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Art Sales Custom Framing Business Plan. Hart Fraeme Gallery is a fine art gallery and courseworl, full-service custom frame shop. The cornerstone of Hart Fraeme Gallery's business is high-quality custom framing. The company is unique in its field in that it offers same-day and 11-day custom framing, in contrast to the industry-standard 21-day lead time. Hart Fraeme Gallery is founded on francis, a dedication to offer the courseworl Triopolis metro area the most innovative, trend-setting designs and a finished product of impeccable quality at unmatched speeds. Hart Fraeme Gallery is an how to make thesis for a research paper, S-Corporation that is owned and operated by Hart Fraeme, who has several years of courseworl, experience operating another art gallery and custom frame shop.

The knowledge, expertise, and contacts that Mr. Fraeme has accumulated during this time have led him to found Hart Fraeme Gallery. Presently, the company does not have a retail location, although plans are in place to acquire a location in the Uptown Mall by September of blog jobs, 2005. This location is attractive due to the relative lack of nearby frame shops, as well as the courseworl area demographics, which mirror those of Hart Fraeme Gallery's target customer. As mentioned above, Hart Fraeme Gallery's primary focus will be on custom framing, which is expected to generate roughly 75% of monthly income. Although the company will also offer artwork for sale, this is done mostly as a service to its customers, and will typically account for no more than 25% of monthly sales. Nevertheless, artwork is necessary as a tool to model and sell custom framing options, which are many. The business will offer a selection of nearly 500 mouldings and make research, more than a thousand unique matboards. In addition, Hart Fraeme Gallery will offer a large variety of courseworl, decorative mat cuts, design styles, and display options. Vs Evil Essay Introduction. The demand for artwork and custom framing is strong: 42% of consumers report that they are likely to make an art or framing purchase in the upcoming year. Additionally, industry analyses predict a 4-6% growth in custom framing sales for 2006.

Given this, Hart Fraeme Gallery is confident that it can enter and courseworl, establish itself in the market successfully. Financial projections are positive, and the company expects to generate healthy sustainable income and gross margin over the next three years. Hart Fraeme Gallery has four major goals. The first two are related to establishing a market presence at the outset, while the third and fourth are ongoing goals. Open a retail location in the Triopolis metropolitan area.

Specifically, the company plans to enter into a lease agreement with the Uptown Mall, to lease a retail space of 1,500 – 2,500 square feet, with a stockroom / workshop area of at good vs evil, least 750 square feet. Courseworl. Establish consumer awareness of essay on being, both product and company through marketing. This can be accomplished by advertising weekly in local newspapers, including Pioneer Press and Star Tribune for four weeks prior to and two weeks following the grand opening, and then on alternate weeks thereafter for three months, advertising more or less as results suggest. Additionally, the company will create a website detailing products and services, which will include an online shopping cart for Web purchases. Lead the industry in completion time, with an 11-day time frame for project completion on courseworl, most orders and same-day framing with selected materials. To do this, it will be necessary to purchase the how to make research requisite framing equipment, and to keep it on-site, along with a selection of stock materials for same-day projects. It is courseworl, also necessary to establish business relationships with leaders in the materials industry such as Roma Moulding and francis bacon's essays, Mouldique, and to maintain weekly ordering and delivery schedules with such vendors. Focus primarily on courseworl, custom framing, emphasizing leading-edge and high-end design. To do this, the anaesthesist company will monitor changing design and decor trends.

Particularly, staff must follow such trends; therefore, the courseworl company will subscribe to several trade magazines, such as Picture Framing Magazine , Decor , and Art Business News . Hart Fraeme Gallery is founded on a dedication to offer the Triopolis the most innovative, trend-setting designs and a finished product of impeccable quality at unmatched speeds. To this end, the company takes pride in three things: Eye-catching, unique frame designs, stemming from a strong knowledge and continuing study of both current and novel, traditional decorating styles and design trends. Courseworl. The highest quality craftsmanship and an ongoing commitment to excellence. Dedication to work and constant drive to exceed the industry-standard three-week time frame for thesis statement paper, product completion. Hart Fraeme Gallery has four key factors that are integral to success: Quality Craftsmanship - Because picture framing is courseworl, aesthetic in nature, the finished product must be of impeccable quality.

Innovation and Creativity - Custom framing implies uniqueness, and blog writing, the customer expects a one-of-a-kind product individually tailored to his preferences. Courseworl. Fast, Professional Service - In a business where the established lead time is three weeks, eleven days is a refreshing change of pace. Additionally, in today's society, same-day framing is in demand. Embracing Technology - The computer has become an essential time-saver for all businesses, including art and framing, and computerized equipment is fast becoming a necessity for the modern framer. We recommend using LivePlan as the easiest way to create graphs for your own business plan. Your business plan can look as polished and professional as this sample plan. It's fast and essay, easy, with LivePlan. Courseworl. Business planning has never been easier.

With 500 complete sample plans, easy financials, and thesis novel, access anywhere, LivePlan turns your great idea into a great plan for success. You can download this complete sample plan as a text document for FREE. Courseworl. Bplans is owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to essay on being help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software. All Rights Reserved | We're Hiring! Try the courseworl #1 business planning software risk-free for 60 days. No contract, no risk.

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LEARN HOW TO WRITE A SONG: a step-by-step guide. This easy-to-use guide will show you how to courseworl write a song, from finding a great title to novel writing your melody. Hands-on songwriting exercises will jump start your creativity, while ‘how-to’ video tutorials are a fun way to courseworl find out essay on being blind, more. What comes first, melody or lyrics? How does an idea become a whole song? How do you know if your song is any good? Well, I’ll answer the courseworl first two questions in this article. The third question – How do you know if your song is good? – is answered like this: If a song genuinely expresses your feelings, then it’s a good song. It doesn’t matter what anyone else thinks.

If a song expresses your feelings AND touches other people, moves them emotionally, or gets them on the dance floor – that’s a good song with the potential to become a HIT. So, how do you write a song that moves other people and makes them want to francis bacon's essays themes listen? Well, that’s where song craft comes in. ? What is courseworl, song craft and why do I need it. Good songwriters use song craft to give their songs emotional impact and create a memorable experience for listeners. The tools and techniques of essay on being blind our craft are not arbitrary; they weren’t invented just to courseworl drive us crazy or make us write copy-cat songs without depth or originality. On Being! They exist because, over hundreds of years, songwriters have found that they help listeners to understand, experience, and courseworl remember the message at the heart of anaesthesist a song. The simple, time-tested ideas on this page will help you create a song that expresses your feelings and moves listeners, keeping them involved and interested in what you have to courseworl say.

Like any skill, though, song craft takes a little practice, so be sure to try the blog writing jobs “Go Ahead and Do It!” exercises that follow each step. ? How does a song get started? (Good question!) Getting started can be one of the courseworl hardest tasks in songwriting. And it’s also one of the most important because if you start well, you’ll have a lot less trouble later on. You’ll know where you’re going and francis essays you’ll have plenty of things to courseworl say. There’s always the temptation to jump right in anaesthesist and begin with the first thing that occurs to courseworl you. Thesis Analysis Novel! You know you want to write a song – lyrics with a melody and some chords – but you may only courseworl have a vague idea or a feeling about what you want to express. When that happens you could end up with a song that listeners can’t understand or relate to. So which comes first – lyrics, melody, or chords? My answer is: None of the above.

There are a lot of ways to thesis novel start a song and you could start with one of those, but I’m going to courseworl suggest that you start with THE TITLE. The title is going to be the line that everyone remembers. Thesis! More important, it’s going to courseworl define the message of the song. It will be your guide, keeping your song on track and keeping listeners interested. Think of how to thesis statement research your title as the peak of a pyramid. The rest of the song is made up of the building blocks that support it. Start your song with a title that appeals to you. Make sure it’s a phrase that rings true in your ears. Something that makes you say, “I’ve got to know more about that!” Because if YOU want to know, others will want to know.

TIP: Short phrases make good titles because they grab attention and courseworl they’re easy to remember. The ideal length for a title is one to five words. Where to essay on being blind find good titles. Keep your eyes and ears open for good titles that have energy for you. Action words, images, or short phrases make good titles. Attention-grabbing newspaper headlines are full of good titles. Here are a few examples of courseworl titles I picked up by francis bacon's essays themes reading through a popular magazine: “A Dream On The Edge,” “Hiding in courseworl the Shadows,” “What You Can’t Change,” “Slipping Away.” When you watch television always keep a little corner of francis your mind alert for dialogue lines that capture your attention. Listen to your friends and family to courseworl see if you can pick out interesting phrases.

Or turn inside and listen to yourself by doing some stream-of-consciousness writing. Write or type as fast as you can, trying not to think or make judgments, then go back and novel look for good phrases. Start keeping a list of these potential titles. GO AHEAD DO IT – Start your title list right now. Pick up a book or magazine, or scan for interesting short phrases. Write down at courseworl, least three phrases. Mix and match words between phrases, substitute your own words, play around with ideas. Try to anaesthesist come up with at least one phrase that makes you want to write a song. Keep looking for more phrases until you have something you like.

Draw a big circle around that phrase. Then keep reading. ? Turn a title into a lyric. Courseworl! Here’s how. Now, let’s begin to turn your title into a great lyric by make for a research simply asking a few questions – the questions suggested by your title. If you use these questions as a guide when writing your lyric, you’ll be able to… Finish every song you start Keep listeners with you Make your song say what you want. Ask the questions hidden in your title. Every title suggests questions that need to be answered.

Some of the courseworl questions will be ones that you want to explore, others will be questions that listeners have. You’ll need to answer both. Let me give you a few examples… Take a classic song title like “Heartbreak Hotel.” Some of the questions this title suggests are: What is a ‘heartbreak hotel’? What happens there?

Where is it? Sure enough, these questions are all answered in anaesthesist this great Rock standard. What is a ‘heartbreak hotel’? A place to go when your baby leaves you. What happens there? Brokenhearted lovers cry.

Where is it? Down at the end of Lonely Street. A title like Taylor Swift’s “I Knew You Were Trouble” suggests questions like “Who was trouble?” “What kind of courseworl trouble?” and ‘How did things turn out?” If these questions aren’t answered in the song, listeners will go away disappointed. Here’s the lyric. Take a look to see how these questions were answered. In a big Country hit like “You’re Gonna Miss This” recorded by writing jobs Trace Adkins, listeners will be asking “What is it we’re going to miss?” and “Why will we miss it?” Check out the lyric. You might be surprised by the answer! That’s the sign of a great song. It draws the listener in with questions, then answers them in a fresh way. Of course, you’ll also have questions you want to write about.

Exploring our own feelings and experiences is a big part of what drives us to write songs. So, here are a few questions you might want to answer. What does your title mean? How do you feel about that? Why do you think that happened? What do you hope or fear will happen next? If you’d like to hear a lyric example, listen to “Be With You,” a song I wrote with singer-songwriter Ed Patrick. The lyric answers questions suggested by courseworl the title, questions like: Why is the singer saying this? What’s happening?

Who is involved? What is the singer feeling? Why is it important to him? A simple title like this one can suggest a lot of different emotions and francis themes situations. Ed and courseworl I wrote about the feelings we wanted to express, but another songwriter could go in an entirely different direction with the how to make for a research paper same title. You can choose the questions you want to answer and courseworl the way you want to answer them. GO AHEAD DO IT – Go back and look at the title you circled in the previous exercise. What questions does it suggest to you? What would you like to say about good essay it? Make a list of questions you’d like to answer. Then add any questions you think listeners might have.

Answer your questions in short phrases, eight to ten words will convert easily into lyric lines. Write more than you think you’ll need; you won’t use all of it. Remember, it’s just raw material. Explore the courseworl possibilities. Don’t worry about rhyming, just say what you want to say. That’s the best place to start.

? Add images related words to bring your song to blog jobs life. Just like a potter has clay and a painter has tubes of paint, the songwriter has images, action words, and fresh ideas. These are your raw materials. You’re going to create that raw material yourself by using the words, phrases, and images suggested by your song title. Make a list of words and images the title suggests. Let’s say your song title is “You Make Me Smile.” To create raw material based on courseworl this title, think of thesis analysis novel words and images associated with smiling. We can start with obvious ones like “happy,” “sunny,” “bright,” and “fun.” These are words you can use in your lyric, but they’re a little bit abstract. Let’s see if we can come up with words that will actually create an upbeat feeling for listeners and courseworl really make them feel like smiling. Take the words “happy” and “fun,” for instance.

What are a few things that are fun, things that make people smile? Parties, dancing, weekends, and vacations. The sound of laughter and music. Blind! Favorite foods and a day at the park with friends. A trip to the beach, a night on courseworl the town. Bacon's! Bright lights and crowds and carnival rides. These are just rough ideas. Try not to judge whether they’re good or not at courseworl, this stage. Just write down everything that comes to you. You won’t use all of francis bacon's it, but you never know what might end up in your song. Now, let’s try the word “sunny.” Obviously that word makes me think of sunshine, which makes me think of summer and being outdoors, which makes me think of courseworl grass, trees, and analysis novel flowers.

Flowers make me think of colors – gold, red, purple – and bees buzzing around. So now we have a whole bunch of words that evoke mental images – bees, flowers, sunshine, parties, dancing, colors! They all have to courseworl do with smiling and anaesthesist feeling good. And they all came from starting with one or two words, and then letting them suggest more. To hear how these words are used in a hit song, here’s part of the chorus lyric of “Smile” by Uncle Kracker. Notice how many words are similar to courseworl the ones we came up with. You make me dance like fool.

Forget how to blog breathe. Just the thought of you can drive me wild. Oh, you make me smile. Now the listener is able to picture how the singer is feeling instead of just having to take his word for it. This is courseworl, one of the essays most important tools a songwriter has. Check out “Smile” by Uncle Kracker on Spotify, read the courseworl lyrics online, or watch the video to hear even more fun images and thesis ideas based on smiling. BONUS TIP: After you have a list of courseworl related words, make a list of contrasting words and images, ones that suggest the opposite. For example, I wrote a song called “California Girl.” Obviously the writing related words will include summer, sun, warm, waves, water, sand, feeling free – a kind of or paradise. Contrasting words will be winter, moon, cold, fire (contrasting with water), and feeling caught or trapped (the opposite of feeling free).

If you’d like to hear how I turned these lists of related and contrasting words into a lyric, watch the video of my song “California Girl” or listen and courseworl read the lyrics here. GO AHEAD DO IT – Make a list of words, images, and phrases related to your title. Thesis Analysis! Write down single words or short phrases. Don’t think about rhyming or making sense of things at courseworl, this point. And try not to be critical of your ideas – just write down what comes to how to thesis statement for a research paper you. Then, make a list of contrasting words, images, and courseworl phrases.

Write as many words as you can think of in each column. Let one idea suggest another and follow the trail wherever it takes you. This is a great exercise for stretching your creativity. ? Why is song structure such a big deal? Now is a good time to get familiar with one very important aspect of songwriting: Song Structure. An easy-to-follow structure acts like a path leading your listener through your song from writing, beginning to end. The most common contemporary hit song structure looks something like this: VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Listeners like this song form because it provides enough repetition to feel familiar and enough variety to keep them interested. It also gives you, the songwriter, the chance to courseworl add emotional dynamics to your song. Many of today’s hit songs feature a conversational, low-key verse followed by a big, powerhouse chorus with plenty of emotional punch. Once you get familiar with this basic song structure, there are plenty of add-ons and variations to play with.

Some songs have a pre-chorus or extra post-chorus hook. But try using this one to get started. It’s been the foundation of many huge hits and many more to come. Here are some useful definitions for anaesthesist, understanding song structure: – Verse: The verses in a song all have the same melody but different lyrics. The verse lyrics give us information about the courseworl situation, emotions, or people in writing jobs the song.

– Chorus: We may hear the chorus of a song three, four or more times. Courseworl! The lyric and melody remain the good vs evil introduction same each time it recurs.The chorus lyric sums up the courseworl heart of the blind song. The title of the song almost always appears in the chorus section and may be repeated two or more times. – Bridge: The bridge has a different melody, lyrics, and chord progression from the courseworl verse or chorus. It provides a break from the repetition of verse and chorus. Thesis Analysis! The lyric often provides an insight or revealing moment. GO AHEAD DO IT. Use the courseworl song form VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Go back to the list of questions you made earlier and choose a question to answer in each section. The chorus will be repeated several times so pick the most important question to good vs evil essay introduction answer there.

Often, that question is “What does this feel like?” Be sure to use your title in courseworl your chorus! Fill in how to make thesis for a paper the lines around your title using some of the images from your list. Courseworl! Make sure your listeners understand your song by essay on being having the singer come right out and say what he or she really feels at least once in the chorus. When you have a rough idea of courseworl your chorus lyric, move on blog writing jobs to a verse. Verse lyrics tend to be more conversational, so keep it simple and just answer the question you picked in courseworl an open, honest way. ? Look for the melody that lives in your lyrics. Every time you open your mouth to speak, you start singing! Don’t believe me? Just try speaking without using any changes in pitch, without speaking faster or slower, louder or softer.

You can’t do it! You end up sounding like a robot. Bacon's Essays Themes! Although we usually think of singing as something quite different from talking, we actually use a lot of melody when we talk. When we talk we use pitch, volume, phrasing, and rhythm – all the elements of a song melody. The only courseworl difference is in a song these elements are exaggerated and there’s more repetition. So if you have a few lyric lines, all you need to do is speak them to get a raw melody started. It’s the melody part of speech that communicates emotion. In fact, just by changing the melody you can give the same words an entirely different emotional meaning. Try this: say the phrase “Oh, no?” as if you are asking a simple question.

Now, say the same phrase — “Oh no!” — as if you are anxious and frightened. Notice the blog difference in the melody? In the question, the melody goes up at courseworl, the end. Thesis Statement For A Research Paper! In the courseworl frightened version, the pitch starts higher and then the melody moves downward. Exaggerate the make thesis research paper emotion in courseworl the second phrase and you’ll really hear it.

Now try saying “Oh no” with a sarcastic, disbelieving, ‘you’ve got to be kidding’ tone. It’s an anaesthesist entirely different melody from the courseworl other two. You can use this melodic element of speech to give your songs added emotional impact. If you’ve got a lyric that asks a question, try a rising motion on the end of the melody , just as if you were really asking a question. Blog! Or, if your lyric questions are the kind that don’t really want an answer, try a descending melody on the end of the phrase. You’ll make the meaning clear and sound natural and believable to your listeners. GO AHEAD DO IT – To achieve the conversational tone of many of today’s verses, try speaking your verse lyric in courseworl a casual, conversational style, then exaggerate it a little to begin creating your verse melody. Keep the pauses that occur naturally and exaggerate the little ups and make thesis for a downs in your speaking voice. You’ll want to make changes later but, for now, this will give you a good place to courseworl start. Remember, this is your raw material, not the finished melody.

Choruses often have more energy and thesis analysis novel urgency, conveying more of the song’s emotional heart. Courseworl! As we saw with the anaesthesist “Oh, no!” phrase, the more emotion there is, the courseworl higher the voice tends to be. That’s why very emotional Pop and Rock choruses work well in a higher note range. Anaesthesist! Speak the chorus lyric with as much emotion as you can put into it. Now, exaggerate the pitches, keeping the rhythm of the words and any pauses that occur naturally. Courseworl! This will get you started on your chorus. Once you’ve found the melody your lyric naturally suggests, then sit down with your guitar or keyboard and start roughing out the chords. I like to record my vocal ideas before I even start to add chords, that way I can recall the original “spoken word” melody in blog writing case I want to go back to it. Of course, there are other ways to write a song melody but this one will give you a great place to start. Writing both lyrics and courseworl melody. If you play guitar or keyboard and you’re going to on being blind be writing your own melody and chords.

Skip down to the next section for courseworl, some ideas on how to blog find and use chord progressions that work well for today’s songs. Work on courseworl the melody and chords using the verse and chorus lyric you have, gradually smoothing and changing until you have something you like. Anaesthesist! Then write the rest of the lyric to the final melody. If you’re going to be looking for a collaborator to courseworl put music to your lyrics, then you should go ahead and finish the jobs lyric now. Filling in courseworl the rest of the lyric while sustaining the vs evil emotional tone of what you’ve done is courseworl, a tough job but if you’ve gotten this far, you can do the blog writing jobs rest. IMPORTANT TIP ON RHYMING: Don’t twist words out of order or write a line just to make something rhyme!

A ‘vowel rhyme’ — rhymes like love/enough or mine/time/sigh with the same vowel sound but different final consonants — will work just fine for popular songs. (Songs for musical theater are different – they usually do require perfect rhymes.) Check out courseworl, a web site like Rhymedesk.com or B-rhymes.com to find lists of anaesthesist interesting, closely rhyming words to use. Know when to take a break. Work on your lyric for short periods of time. If you’re not getting anything usable, walk away… literally. Take a walk and courseworl let things settle for awhile.

Keep the lyrics you’ve written on a desk or table where you can easily add a word or thought when it strikes you. Jobs! Keep the hit song melody in your head. The most important thing (and the most difficult) is to keep the emotional integrity of the song intact. Don’t settle for anything less. There are times when you’ll lose your way. Stop working! Go away and come back when you’re fresh. You’ll be able to see what needs to be fixed. Keep working on the lyric until you are genuinely moved and excited by it. Many songwriters begin their songs by courseworl strumming a chord or playing two or three chords to good vs evil essay inspire a mood, a melody idea, or a lyric theme.

Today’s hit songs often use simple, repetitive chord progressions, relying on the melody to keep things interesting, melodies with a lot of forward momentum and unexpected twists. To hear this style, check out hit songs by artists like Ed Sheeran, OneRepublic, or Kelly Clarkson. You don’t have to reinvent the wheel. There are loads of courseworl useful chord progressions that depend on make paper just three to four basic chords. While song melodies and lyrics are copyrighted, in courseworl general, these familiar chord progressions are not. Francis Bacon's Essays Themes! C-Am-F-G belongs to everyone! You can use this type of generic chord progression in your own songs.

I’m going to suggest that, for now, you do just that. These progressions aren’t hard to pick up. Listen to a recent hit song and learn to play along on either guitar or keyboards. There are many YouTube videos that will show you how to courseworl play recent hits. There are also “fake books” with chords and websites with the chord progressions for hundreds of hit songs. Just do a quick web search using the essay on being song title and the word “chords.”

If you decide to courseworl use one of these chord progressions to practice writing a song of your own, just be sure you don’t use any of the thesis melody or lyric from the hit song. These are protected by the copyright law. If you already have an courseworl idea for your melody, you can hunt for the chords that fit. If you don’t play piano or guitar, take a few lessons. There are ‘instant’ piano and guitar courses you can buy online that will teach you to read and play chords. Check out my Resources page for a good one. Francis Bacon's Essays! Or you can take a few lessons from a local music teacher. Courseworl! Many music stores offer lessons. Your local community center or college may have classes. Or ask friends and neighbors to refer a teacher. Essay Introduction! If you decide to take lessons, be sure to tell the teacher you want to courseworl learn to novel read and play CHORDS.

You don’t need to learn note reading. In general, songwriters don’t have to be great musicians. We know chords, we know song craft, we know how to follow our emotions – none of courseworl this has anything to do with how many dazzling riffs and licks you can play. Just strum or chord along with your voice and keep the emotional feel front and center. Here’s a resource for those of you who don’t play an instrument – and even those who do! Karaoke tracks offer an instant backing track that can inspire ideas and get you singing your lyrics to a contemporary beat. Vs Evil! Go ahead and write a song for friends and family or just for songwriting practice. The track itself is courseworl, copyrighted but generally the chords are not.

If you want to pitch your song commercially, you’ll need to record a new instrumental track. How To Make Statement Paper! You can keep the chords or adapt if needed. Many of courseworl today’s top TV dramas and films use songs to add mood, energy, and atmosphere to scenes. A lyric with a single, strong emotional focus is writing jobs, ideal for this use. If you’re interested in this market, begin to study how songs are used in commercials, TV shows, and films. Courseworl! Notice how they enhance and deepen the effect of the blog writing scene. As an exercise, choose a scene and try writing a song that would work with it. Courseworl! Record your vocal and a simple guitar or piano part, then play it softly under the scene to see if it increases the emotional impact. For more information, read my book “Shortcuts to Songwriting for Film TV” available at Amazon.com. So let’s say you have this fabulous lyric. It’s got emotion and good song craft but you don’t play guitar or keyboards.

Maybe writing melodies just isn’t your strength. Or you’re a musician who doesn’t write lyrics. Time to look for a co-writer! Before you show your lyric or melody to a co-writer, before you enter it in a contest, or otherwise spread it around, it’s a good idea to copyright it with the U.S. Library of essay Congress.

You’ll find online registration forms, printable forms, FAQ, and instructions at the Copyright Office web site. Courseworl! There’s a fee for each form you file, but you can register groups of lyrics or songs on a single form to save money. Back to francis bacon's the hunt for collaborators… Idea #1: Check out the Collaboration Corner at courseworl, TAXI.com. You don’t have to how to statement research be a TAXI member to join in the forum discussions and courseworl meet collaborators. Thesis For A! Not only are these folks serious about writing songs, most of them are actively pitching to TAXI’s opportunities – a BIG plus! Idea #2: Universities and community colleges in courseworl your area will have a music department.

Talk to blind one of the teachers or post a sign on a bulletin board letting people know you’re looking for co-writers and what style you write in. Also, check to see if there is a campus club or group interested in music or songwriting. Idea #3: Check out clubs in your area that feature local artists. When you find an artist or band playing the kind of music you’re interested in, ask if they’re willing to co-write. When they tell you they write all their own songs, tell them you’d like to collaborate on songs to courseworl pitch to vs evil introduction publishers for other artists. They’ll be interested. Idea #4: Check out local music stores. They usually have a guitar or piano teacher or they can put you in courseworl touch with one. The teacher might be interested in writing with you or may know a student who is looking for blog, a collaborator.

Once you’ve written a strong song with a memorable melody, emotionally evocative lyric, and courseworl good structure that keeps the listener’s attention, you’ll want to make a demo to show it off. Advances in recording technology have revolutionized home recording. It’s now relatively easy and affordable to blog writing jobs put together a home demo studio. Although a course in courseworl home recording is beyond the scope of this article, here are a couple of ways to get started… HOME MIDI STUDIOS: There are many inexpensive software programs that include both MIDI sequencers (for use with MIDI keyboards) and audio recording capability (to record vocals and guitar). Anaesthesist! Acid Music Studio is an inexpensive sequencer and it comes with a huge library of loops that make assembling a track a breeze. For Mac users there’s Garageband for MAC . It’s included in courseworl the iLife software package.

You’ll need a MIDI keyboard for blog jobs, use with both of these programs. Apple has one for under $100. Courseworl! Yamaha makes a good inexpensive keyboard. SONGWRITING SOFTWARE: There’s a unique software program called Band-In-A-Box that I like a lot! BIAB is like having a song collaborator who never tells you your ideas are lousy. It will create a chord progression or you can type one in or play one on good vs evil essay a MIDI keyboard. It will create a drum, bass, piano, guitar, and string arrangement based on your chords.

BIAB will even create a melody and a title! It’s inexpensive, fun, creative, and a great place to start a song from scratch! To find out more, visit my Resources page. There are versions for both PC (BIAB for Windows) and Mac (BIAB for courseworl, Mac) . DEMO SERVICES: There are many good recording studios and demo services that can produce all or part of your demo. They can record the instrumental tracks so you can do your vocal at home, or they can give provide just the guitar or drums. You’ll have a chance to give input or talk with the producer ahead of time. I suggest giving the service an idea of what you want by playing existing songs with a similar style, sound, or feel.

Here’s a list of how to for a paper services and courseworl online musicians I’ve used. Of course, all I have given you here is a doorway into songwriting. Essay On Being Blind! There are other ways to courseworl approach songwriting but they’re just other doors. Once you go through the analysis door, that’s when you really begin to learn. Everything you need to know is right there on the radio, in your CD collection or on courseworl your iPod. Study songs by your favorite artists to good vs evil essay introduction learn what they’re doing. Here’s a list of courseworl hit songs that I’ve posted with a look at what makes them tick. You’ll find tips on how to use these ideas in songs of your own. You don’t need to reinvent the wheel every time you write a song. Stand on the shoulders of giants; use what others have discovered and how to make build on it. Make it your own!

Don’t worry that you’ll end up sounding like someone else – you’ll always sound just like you . No one else has your creative ideas, your voice, your thoughts, or your talents!

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How to Make an Acting Resume With No Experience. Putting together an actor resume is probably the first and easiest thing an aspiring actor should do. Courseworl. But here#8217;s the conundrum: how do you make an how to thesis research paper, acting resume with no experience ? If you#8217;re in this position, don#8217;t sweat it. It#8217;s not a big deal. Really, it#8217;s not. I remember myself having this exact same thought when I was just embarking on the acting journey. In reality, almost every single actor has been in a position of having an empty actor resume.

We#8217;ve all started out courseworl acting with no credits. As a newcomer, you#8217;ll have to get comfortable with the idea that you#8217;re a fresh face on anaesthesist the block, you won#8217;t be signed by any top talent agencies in courseworl, Los Angeles (yet) and blind you#8217;ll have to work with what you have. Below, I will quickly walk you through what an courseworl, actor resume is, what purpose does it serve, what resume you need for voice over jobs, the standards for an acting resume in Los Angeles, and the best way to good introduction go about courseworl writing your actor resume when you have no experience to list. Before we begin, would you like a sample standard LA acting resume that you can edit with your own details? Share some social love and you can download an editable PDF.

Let#8217;s start at the beginning. After reading through this acting resume guide, if you have any questions, drop your comments here and I will try to bacon's essays themes answer them the best I can. What#8217;s an courseworl, acting resume, and blind why do you need one? I#8217;m sure everybody knows what a CV (curriculum vitae) is. It#8217;s that piece of paper that people use to show to their potential employers.

Surprise surprise, an actor#8217;s resume is the exact same thing that you use when they#8217;re looking to book acting auditions in LA. It serves the same purpose, and is even structured similarly. Courseworl. Alongside your headshot, an acting resume is one of the most important actor#8217;s marketing tools that every aspiring thespian needs to have. Anaesthesist. It#8217;s your calling card. You will list all of courseworl your acting experience, education, acting training and special skills that you have alongside your contact information, and a few physical stats. Look to the right. This is what a Los Angeles based working actor#8217;s resume looks like. I removed the name and vs evil essay contact info. When you submit for courseworl an acting job, a CD will receive your full actor#8217;s package: actor resume, headshot and, if you have it, your demo reel. The CD will look at blind your headshot first (!) and if you look the part, they will turn it over to see your acting resume on courseworl the other side. They#8217;ll scan through your physical stats, your credits and, sometimes, your special skills if that applies.

Say your resume looks professional, your look fits the thesis analysis novel part, and the CD is happy with your experience and credits. In this case, you#8217;re going to get a call about an audition. Congratulations! You just got your first audition. Now back to the real world#8230; Even if you have not done any acting work whatsoever, you can still put together an actor resume with no experience, and send it over to CDs with confidence . Despite your worst delusional fears (we#8217;ve all be there, trust me), nobody#8217;s going to think of you poorly if you have little or no acting experience. CDs understand that every actor has to start somewhere, thus you may get by on your looks, physical stats, training and/or special skills alone. Most importantly, don#8217;t get discouraged if you don#8217;t. Courseworl. Simply move onto the next project.

Bottom Line : An acting resume is what every actor needs to put together as soon as they#8217;ve decide to enter show business. It#8217;s their calling card. Analysis Novel. Basics of a professional actor resume. Even though you have no credits under your belt yet, you still want to keep your actor resume looking clean and professional. Here are some basics to go by courseworl, when structuring an acting CV: An acting resume is ALWAYS only how to make for a, one sheet of paper. No exceptions. It must have enough white space to courseworl be read easily (hey, you#8217;re perfect for it!) It should be sized to fit a 8?10 headshot so that you can staple it to the back. Use standard fonts such as Arial or Times New Roman.

Do not cram the resume with too many things. Statement Research. Keep it simple and relevant. Do not use any colors. It#8217;s just black and white, plus headings for sections. Never lie on your resume. Courseworl. You#8217;ll be surprised how quickly that gets out. #8220; DON’T lie on your resume. How To Statement Paper. Actors do this all the time and they always get caught. If you claim to have booked a guest star role on “NCIS,” it stands to courseworl reason you would have footage from the thesis analysis novel show on your reel. If you don’t, I’m going to ask why. And that’s where the lie will start to fall apart. #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com.

These are the primary #8220;rules#8221; for courseworl a professional looking acting resume. Follow them and you#8217;ll be alright. Blog Writing. If you download the sample acting resume above , you#8217;ll notice that it#8217;s slightly different from the courseworl resume in the picture, but the difference is irrelevant. In fact, most casting directors prefer the simplicity because it#8217;s easier to read and remember. What matters the anaesthesist most in an acting resume is the courseworl basic information that#8217;s easy to thesis novel see: personal details at the top, followed by credits and then training. You can choose either format, just keep it clean and easy to read. Courseworl. And now for the acting resume format technicalities. I suggest you opening that resume sample from above so that you understand better what#8217;s what. Bottom Line : Your acting resume should look clean, professional, adapted for quick reading, and with the most recent and blog most relevant credits.

Your personal information . Courseworl. As you can see in the acting resume template I#8217;ve linked to above, and the provided Los Angeles actor resume example, we#8217;re supposed to blog jobs start with some personal details. For the purpose of courseworl this article, let#8217;s assume that you#8217;re a non-union actor with no talent agent representation, which is most likely the case anyway. Actor#8217;s name . This is where your stage name (not your legal name) goes. Simple. Union title.

If you#8217;re not affiliated with any actor#8217;s union, then skip this part. Phone number . Blog Writing Jobs. Always use the number by which you can be reached any time. Physical stats . Self-explanatory. NEVER put your age or date of birth on the resume. After the courseworl basic personal information, we#8217;re moving onto the credits and what acting experience you have. Your acting experience. Normally, this is where you would list all your credits, from thesis novel television to film to theater to new media. If you#8217;re pursuing acting in Los Angeles, most of courseworl your work will be focused on how to make thesis for a research paper Film/TV, thus one resume is courseworl usually enough.

However, people in New York City, for example, will often have at least two actor resumes: one focused on screen work, one on stage work. If you don#8217;t have much acting experience, then one acting CV will be enough. Film credits . In this section, start with the vs evil introduction name of the show , followed by the type of courseworl role (NOT your character#8217;s name; see below) you did, then production company and analysis novel finally director#8217;s name . Television credits . Similarly to film credits, start with the name of the show , then the type of role (different to courseworl film type roles; see below), followed by television network and the director#8217;s name . The same applies to Web Series/Webisodes productions. Theater credits . Again, begin with the name of the anaesthesist production/play , followed by your role/character#8217;s name (this time it#8217;s the other way around), then the theater company#8217;s name and the location of where the production took place. A few quick tips: Always, always list film and television credits under separate sections. You#8217;ll see some bad actor resume examples where they#8217;re filled under #8220;Film/TV.#8221; DO NOT do this, because it will make your acting resume look very unprofessional. The reason is mostly because role types work differently on film and TV (see below).

Once you get more experience under your belt, try to remove some of the older and/or less important stuff from the courseworl resume. Keeping it clean will make you look more professional. Make For A Research. You also want to have casting directors focus on your best and courseworl most important work. You can list your credits any way you want. Some people list them chronologically, but I usually suggest listing your best work at good vs evil introduction the top so that it catches peoples#8217; attention. Never put extra/background work on your resume. The reason being is that extra work is not considered acting. Courseworl. Some people will do so anyway to fill the space, but I strongly advise against that. If you#8217;re ever asked about that part, and you have to say that you were actually a background on the set, that will make you look very unprofessional. When listing theater credits, you don#8217;t usually name the how to make statement director.

However, if the director#8217;s name is really well-known, I would list that either alongside the theater company#8217;s name, or instead of the location if you#8217;re short for space (similar to Film/TV credit format). Your training and education . Courseworl. In this section, list all the relevant acting training that you#8217;ve had so far. That usually includes: acting classes, workshops, formal theater/acting education and blog jobs other informal acting/drama training. Courseworl. Begin by listing the name of essay introduction your acting teacher (for private/group classes) or the institution where you#8217;ve studied acting. Right next to it you#8217;ll list what type of acting classes those were, which you#8217;ll know after you#8217;ve taken them. There#8217;s too many for me to list, but the courseworl most common are Scene Study, Cold Reading, Audition Technique, Improv, and On-Camera Class. In the third column of this section, it#8217;s the location. Now in terms of francis themes what goes where vertically.

Normally, you#8217;ll have your formal and courseworl probably oldest acting education at the bottom, which is the college or drama school that you went to. Even if you think it#8217;s the best type of training you have received, that#8217;s usually not how casting directors and agents think. Blog. Keep the classes that you#8217;re currently taking at the very top of this section, and add #8220;(ongoing)#8221; right next to them. After that, list any other acting class or workshop that you#8217;ve taken chronologically with the oldest class at courseworl the bottom of the list. Your special skills . The least useful section of your acting resume is the one that actors truly obsess over.

You don#8217;t have to, because agents rarely even look here, unless there#8217;s something very specific that they want from an actor. With that in mind, don#8217;t over-complicate this part and list the things that you#8217;re most proficient in. My advice for the special skills section would be to be honest with yourself. If you#8217;ve only strummed a guitar a few times in your life, don#8217;t put Guitar on there. If you#8217;ve played basketball in high school which was 10 years ago, don#8217;t put Basketball in there. Also, don#8217;t write down things like Running and Whistling, unless you#8217;re a professional. The same goes for listing languages. Over-exaggerating about your special skills used to be a thing back in the day, but in blog writing jobs, 2015, agents think this just looks dumb. #8220; I want all of you to look up the meaning of the courseworl word “fluent.” Make sure you understand what it means before you claim you’re fluent in any language. I’m fluent in three, and I always test actors when I see one of those languages listed on how to make thesis statement paper their resume. Care to guess how many couldn’t respond to a simple question in the language they’re supposed to be fluent in? #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com.

As you can see, agents do care and they do their due diligence. Bottom Line : Always stick to the standard actor resume format, and courseworl don#8217;t reinvent the wheel. Agents and blog casting directors should be able to scan through your resume fast. Let me give you quick breakdown of film and television role types. This is something every aspiring actor in Los Angeles has to courseworl know. Writing. You#8217;ll be surprised how often you#8217;ll soon be using these terms. Series regular Main character(s) on the show under contract for a certain period of time, usually for the duration of the whole show/season. Courseworl. Recurring Second most important TV acting role type. These are usually signed to appear on the show on multiple episodes. Guest star Third biggest part where the character is directly involved with the thesis statement research plot of the TV show, usually for courseworl a single episode, but sometimes several episodes.

Co-star A small speaking part that will only be involved in one episode for a small period of screen time. Jobs. Under 5 (U5) Normally applicable only to daytime dramas where the character will have less than five lines. Lead Protagonist. Main character of the story on whom the whole film is centered. Supporting Secondary character which can be just as important to courseworl the film/story. Principal A small part with spoken lines where the good vs evil essay introduction character will usually interact with one of the above characters for a short period, but doesn#8217;t add much to the story. Featured A non-speaking part where the character gets enough facetime. This is courseworl not the same as an Extra, but sometimes Extras are promoted to Featured roles. And that wraps up the jobs whole technical part of an actor#8217;s resume.

Please feel free to come back to this article when you#8217;ll need help with structuring your actor resume format. I#8217;ve already mentioned this, but don#8217;t stress about not having any acting experience. Yes, it is Catch-22 where you can#8217;t get work because you have no experience but you can#8217;t get experience without acquiring work. Welcome to Hollywood. A) The first thing you may want to do is think about whether you definitely have no experience. Maybe you#8217;ve been in some small plays, or student films, or even indie films with your friends? List them all! Anything where you have actually done acting can go on your resume, even if it#8217;s a small part in a silly project. B) The next step is obvious: you need to courseworl search for blog jobs opportunities to act. The easiest way to acquire some credits for your resume is to visit your local community college for some stage work.

You can also browse through free casting websites, Craigslist, filmmaking websites and courseworl forums where people are looking for jobs actors who would work for free. If you#8217;re willing to do some work for courseworl no reward, that means you#8217;ll find opportunities faster. C) The third thing you can do is produce something yourself. Make For A Research. I#8217;ve already talked about the importance for actors to courseworl create their own projects, and thesis analysis the earlier you start, the better. All you need is a few bucks, a smartphone with a decent camera and some time. You can gather up a couple of friends, write a screenplay for a short film, shoot it on your phone and put it up on YouTube. Courseworl. That#8217;s your first credit.

I would advise against buying memberships on francis bacon's essays casting websites just yet. Courseworl. If this is your first time venturing into the world of performing arts, give it some time, and anaesthesist see if you even like the craft of acting before spending money. You will be surprised how quickly your resume will start growing if you dedicate some time to this, and courseworl if you#8217;re willing to essay work for free. There are a lot of courseworl opportunities out there, especially if you move to good introduction a big city such as Los Angeles, New York City, Atlanta, Vancouver in courseworl, Canada or London in England. Once you start receiving some acting work, remove your older, #8220;silly#8221; credits and replace them with the anaesthesist most recent stuff. Finally, try to have fun. Courseworl. People often forget about good vs evil essay this myself included but it#8217;s an integral part of succeeding as an courseworl, actor.

After all, don#8217;t we all want to blog writing become actors so that we can have fun instead of work?

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experiment paper A GUIDE TO WRITING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS. Scientific experiments are demanding, exciting endeavors, but, to have an impact, results must be communicated to others. A research paper is a method of communication, an attempt to tell others about some specific data that you have gathered and courseworl what you think those data mean in the context of your research. The rules of writing a scientific paper are rigid and are different from those that apply when you write an English theme or a library research paper. For clear communication, the paper obviously requires proper usage of the English language and this will be considered in evaluating your reports. Scientific papers must be written clearly and concisely so that readers with backgrounds similar to yours can understand easily what you have done and how you have done it should they want to blind, repeat or extend your work. When writing papers for the biology department, you can assume that your audience will be readers like yourselves with similar knowledge. Although scientific journals differ somewhat in their specific requirements, a general format that would be acceptable for most biological journals is:

Materials and Methods. The section headings (Abstract, Introduction, etc.) should be centered and the body of each section should follow immediately below the heading. Do not begin each section on a new page. If one section ends part of the way down the page, the next section heading follows immediately on the same page. One important general rule to keep in mind is that a scientific paper is a report about something that has been done in the past. Most of the paper should be written in the PAST TENSE (was, were). Courseworl! The present tense (is, are) is used when stating generalizations or conclusions. Writing! The present tense is most often used in the Introduction, Discussion and Conclusion sections of papers. Courseworl! The paper should read as a narrative in which the author describes what was done and what results were obtained from that work. Every scientific paper must have a self-explanatory title.

By reading the on being blind title, the work being reported should be clear to the reader without having to read the paper itself. Courseworl! The title, A Biology Lab Report, tells the reader nothing. An example of a good, self-explanatory title would be: The Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of Populations of the Bacterium, Escherichia coli . This title reports exactly what the researcher has done by stating three things: 1. The environmental factors that were manipulated (light, temperature). 2. The parameter that was measured (growth). 3. The specific organism that was studied (the bacterium, Escherichia coli ). If the title had been only Effects of anaesthesist, Light and courseworl Temperature on good introduction Escherichia coli , the reader would have to guess which parameters were measured. (That is, were the effects on reproduction, survival, dry weight or something else?) If the title had been Effect of Environmental Factors on Growth of Escherichia coli , the courseworl reader would not know which environmental factors were manipulated.

If the title had been Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of an Organism, then the reader would not know which organism was studied. In any of the above cases, the analysis reader would be forced to read more of the paper to courseworl, understand what the researcher had done. Exceptions do occur: If several factors were manipulated, all of them do not have to be listed. Jobs! Instead, Effects of Several Environmental Factors on Growth of Populations of Escherichia coli (if more than two or three factors were manipulated) would be appropriate. The same applies if more than two or three organisms were studied. For example, Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of Four Species of Bacteria would be correct. The researcher would then include the names of the bacteria in the Materials and courseworl Methods section of the paper. The abstract section in a scientific paper is a concise digest of the on being content of the paper. An abstract is more than a summary. A summary is a brief restatement of preceding text that is intended to courseworl, orient a reader who has studied the preceding text.

An abstract is intended to be self-explanatory without reference to the paper, but is not a substitute for the paper. The abstract should present, in about 250 words, the purpose of the paper, general materials and methods (including, if any, the scientific and common names of organisms), summarized results, and anaesthesist the major conclusions. Courseworl! Do not include any information that is essays, not contained in the body of the paper. Courseworl! Exclude detailed descriptions of essay introduction, organisms, materials and methods. Tables or figures, references to tables or figures, or references to literature cited usually are not included in this section. Courseworl! The abstract is essays themes, usually written last. An easy way to courseworl, write the abstract is to extract the most important points from each section of the paper and then use those points to construct a brief description of your study.

The Introduction is the statement of the problem that you investigated. It should give readers enough information to appreciate your specific objectives within a larger theoretical framework. After placing your work in a broader context, you should state the specific question(s) to be answered. This section may also include background information about the problem such as a summary of any research that has been done on essay introduction the problem in the past and how the present experiment will help to clarify or expand the courseworl knowledge in this general area. All background information gathered from other sources must, of course, be appropriately cited. (Proper citation of references will be described later.) A helpful strategy in introduction, this section is to go from the general, theoretical framework to your specific question. However, do not make the Introduction too broad.

Remember that you are writing for classmates who have knowledge similar to yours. Present only the most relevant ideas and get quickly to the point of the paper. For examples, see the Appendix . MATERIALS AND METHODS. This section explains how and, where relevant, when the experiment was done. The researcher describes the experimental design, the apparatus, methods of gathering data and type of control. If any work was done in a natural habitat, the worker describes the study area, states its location and explains when the work was done. If specimens were collected for study, where and courseworl when that material was collected are stated. The general rule to remember is anaesthesist, that the Materials and Methods section should be detailed and courseworl clear enough so that any reader knowledgeable in basic scientific techniques could duplicate the study if she/he wished to do so. For examples, see the Appendix . DO NOT write this section as though it were directions in a laboratory exercise book.

Instead of writing: First pour agar into six petri plates. Then inoculate the plates with the bacteria. Then put the plates into thesis novel, the incubator . . . Simply describe how the experiment was done: Six petri plates were prepared with agar and inoculated with the bacteria.

The plates were incubated for courseworl ten hours. Also, DO NOT LIST the equipment used in the experiment. The materials that were used in the research are simply mentioned in the narrative as the essay on being blind experimental procedure is described in detail. If well-known methods were used without changes, simply name the methods (e.g., standard microscopic techniques; standard spectrophotometric techniques). If modified standard techniques were used, describe the courseworl changes.

Here the researcher presents summarized data for anaesthesist inspection using narrative text and, where appropriate, tables and figures to display summarized data. Courseworl! Only the results are presented. No interpretation of the analysis novel data or conclusions about what the data might mean are given in this section. Data assembled in tables and/or figures should supplement the courseworl text and present the data in an easily understandable form. Do not present raw data!

If tables and/or figures are used, they must be accompanied by narrative text . Do not repeat extensively in the text the data you have presented in good essay introduction, tables and figures. But, do not restrict yourself to passing comments either. (For example, only stating that Results are shown in Table 1. is not appropriate.) The text describes the data presented in courseworl, the tables and figures and calls attention to the important data that the researcher will discuss in the Discussion section and will use to support Conclusions. (Rules to follow when constructing and presenting figures and tables are presented in a later section of this guide.) Here, the researcher interprets the data in terms of any patterns that were observed, any relationships among experimental variables that are important and any correlations between variables that are discernible. Francis Bacon's Themes! The author should include any explanations of how the results differed from those hypothesized, or how the results were either different from courseworl, or similar to those of blog writing jobs, any related experiments performed by other researchers. Remember that experiments do not always need to show major differences or trends to be important. Negative results also need to courseworl, be explained and may represent something important--perhaps a new or changed focus for your research. A useful strategy in discussing your experiment is to relate your specific results back to the broad theoretical context presented in the Introduction. Thesis! Since your Introduction went from the general to a specific question, going from the specific back to the general will help to tie your ideas and arguments together. This section simply states what the researcher thinks the data mean, and, as such, should relate directly back to the problem/question stated in the introduction. This section should not offer any reasons for those particular conclusions--these should have been presented in the Discussion section. By looking at only the courseworl Introduction and Conclusions sections, a reader should have a good idea of what the researcher has investigated and discovered even though the specific details of for a paper, how the work was done would not be known.

In this section you should give credit to people who have helped you with the research or with writing the paper. If your work has been supported by a grant, you would also give credit for that in this section. This section lists, in courseworl, alphabetical order by author, all published information that was referred to anywhere in the text of the paper. It provides the readers with the information needed should they want to refer to the original literature on the general problem. Essay! Note that the Literature Cited section includes only those references that were actually mentioned (cited) in the paper. Courseworl! Any other information that the researcher may have read about the make thesis statement paper problem but did not mention in the paper is not included in this section. This is why the section is called Literature Cited instead of References or Bibliography. The system of citing reference material in scientific journals varies with the particular journal.

The method that you will follow is the author-date system. Listed below are several examples of how citations should be presented in the text of courseworl, your paper. The name(s) of the author(s) and year of publication are included in the body of the good vs evil text. Sentence structure determines the placement of the parentheses. One author : 'Scott's (1990) model fails to . Courseworl! ' or 'The stream model (Scott 1990) is good vs evil essay, . ' Two authors : 'Libby and courseworl Libby (1991) show. ' or 'Previous moose migration studies (Libby and Libby 1991). ' Three or more authors : 'Roche et al. (1991) reported that . ' or 'During April, moose sightings increased over those in a previous study (Roche et al. 1991) . ' Entries in on being, the Literature Cited section are listed alphabetically by author(s) and chronologically for papers by the same author(s). Courseworl! The following citations illustrate the details of anaesthesist, punctuation and order of information for a journal article, book, Internet source, and your laboratory packet. Schneider, M.J., Troxler, R.F. and courseworl Voth, P.D. 1967.

Occurrence of indoleacetic acid in the bryophytes. Essays! Bot. Gaz. 28(3): 174-179. Stebbins, G.L. 1977. Processes of Organic Evolution . Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. 269 pp. MSW Scientific Names: Microtus ochrogaster. Online.

Smithsonian Institution. Available: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/cgi-bin/wdb/msw/names/query/22128. updated August 8, 1996 [accessed 8/10/98] Colby Biology Department. 1998. Salt Tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris. In: Introduction to Biology: Organismal Biology. Waterville, ME: Colby Custom Publishing. Generally, most references will be to the primary literature (i.e., journal articles) and, to a lesser extent, books. Popular literature and the Internet should be used sparingly and with caution. Other sources such as book chapters and pamphlets typically have their own specific citation formats.

If necessary, be sure to find out what these formats are and use them appropriately. For a much more detailed discussion about writing scientific papers, consult: CBE Style Manual Committee. 1983. CBE Style Manual: A Guide for Authors, Editors and Publishers in the Biological Sciences . 5th Edition, revised and expanded. Council of Biology Editors, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland. This guide is based on a paper by courseworl Gubanich, A.A. 1977. Writing the scientific paper in the investigative lab. Amer. Biol.

Teacher, 39(1): 27-34. Examples from the scientific literature that illustrate material in various sections of a scientific paper. A. Excerpted from: Hasegawa, K., Sakoda, M. and blog jobs J. Bruinsma. 1989. Revision of the courseworl theory of phototropism in plants: a new interpretation of a classical experiment. Planta 178:540-544. Went's classical experiment on the diffusion of auxin activity from unilaterally illuminated oat coleoptile tips (Went 1928), was repeated as precisely as possible. In agreement with Went's data with the Avena curvature assay, the agar blocks from the illuminated side of oat ( Avena sativa L. cv.

Victory) coleoptile tips had, on the average, 38% of the auxin activity of those from the shaded side. However, determination of the absolute amounts of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the agar blocks, using a physicochemical assay following purification, showed that the IAA was evenly distributed in the blocks from the illuminated and shaded sides. In the blocks from the shaded and dark-control halves the amounts of IAA were 2.5 times higher than the auxin activity measured by the Avena curvature test, and in those from the illuminated half even 7 times higher. Chromatography of the diffusates prior to the Avena curvature test demonstrated that the blog amounts of two growth inhibitors, especially of the courseworl more polar one, were significantly higher in the agar blocks from the illuminated side than in those from the anaesthesist shaded side and the dark control. These results show that the basic experiment from courseworl, which the Cholodny-Went theory was derived does not justify this theory. The data rather indicate that phototropism is caused by good vs evil essay the light-induced, local accumulation of growth inhibitors against a background of courseworl, even auxin distribution, the thesis statement paper diffusion of auxin being unaffected.

B. Excerpted from: Farmer, E.E. and Ryan, C.A. 1990. Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87: 7713-7716. Inducible defensive responses in plants are known to be activated locally and systematically by signaling molecules that are produced at sites of courseworl, pathogen or insect attacks, but only one chemical signal, ethylene, is known to travel through the atmosphere to activate plant defensive genes. Methyl jasmonate, a common plant secondary compound, when applied to surfaces of tomato plants, induces the synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitor proteins in the treated plants and in nearby plants as well.

The presence of thesis, methyl jasmonate in the atmosphere of courseworl, chambers containing plants from essay blind, three species of two families, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, results in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in leaves of all three species. When sagebrush, Artemesia tridentata , a plant shown to possess methyl jasmonate in leaf surface structures, is incubated in chambers with tomato plants, proteinase inhibitor accumulation is courseworl, induced in the tomato leaves, demonstrating that interplant communication can occur from leaves of anaesthesist, one species of plant to courseworl, leaves of another species to activate the expression of defensive genes. A. Excerpted from: Shukla, A. and Sawhney, V.K. 1992. Cytokinins in a genic male sterile line of Brassica napus . Physiol.

Plant. 85:23-29. The failure or inability of an individual to produce functional gametes under a given set of environmental conditions is known as sterility. Male sterility in plants is generally associated with the blog writing jobs lack of production of viable pollen; however its expression can vary (Frankel and Galun 1977, Kaul 1988). In any event, male sterility is of fundamental importance in the production of hybrid seeds and in breeding programs.

Plant growth substances, both exogenously applied and endogenous, have often been implicated in the regulation of male sterility in several plant species (Frankel and Galun 1977, Kaul 1988). Cytokinins, gibberellins, auxins and courseworl abscisic acid, as well as polyamines, are all known to affect pollen and stamen development in a number of species (e.g., Sawhney 1974, Ahokas 1982, Saini and blind Aspinall 1982, Rastogi and Sawhney 1990, Nakajima et al. Courseworl! 1991, Singh et al. Good Vs Evil! 1992). [Several paragraphs with more background material were omitted] The objective of this study was to determine a possible relationship between endogenous cytokinins with male sterility in the genic male sterile system in Brassica napus . Thus, an analysis of a number of cytokinins in various organs of the wild type and genic male sterile plants was conducted. B. Excerpted from: Reader, R.J. and courseworl Beisner, B.E. 1991. Species-dependent effects of seed predation and ground cover on seedling emergence of good vs evil introduction, old-field forbs.

Am. Courseworl! Midl. Nat. 126: 279-286. A major goal of blog jobs, plant ecology is to explain spatial variation in a species frequency of occurrence. Spatial variation in seed predation may contribute to courseworl, spatial variation in plant frequency by reducing seed supply sufficiently to limit seedling emergence more at one location than another (Louda 1982, Anderson 1989).

Spatial variation in seed predation is well documented ( e.g ., Janzen 1971, 1975,; Bertness et al. 1987; Smith 1987), but few investigators tested whether differential seed predation resulted in differential seedling emergence ( e.g ., Louda 1982, 1983). Since factors such as dense ground cover may suppress seedling emergence regardless of the amount of seed predation (Harper 1977), additional studies are needed to clarify the effect of seed predation on seedling emergence. Therefore, we examined the blog writing jobs effects of both seed predation and ground cover ( i.e ., plant biomass and litter) on seedling emergence of some old-field forbs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A. Extracted from: Sakoda, M., Hasegawa, K. and Ishizuka, K. Courseworl! 1992. Anaesthesist! Mode of courseworl, action of good essay introduction, natural growth inhibitors in radish hypocotyl elongation -- influence of raphanusanins on auxin-mediated microtubule orientation. Physiol.

Plant. 84:509-513. Seeds of Raphanus sativus L. Courseworl! var. hortensis f. shogoin were sown and germinated in blind, petri dishes on 4 layers of paper-towel (Kimberly-Clark Corp.) moistened with distilled water. After 3 days in darkness at 25oC, 4-mm hypocotyl segments were excised below the courseworl hook of the 3 cm long etiolated seedlings. After subapical segments were held for 1 h in darkness at 25oC in distilled water, they were transferred to 1 mM IAA solution or mixed media containing 1 mM IAA and raphanusanin B ( 1 or 3 mM). In other experiments, segments were preincubated for 1 h in for a, small petri dishes containing 1 mM IAA solution, and courseworl then raphanusanin B was added to the medium (final concentrations 1 or 3 mM).

Segment lengths were measured using a microscope with microgauge. All manipulations were carried out under dim green light (3mW m-2). [The authors then explained visualization of microtubules by immunofluorescence] B. Excerpted from: Kanbe, T., Kobayashi, I and Tanaka, K. !992. Blog Writing! Dynamics of cytoplasmic organelles in the cell cycle of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe : Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections. J. Cell Sci.,94: 647-656. Schizosaccharomyces pombe h90, the homothallic, readily sporing haploid strain, was used. The strain was maintained on malt extract-yeast extract (MY) agar as described by Tanaka and Kanbe (1986). Cells were cultured on courseworl a MY slant at good vs evil essay 30oC for 48 h, transferred to MY broth and cultures at 30oC overnight.

Cells at courseworl the exponential phase were spread on a MY plate and further incubated at 30oC for 4 to 6 h before harvesting for microscopy. Cells were fixed with a solution of 3% paraformaldehyde in a 50mM-phosphate buffer containing 1mM-MgCl2 (pH 6.8) at essay introduction room temperature for 2 h. Courseworl! After washing with the buffer, cells were treated with Novozyme 234 (Novo Industri A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) for 60 min at 30oC with reciprocal shaking to remove the how to make thesis statement paper cell wall. For the staining of F-actin, cells were washed and suspended in Rh-ph solution (Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR, USA) diluted 20 times in 50 mM-phosphate-buffered saline containing 1mM-MgCl2 (PBS, pH 7.3) at room temperature for 2 h. Nuclei were stained by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) in NS buffer described by Suzuki et al . (1982). Preparations were examined with an Olympus BHS-RFK epifluorescence microscope using a U-G dichroic mirror with excitation filter BP490 for Rh-ph staining and UG1 for DAPI, and were photographed on Kodak Tmax400 film. [This section continued to describe preparation for electron microscopy and the three-dimensional reconstruction of serial sections.] A. Excerpted from: Takahashi, H., Scott, T.K. and Suge, H. 1992. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium.

Plant Physiol. 98:246-252. As shown in Table 1, the growth of roots treated with 10 mM Ca2+ was approximately 30% greater than the controls for a 3.5 h period following Ca2+ application to Alaska pea roots and courseworl approximately 80% greater than control for 12 h following the treatment in ageotropum pea. However, the growth of Alaska pea roots did not differ from that of control roots when measured 12 h after Ca2+ treatment. Roots of how to thesis paper, Silver Queen corn also showed an increase of approximately 70% in growth 3 h following application of courseworl, 20 mM Ca2+ (Table 1). Such symmetrical treatment of root caps with Ca2+ did not cause curvature of the roots. [The results section continued for several more paragraphs.] B. Excerpted from: Sato, S. and Dickinson, H.G. 1991. The RNA content of the nucleolus and writing nucleolus-like inclusions in the anther of courseworl, Lilium estimated by how to an improved RNase-gold labelling method. Jour.

Cell Sci. Courseworl! 94:675-683. Gold particles were predominant over bacon's the nuclear nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) (Fig. 9). Although the courseworl distribution histogram of gold particles over the nuclear NLBs showed that labelling varied from 40 to 130 particles mm-2, most of that fell in the range of essay on being, 80 - 90 particles mm-2 (Fig. Courseworl! 4). The quantitative estimation of labelling, which represented the essay average number of gold particles per courseworl mm2, indicated the good essay labelling over courseworl the nuclear NLBs to be twice as strong as that over the loosened chromatin, and four times as strong as that over the condensed chromatin (Table 2).

[The results section continued for good vs evil essay several more paragraphs.] A. Excerpted from: Takahashi, H., Scott, T.K. and courseworl Suge, H. 1992. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium. Plant Physiol. Francis Bacon's Essays Themes! 98:246-252. The effect of Ca2+ on root elongation has been reported to be both stimulatory and inhibitory (Burstrom 1969, Evans et al . 1990, Hasenstein and Evans 1986). Courseworl! In those initial studies , however, the whole root was treated with Ca2+. Because the site of action for Ca2+ in gravitropism is considered to be the root cap rather than the zone of elongation, we focused on the role of the Ca2+/cap interaction in root growth as well as in gravitropic responses.

We found that Ca2+ at 10 or 20 mM applied to the cap end of pea and corn roots mediated elongation growth of roots for at least 3 to 4 h following treatment. Unilateral application of 1 to 20 mM Ca2+ to the root cap always induced unequivocal curvature of roots away from the Ca2+ source in Alaska pea and to a greater extent in the roots of the agravitropic mutant, ageotropum (Figs. 1 and essay on being blind 2). Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also always curved away from Ca2+ applied to the cap, although a somewhat higher concentration was required for the response than in courseworl, the pea roots. [Several sentences were omitted here.] These results show a strong correlation between an increase of Ca2+ levels in the root cap and stimulation of root elongation. The results are in contrast to the previously proposed model that an increased level of Ca2+ in the root cap mediated inhibition of root growth (Hasenstein et al. 1988). [The discussion continued for several more paragraphs.] A. Excerpted from: Noguchi, H. and Hasegawa, K. Bacon's Essays Themes! 1987. Phototropism in hypocotyls of radish.

III. Influence of unilateral or bilateral illumination of various light intensities on courseworl phototropism and distribution of cis - and trans -raphanusanins and raphanusamide. Plant Physiol. 83: 672-675. The present study demonstrates that phototropism in francis essays, radish hypocotyls is caused by a gradient of growth inhibition which depends on the light intensity through the amounts of courseworl, growth inhibitor, and anaesthesist thus strongly supports the Blaauw (Blaauw 1915) hypothesis, explaining phototropism as an effect of local growth inhibition by light. B. Courseworl! Excerpted from: Nick, P., Bergfeld, R., Schäfer, E. and statement paper Schopfer, P. Courseworl! 1990. Francis Essays Themes! Unilateral reorientation of microtubules at the outer epidermal wall during photo- and gravitropic curvature of courseworl, maize coleoptiles and sunflower hypocotyls. Anaesthesist! Planta 181: 162-168.

The striking agreement between changes in microtubule orientation observed at the outer epidermal wall during tropic bending and during induction or straight growth by external auxin strongly indicates that auxin is, in fact, functionally involved in mediating asymmetric growth leading to organ curvature. There is courseworl, no evidence that short-term growth of thesis novel, epidermal cells is controlled through the orientation of microfibrils. Also the courseworl data do not prove a causal relationship between auxin action on microtubule orientation and tropic curvature. However, our results do show that microtubule reorientation is a specific auxin-mediated response which can be used as a diagnostic test for an asymmetric distribution of the francis bacon's essays hormone, correlated with asymmetric growth.