evolving and as a result, its definitions evolves as well. [i] “Governance, Organization, and Democracy on the Internet: The Iron Law and the Evolution of federal government essay, Wikipedia” Piotr Konieczny, Sociological Forum . Vol. 24, No. 1 (Mar., 2009), pp.

162-192.

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10 Resume Mistakes That Make You Look Old. Federal. By Emily Brandon, Staff Writer | July 17, 2017, at 10:10 a.m. You want to avoid using an out-of-date resume format. Renaissance Essay. (Getty Images) It is essay often difficult for older job seekers to get interviews. Advertising Pro And Cons Essay. A recent study by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco that sent out fictitious resumes to job postings found that older applicants received the essay fewest interview requests. Once it's clear that you are an critical, older worker, you are less likely to get callbacks, says Patrick Button, an assistant professor of economics at Tulane University and co-author of the report. Here's how your resume is federal essay giving away your age. Your high school or college graduation years.

Potential employers can infer your age from the year you graduated from high school or college. If you list your high school graduation year, they can get within a couple of cover years of your age, says David Neumark, an economics professor at the University of California, Irvine, and co-author of the report. It's not clear you should hide your age, but it's not crazy, either. A long work history. You may want to downplay or leave off roles you held in the 1970s or 80s.

The last eight to 10 years of experience are considered the most relevant on federal your resume, says Dana Leavy-Detrick, the founder of Brooklyn Resume Studio. While you may not want to cut earlier roles off altogether, consider how you can condense earlier – and potentially less relevant – experience to customer review in car industry keep the bulk of the focus on your current skills and contributions. The Most Important Ages for Retirement Planning. The Most Important Ages for Retirement Planning: Age 50. Government. The Most Important Ages for Retirement Planning: Age 59 ? The Most Important Ages for Retirement Planning: Age 65. The Most Important Ages for Retirement Planning: Age 66. The Most Important Ages for Retirement Planning: Age 70 ? However, if you worked for a high-profile employer or earned a prestigious award several decades ago, it might be worth finding a way to include it.

You can get creative in manufacturing engineer letter how you present earlier experience without using the traditional chronological approach, Leavy-Detrick says. Create an 'additional experience' section that omits the dates, but still lists employers and job titles, or include a footnote in federal government the 'experience' section that highlights your earlier roles in a much more condensed way. Failing to emphasize computer skills. Older workers are often perceived as being uncomfortable using technology. Take care to refute this stereotype. I recommend including as many technical and computer skills as possible, and social media skills if they might be part of the essay 2011 job, says Janet Raiffa, a career advisor and former corporate recruiter who shares resume advice at resumemama.com . But don't take this too far by writing that you know how to use a web browser or word processing software, which goes without saying in government essay many fields. No social media presence. Critical Faulkner. An interested hiring manager might type your name into a search engine or want to see a personal website. He or she will probably check out your social media profiles on LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter or other sites. Build out a solid LinkedIn profile, customize your profile URL so that it includes your name instead of all characters and include that on federal your resume, Leavy-Detrick says. Critical Ref William. Having a polished digital presence really complements the resume and shows that you put serious thought into your personal brand.

Listing two phone numbers. Federal Essay. There was a time when many professionals had two or more phone numbers, including a cellphone and a landline. But many younger people now get by with only a cellphone. Having two phone numbers can be seen as aging since millennials tend not to have landlines, Raiffa says. Younger job seekers generally only have one. An old fashioned e-mail address. Your email address might be saying something about your age.

AOL addresses suggest being beyond 40 or 50 [years old], so I recommend using a Gmail address, Raiffa says. How to advertising pro and essay Cope With Student Loan Debt in Retirement. Boomers must carefully balance helping children pay for essay, college with their own retirement needs. Using an cons essay, out-of-date format. Resume formats go in and out of style. Having an objective statement and 'references upon request' were common resume features in the past, but both should no longer be included, Raiffa says. Your objective is to get the job you're applying for, and any verbiage about the government types of job you want should be saved for the cover letter.

Mailing a paper resume. Your resume is advertising pro and cons probably going to be viewed on a computer screen and needs to look good in federal government that format. Avoid using antiquated visual elements, such as page borders, drop shadows or tired font styles, Leavy-Detrick says. Go for a polished, clean look that uses thoughtful design decisions and appropriate layout that's designed for screen reading. Not including personal interests. Some employers want to get a sense of who you are outside of work, and letter you can provide some clues by listing a few hobbies or volunteer work. I also suggest adding interests that convey vitality or youthfulness, such as marathoning, fitness, hiking, skiing, Tough Mudder, weightlifting or kickboxing, Raiffa says. Using the same resume for every job.

Employers increasingly want to see a resume that conveys skills relevant to the open position. Candidates often want to keep options open by creating a general resume they believe will resonate with varied audiences. Federal. When doing so, however, they do not realize they are alienating each audience by not being able to include the keyword relevance needed to essay 2011 get through both the automated and human screeners, says Samantha Nolan, a resume and essay job search advice columnist and que sais je essayist owner of Ladybug Design . The more on-point you are at marketing your candidacy and government essay relevant skills and experiences to your target audiences, the of business 2011 more traction your resume will receive. Many people continue to work after age 65, but they often prefer a part-time role. Some retirees work in low-wage jobs, likely because they need the money or appreciate some other aspect of the federal essay job, such as schedule flexibility. Highly educated older people also tend to work past age 65, often in lucrative roles.

Here are the eight most commonly held jobs among people age 65 and que sais older, according to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Many people who make it into a management position stay there during the traditional retirement years. Some 9.4 percent of essay people who work at age 65 or older have management positions. Interestingly, nearly a third of renaissance poetry these older managers work part time, compared to only 6.3 percent of managers who work part time between ages 45 and 65. Federal Government Essay. Sales jobs are popular among retirees, with 9.8 percent of older workers choosing to work in ref william this field. Part-time work is the norm, and 45 percent of government essay older sales employees work less than 35 hours per week. It may also be possible to customer industry work seasonally, with many companies adding extra jobs during the holidays and other peak times of year. Transportation and essay material-moving jobs can help people who enjoy driving to earn some extra money, and 5.7 percent of people age 65 and older work in customer satisfaction in car this field.

Whether you drive a truck, bus or provide rides through a newer service such as Lyft, the transportation field is known to provide accommodating hours and government schedules. Education, training and library jobs are popular among retirees, and 5.2 percent of people age 65 and renaissance older work in this field. These jobs often allow retirees to work part time (42 percent) and federal government essay can be a great fit for renaissance, people who love books and government learning new things. Business and financial operations. Older workers are sometimes allowed to essay gradually cut back their hours to part time at their banking, finance and accounting jobs. Some 3.9 percent of workers age 65 and older maintain a position in a financial firm, and about a third work in a part-time role. Government. Some retired accountants are able to que sais work seasonally by picking up work during tax season and taking the rest of the year off. Doctors, nurses and other specialists in the health care industry play a major role in helping to keep people well. Some 4.3 percent of employees age 65 and older continue to work in health care jobs. Some roles (39 percent) allow for part-time or flexible schedules.

If you spent your career in an office, you can probably successfully navigate online calendars and spreadsheets. Many retirees continue on in office and administrative support jobs (9.9 percent). Over a third (38 percent) of these office jobs are part time. Food preparation and serving is the government most common job for older workers, and ross school 25.3 percent of employees age 65 and older work in government this field. Almost half (47 percent) of these food service jobs are part time. The Best Places to Retire in 2018. These retirement spots provide a high quality of poetry life at an affordable price. 10 Essential Considerations for Deciding Where to Move in federal Retirement. Critical Ref William Faulkner. You will need to federal government essay form a clear vision for your retirement lifestyle and do some research.

What if Your 10-Year-Old Started Saving for Retirement? Here#39;s how much $40 a month could earn in review in car industry 50 years. How Cuenca Became One of the World’s Biggest Expat Retiree Havens. This charming colonial city continues to grow in essay popularity. 9 Benefits of Decluttering Your Home Before You Die. Retirement is a great time to critical essays finally go through everything you#39;ve accumulated over the years. 5 Affordable Housing Options for federal government essay, Seniors.

Consider these living arrangements that will reduce your housing expenses in retirement. 5 Tips for Rolling Over Your MyRA. Ross School. Here’s how to federal government avoid taxes and renaissance essay fees when closing your myRA. Loja is Ecuador’s Hidden Gem for federal essay, Retirement. This clean and pleasant city has far fewer tourists than Cuenca. How to Save Money After Retirement.

Reducing your monthly costs will make your retirement savings last longer. 3 Seniors Who Are Making Money in the Gig Economy. Here are three seniors who, thanks to the gig economy, are making money on their own terms.

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Example Executive Resumes Other Career Marketing Documents. This client had achieved the pinnacle of success in a niche of the financial services industry and had grown somewhat bored and ready for a new challenge. With new corporate leadership in place, he felt the winds of change coming and government essay, wanted to leave on his own terms and at the top of his game. Whether this was advisable or not was irrelevant by customer satisfaction review, the time he came to me, as he had already resigned his position. His goal was to find a position that would challenge him, and was particularly enthusiastic about the prospect of building another niche player into a market leader. The bold red and blue color scheme matched this client’s bold personality. Essay. The charts and graphs helped emphasize his proven potential as a mastermind for renaissance poetry essay, business growth. This client also had uncommon, value-add experience in government essay, the public sector and maintained a strong professional network of former colleagues and contacts in Washington D.C. Considering that he worked within a highly regulated industry, he had leveraged this experience in his prior positions and we wanted to call attention to it in his resume even though it was from critical quite some time ago. We decided to federal essay, include it but leave it undated.

IT and Telecommunications Solutions Executive Resume. The client had three possible goals with this resume. Renaissance Poetry. For more than 12 years as an federal government essay expert in IT and telecom solutions for hospitals and healthcare organizations, he had earned a comfortable living through his own independent consulting firm. However, he was concerned that the industry was changing and that he may need to adapt his approach in order to continue to prosper in his specialty. Que Sais. He felt there were three possible paths:

1) Use the resume in his efforts to build more business for his own consulting firm. 2) Seek out federal partnership opportunities with another small consulting firm that offered complementary services. 3) Be employed by a larger consulting firm and cover letter, given charge of a practice area. It is difficult to government essay, handle three targets in a single resume, but as many of the same results and benefits would appeal to all of these audiences, I believed there were enough similarities that we could create a single resume. The first page provides an overview and summary of the client’s skills and qualifications, along with some of the big-picture benefits he produces for critical ref william faulkner, clients.

The rest of the essay, resume showcases some of the more recent and customer of literature industry, significant projects he has worked on, in CAR format. The accomplishment boxes highlight the key quantifiable facts from each engagement. The client’s earlier experience was included to illustrate the breadth of his skills, which are applicable to industries other than healthcare, although the client had chosen to pursue expertise in government, that narrow niche. Chief Medical Officer - Executive-level Medical Resume. This client was an extremely well educated, non-practicing MD and expert in global clinical RD within the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. He came to me with an extremely lengthy and detailed CV that he had been trying to use in the corporate world, with little success. It took some extensive consulting with the essays ref william, client to federal government essay, get him to think about his work in terms of results and benefits—especially results or benefits that we could quantify. He simply wasn’t used to thinking about his work in satisfaction review, these terms and this was further complicated by federal government essay, the fact that it truly was difficult to poetry, quantify many of his accomplishments. Paring his extensive credentials and the technical details of his work down to just three pages was another challenge.

The resulting resume was well worth it. Government Essay. The structure, formatting, and design of the entire resume was created to succinctly convey his many technical qualifications and make them as easy-to-read as possible at just a glance. Essays Faulkner. The highlights and federal government essay, big-picture impact of his contributions at satisfaction review industry each company are set apart in federal essay, an eye-catching box. Notable highlights for each are called out in a bulleted box. I created an addendum for details of critical ref william his many additional credentials, and I instructed the federal essay, client to je essayist, bring this with him as a leave-behind for interviews. Conservative design elements and coloring used in federal essay, the resume help make it eye-appealing, but appropriate and acceptable to the target industry. This client was challenged with how to renaissance essay, write her resume because she was worried that her experience with multiple start-ups (many that were not successful due to government essay, no fault of her own) reflected poorly on school essay her. She also struggled with how to communicate her many accomplishments despite the failed startups. Clearly we solved all her problems with this powerful and highly effective resume. She was also in a field in which a CV was sometimes requested, but not often. To prepare her for anything, we created this modular resume that included two addendums that she could include or not, as was appropriate.

This accomplished client was ready for federal government, his next challenge and loved working in start-ups, early-stage growth companies, and turnarounds. Manufacturing. This resume helped him accomplish his goals in record time. Within weeks of launching his search, he had accepted a job offer as the CTO of a growing company. Notice the technique used at the end. We didn't want to date the government essay, resume further back than we did, but he had some early-career accomplishments that he wanted to pro and essay, convey. Federal Essay. The other experience section allowed us to do that without dating the resume too far back. What do you see that is unusual about this resume? We had reasons not to want to make the dates on this resume too obvious, and yet experience that dated back further than 20 years was still relevant. Rather than listing the dates in a really obvious place, they are within the text of the resume. This may not work in some industries, but given the que sais, intended audience for government essay, this resume, it was a highly effective technique.

Entrepreneur Returning to essays ref william, the Corporate World in a Senior Sales Management Role - Sales Manager Resume. Tammy Lawson was on track for a very successful sales management career when she decided to leave the world of traditional employment to federal government, purchase and manage a franchise organization that was in distress and essay 2011, required turnaround. She was hugely successful in this endeavor and had built the company revenue more than $10 million over federal essay the past decade. She had just sold the company a few months before when she came to me for a resume. While she had enjoyed the challenge of being her own boss, she yearned to go back to her sales management career, which was her passion. However, she wasn’t sure how to present this in a resume, as her most recent experience made her appear overqualified and drew attention away from her more relevant sales management experience. Her “ideal” job would include some aspect of sales training and mentoring as well, as this was something she loved doing and really excelled at, although none of her previous job titles reflected it. The solution was a resume that was very strategically written to que sais je essayist, focus on her most relevant sales qualifications and to deemphasize the fact that she had been the owner and top executive of the franchise company.

While we were meticulously honest in our description of her most recent experience, we were quite selective about what we included and which aspects of her achievements we chose to focus on in order to emphasize the aspects most likely to be relevant in her next position. A variety of graphics, charts, and graphs called attention to government, her most impressive accomplishments and areas of qualification. Tammy’s training-related accomplishments are sprinkled throughout the resume. Dr. Renaissance Essay. James Agard was a European-trained MD and U.S.-trained MBA with a long history of essay accomplishment as a practicing anesthesiologist. While he was still a practicing physician, his career had taken a turn into executive management and he wanted to continue this, hoping to land a CEO role. Poetry Essay. He offered a very distinctive value proposition: the essay, proven ability to transform medical operations into a unified, seamless, high-quality, and ross of business essay, cost-optimized “value-based” sustainable system founded on government common purpose, vision, and teamwork. In the progressive leadership positions he had held over the most recent decade, he made great headway in this regard. We used a variety of charts, graphs, and callouts to illustrate this very distinguishing value proposition throughout the resume. Review In Car Industry. In particular, we illustrated Dr.

Agard’s results in essay, decreasing costs while simultaneously increasing quality of patient care, caseloads, and overall revenue. When Dr. Agard came to me, it was with a very detailed medical CV which included a very confusing chronology of his experience, since many of his positions have been simultaneous. I rewrote his resume into a traditional executive format that showcased his stories of challenge-action-result-strategic impact success, particularly as they related back to his value proposition. The emphasis throughout is on advertising pro and cons his leadership and management competencies, though his clinical highlights and government, medical credentials add essential credibility and are highlighted in critical essays faulkner, his summary profile. The color scheme of muted greens, browns, and golds create immediate eye appeal and are consistent with Dr. Agard’s conservative personality. Manufacturing Industry CEO Resume. Terrence came to federal, me as a seasoned CEO, to have me prepare his first resume ever. He had a really incredible story for review of literature in car industry, why his career had progressed as rapidly as it had (engineer to plant GM almost overnight). As a young engineering professional, he was on federal essay a business trip and ended up talking with the man sitting next to him on the plane.

That man was the owner of que sais a company that was troubled and losing money. They had a lengthy discussion in which Terrence offered a number of suggestions about how he would correct the problems and turn the business around. Government Essay. A couple of weeks later, the company owner called and recruited Terrence to serve as GM of one of the most troubled plants. The hitch: he would receive NO salary until he turned it around. He quickly produced positive results and was later promoted to advertising pro and cons, president of the entire company, and then recruited to the CEO role he was in when he came to me. Federal. This story was touched on in the resume by noting that he had been personally recruited by the owner, but I used it more extensively in of business, the letters and biography that I also prepared for him. An excerpt from federal government one of those letters: Do you want to be safe and poetry, good, or do you want to take a chance and be great?

I hadn’t heard this quote, attributed to Jimmy Johnson, 20-plus years ago when I took my chance. But it is a chance I will always be grateful I took, as it changed my life forever. Driving profitable business growth, improvement, and sustainable change. Those are the themes that have been present throughout my career, but my opportunities to really have an impact skyrocketed two decades ago, when by federal government essay, chance or fate I happened to strike up a conversation with the man sitting next to customer review of literature in car, me on an airplane. At the time I was a young professional, not long out of college and beginning to government essay, establish myself in an engineering career. Letter. The man I was talking with turned to be the owner of federal essay a company, and after lengthy discussions regarding business philosophy he offered me a job with the challenge to turnaround a failing manufacturing plant. The catch? There would be zero pay until the plant was profitable. As risky as it might have seemed, I had faith in my potential, and somewhere I found the courage to take the chance…

Terrence’s personal brand and value proposition was all about driving growth and customer satisfaction of literature in car, results through the creation of a cohesive company culture of “We.” We showcased this in his profile section, and I called out a quote from him that I had jotted in my notes during my consultation with him. The quote was perfect, because it emphasized his focus on federal government essay producing results through teamwork, but also because it emphasized his philosophy of life and leadership which had been shaped by his early experiences. Again, we further drew this out in the other documents I prepared for him. Terrence had lots of successes and results. Essay. The Executive Performance Snapshots call immediate attention to the overriding story of success and his strategic impact in federal, each position while complementing his brand. Rather than letting the critical ref william, reader get lost in a sea of bullets, I used a graphic element on each page to illustrate some of his quantified achievements in a format that was quick and easy to scan. Federal Essay. The color scheme was selected to essays faulkner, give the resume an understated elegance while adding the essay, visual appeal that would ensure his resume stood out. Insurance Reinsurance Industry Executive.

Sales Engineering Executive Resume. Vice-President, Global Finance Manager Resume. Brianna was an interesting corporate finance executive. She didn’t have particularly strong mathematical or quantitative skills. Instead, for her it was all about understanding the underlying meaning of the numbers and how that meaning could be used to drive business strategy. Pro And Cons Essay. As I interviewed her, her passion for federal government, this really shone through and she got really excited describing to me how the C-suite executives would come to her and she would help them understand the pro and cons essay, numbers and essay, help them create strategy from them.

Without a doubt, this was the key to her personal brand and unique value proposition and we emphasized it throughout her resume. The resume was slightly challenging in that Brianna had worked for the same, well-known company for many years. This company had a strong public brand, but behind the scenes had really been struggling since the advertising pro and, economic crash about two years after Brianna had been hired. She had a really hard time communicating the specifics of her contributions to me and she said just the fact that the company was still alive indicated that. Federal Government Essay. But now there were some serious efforts underway to sell the company, and as a whole it had never really bounced back from the downfall. After a lengthy conversation I was finally able to distill a number of specific achievements that balanced all of her contributions in regards to cuts, streamlining, and manufacturing, RIFs with a few stories of federal government essay growth from when she was first hired and from some specific parts of the business that did grow. The result was a really strong resume that clearly positions Brianna as a high-level strategic and finance advisor to the C-suite, but also as someone who is also able to produce results no matter what the situation: business growth or streamlining. Je Essayist. The graphic used on essay the second page, with the plus and minus sign, complements this theme. Information Technology Executive Resume - U.S.

Expatriate. Carol was an interesting client in that just out of college, 18 years before, she picked up roots and moved internationally, never looking back as her career took off. Fast forward to the present and she was the mother of two school-aged children and cover letter, really wanted to return to the U.S. We intentionally made her U.S. citizenship and desire for a return to the U.S. very, very clear in government, the header of her resume. Industry. But, we were concerned that even understanding her citizenship, potential employers might view her complete break from the government, U.S. negatively, so I wrote the text of her resume to really emphasize how she was recruited and promoted aggressively over the years, as a way to explain why she had stayed in Ireland for so long. This was also a major theme of the satisfaction review of literature in car industry, cover letters I wrote for her, as you can see from this excerpt: Some people swear that timing is everything. Others insist that successful people make their own luck. As a 20-something who picked up roots and federal essay, relocated internationally, I wasn’t really thinking about either at the time.

Today, more than 18 years into an ever-progressing and always successful career, I am a true testament to both. Coming out of college with an M.B.A. and a computer science degree from one of the most prestigious universities in the world, just as the advertising essay, dot.com era was being born in 1996, there could hardly have been a better place in the world for me to be than Europe. After all, as I’m sure you know, Ireland is well known as a world-class hub for high tech innovation and startups. As a talented, ambitious, creative, and pioneering system and software architect, designer, and developer I was aggressively recruited to work on a number of innovative and start-up technology initiatives and products. Government. Recognized very early on for my leadership, I was sought out for team leadership roles in the first year of pro and my career, a trend that has continued and accelerated since. Carol’s original resume was extremely detailed and technically focused. I rewrote it to emphasize her leadership and management credentials and potential. Her major strengths included her unusually strong ability to clearly and deeply understand the issues at hand, cut through the clutter, and focus on the pivotal points most critical to government, success, creatively overcoming any obstacles on the path. These strengths drove her key value proposition: the proven ability to steer world-class product development organizations to increased competitive advantage and stronger sales, profits, and shareholder gains by leveraging innovation and school of business essay 2011, maximizing quality and performance.

This value proposition is clearly conveyed in her resume profile and also through the stories of success and achievements throughout her resume. The graphical and design elements in the resume gave her resume immediate visual appeal, but also provided us a way to convey the key results and contributions she had made. With a goal of highlighting the content of her resume rather than drawing the eye away to design elements alone, we chose a muted color scheme that clearly let her impressive achievements shine through. Senior Sales Manager Resume - Industry Career Change. Jack Asher is an extraordinarily accomplished and ambitious sales management executive with a BOLD and engaging personality—the type of person who has a presence that “fills” up a room when he walks into it. His leadership style was equally. bold and highly effective, as evidenced by the outstanding results he had produced consistently throughout his career. He had been in the insurance industry since the start of his career. Jack’s goal was to federal, transfer his extraordinary sales management experience into poetry essay, a new industry. Including the names of government his employers, which clearly indicated they were insurance. companies, was unavoidable, but we were careful to essay, strip the resume of any other industry-specific language that would.

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The. representative accomplishments section on the first page gave us a place to showcase Jack’s most impressive, career-wide accomplishments. For almost her entire career this client had worked for the same hotel and resort company, which if presented incorrectly could make her career look stagnant. As she was hoping this resume would help her make the transition to the CFO level, it was important to show that while her experience was all in one company, it was still progressive. The client was also concerned that her SVP job title wasn’t reflective of her potential and she really wanted to emphasize that she had worn many hats in a growing company, as well as the acting-CFO for a number of months.

In order to really showcase the concepts of growth and progression, the resume content and design was strategically developed to highlight the satisfaction, exponential growth of the company during the time this client was working for government essay, them, as well as her eight promotions through the years. Cover. The charts on the front page, with the government essay, eye-catching upward pointing arrows, really emphasize the business growth, while the customer satisfaction of literature in car, red-shaded accomplishment boxes in federal government, the body of the resume emphasize the client’s progression as well as the depth, diversity, and significance of her most prominent accomplishments. The client hoped to remain in the hospitality/hotel industry or a related industry, so her relevant expertise in these was promoted in the text. Her passion and unique value proposition was all about building connections and ref william, teamwork to drive results, and this is really called out in the profile section with the included quotes. International Executive - CEO / COO Resume. This client was a multicultural, multilingual American expat who had spent his entire career working in essay, the Middle East. He was very accomplished and prided himself on que sais je essayist creating ethical and government, transparent organizations that produced outstanding results and helped propel companies to the next level of success.

He had progressed quickly in his career and was leading at ross school of business the very highest level in government essay, his company, but without the critical faulkner, title to essay, go along with it. He hoped to move his career to the next level, but was worried that his job title didn’t convey his level of experience. We quickly addressed this in the job description, justifying his targeting of manufacturing cover letter CEO roles. The rest of the resume is very results-focused and his contributions are highlighted using a variety of design, graphical, and charting techniques. Federal Essay. We chose a very conservative color scheme that the cons, client thought would appeal to federal, the audience he was targeting. We anticipated two primary audiences for the resume: 1) American companies doing business in the Middle East and 2) Middle Eastern companies doing business in the U.S. Ross Of Business. So as not to confuse the reader, we thought it was best to specify in the resume which currency we are referring to when we give monetary figures.

North American Controller Vice President - Finance Resume. Lucy was concerned that she had spent nearly a decade with a company that had been in rapid growth mode when she first joined them, but then quickly went into decline, beginning in 2008, along with the federal government, economy. She was worried that the company’s revenue decline would reflect back negatively on her capabilities. A second concern was that she had resigned from her last company with plans to start an manufacturing cover independent consulting firm. Federal. While she completed a few small assignments, she did not enjoy the cover, sales and marketing aspect of running her own firm, and jumped at the chance to federal government essay, go back to traditional employment.

Unfortunately, this left a not very flattering time period in her employment history. In consultation with the client, it became clear that while her current employer’s revenues had declined (an aspect of the company she had zero control over), her contributions in reorganizing and manufacturing engineer, streamlining the company so that it remained vital and federal, positioned for future growth when the economy rebounded, were absolutely essential. Without her financial leadership, the company may have failed completely during these years. Instead, by ref william faulkner, the time we were preparing this resume, the situation was looking much more optimistic for essay, the company and they were entertaining several options to restart growth once again. The client’s very real contribution in all of this was her transformation of the que sais je essayist, financial function from just an accounting arm of the company into a strategic business partner, a value proposition that we showcased throughout the resume. Care was also taken to balance the content with growth-focused language and achievements, to illustrate that Lucy’s value proposition was just as relevant and essay, beneficial when a company was in growth mode. This helped to prevent her from being pigeon-holed as a leader for downsizing initiatives. Lucy was not able to provide any significant accomplishment stories from her consulting years.

So, rather than take page space and attention away from the letter, more relevant experiences, we chose to describe the consulting briefly at federal government the end of the critical ref william, resume. To minimize the possible immediate impression of a gap in the resume, the employment dates were strategically placed next to job titles where they were not as visually obvious. When you invest in my Executive Resume Writing Career Marketing VIP services it is at NO RISK whatsoever, because if you follow through with the project and are not fully 100% satisfied with the quality of the services and federal, deliverables that I provide, within one week of manufacturing receiving the proof documents you can destroy the electronic copies of the proof files, return any other products or materials sent to you, and can request and receive a full 100% refund. Executive Resumes - Traditional Grayscale Coloring. Chief Investment Officer / Senior Fund Manager - Investment Banking Resume. President / CEO / General Manager - Senior Manager Resume.

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Investment Banking Analyst Resume Samples. Headline : Experienced, driven finance professional with 3 years in investment banking, providing Merger and Acquisition advisory services to government essay, middle market technology firms. Strong analytical and financial modeling skills developed from creating robust financial models to support even the most complex businesses in the technology sector. Skills : MS Office , SP Capital IQ , Thomson Reuters , Bloomberg , @Risk. Summary : Technology-focused investment banker providing strategic MA advisory and capital raising solutions to firms in the middle corridor.

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Create valuation models for different financial assets across corporate capital structures including debt, preferred equity, common equity, warrants, options and other securities.