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The best advice i was ever given essay

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What is the best advice you ever received? Why? And did you follow

The best advice i was ever given essay

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Build Your Personal SEO: The 25 Best Keywords for the best advice essay You in Your Job Search. Effective selection and placement of keywords is the core of effective SEO (search engine optimization), which is a required part of vacation successful job search and careers today. Essay! To avoid invisibility, the right keywords (for you, you target job, and your target career) must be included in the right places (LinkedIn Professional Headline, LinkedIn Summary, etc.). Those keywords are, literally, the key to being found in a search. Keywords are the search terms used by people to find what they want in a search engine, social network, or applicant tracking system. If a recruiter is searching for someone with experience in Microsoft Word, your name won't appear in search results unless your social profile or resume contain those exact words. Most software isn't very smart or forgiving. It won't understand that, to sweeteners be a successful administrative assistant, knowledge of Microsoft Word is required. Consequently, without that term visible in your social profile and resume, your documents or profile will not be seen by a human being.

Even if you have that experience, you are invisible unless your social profile or resume includes the advice given, term being searched, like Microsoft Word in mba thesis on strategic our example. Advice Given! Look through the list below and choose what is appropriate for you. Develop your keywords based on the following categories of information: Most people don't think of their names as important keywords, but in these days of fang thesis statement search engines and social media, your name is probably your most important keyword phrase. If appropriate for advice i was ever essay your location, use both city and to describe state plus regional names -- like Oakland, CA, and East Bay Area, or Manhattan and New York City -- so your profile is in the search results for either. Your languages. The Best I Was Given Essay! If you speak more than one language, make it clear the essay, languages that you can speak. The Best Given Essay! Also indicate your level of proficiency -- from native through basic or elementary and whether you can read, write, and/or speak the languages. College degrees or post-secondary education. Include your college degree and the school. Also include your major if relevant to your target job. GPA -- new grads only!

If your GPA is above average, and artificial sweeteners you are looking for advice your first job after college, include your GPA. The title for the job that you want next, preferably the version(s) used by your target employers is a very important set of keywords. When in doubt about exactly which job title to use, become a slash person - Project Manager/Senior Project Lead or Senior Administrative Assistant/ Executive Assistant. Your industry. Specify your industry (current or target): civil engineering, mechanical engineering, management consulting, market research, medical devices, nanotechnology, biotechnology, healthcare, and so on. Psycology Essay! Your current and former job titles are also important keywords. Focus on the standard job titles that are used now by your target employers, particularly if current (or former) employer(s) used non-standard titles. If you are currently employed, include the i was, name of your current employer (unless you are in a confidential search). Former employers. Particularly if you have worked for paper well-known and well-respected companies in the best advice your industry or field, be sure to include those company names, even if your experience there was more than ten years ago. Volunteering.

If you volunteer anywhere, include what you do and who you do it for, particularly if it helps fill in an employment gap and/or is related to your career track. Your Professional Qualifications and dissertation student loan Major Accomplishments: Preferably the skills most in demand for the job you want next (e.g., managing a PL, using Microsoft Word and advice i was Excel, driving an fang statement, 18-wheeler, leading a project team, etc.) need to be included - even if they are not the ever given essay, skills you use primarily for your most current job. Licenses relevant to your profession. Add the licenses you hold that show you are qualified to do the job you want, including the organization who does the licensing and the number of on strategic planning years you have held the license. Job-specific, profession-specific, and industry-specific tools and techniques. Add the relevant tools and techniques that you use or are qualified to advice i was ever given essay use because of training, education, and/or experience (e.g. MRI, Mastercam, LEED, etc.). Job-specific or industry-specific software and hardware.

Include the software required for your target job that you use or have been trained to use, particularly if it's unique to your job, industry, or profession (e.g. SAP, ASP, FileMaker, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Word). Add any specific hardware that may be required for psycology essay your target job if you have experience using it or have been trained to i was ever essay use it, particularly if it is dissertation loan, unique to your job, industry, or profession (e.g. heart monitors, scanners, even different versions of advice essay smart phones if they are relevant to the job). Advertisement Relevant laws and spanish essay about summer regulations. If experience, understanding, or training in specific laws or regulations is required for your target job -- and you are qualified -- include the names of i was ever essay these laws and regulations, like ITAR/EAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations / Export Administration Regulations) or Sarbanes€“Oxley (SOX) compliance. Internet tools and apps relevant to your job or profession. Include Internet tools and apps that you use or are qualified to use because of training, education, and/or experience (e.g. Facebook, LinkedIn, Hootsuite, Google Analytics, etc.).

Honors, awards, and recognition. If you've been employee of the month, salesperson of the year, or received other recognition from your employer, a customer or client, or your profession or industry, be sure to include them. Relevant industry and psycology essay professional organizations. Include the advice ever given, industry and sweeteners professional organizations or societies that you have joined (plus committee membership and current or former officer titles). Industry, professional, and/or technical names and acronyms -- The more acronyms; the better, as long as they are appropriate to advice given your experience and education. Artificial Research Paper! Include what they represent as well, just in case someone searches on the complete term, like Early Childhood Education (ECE) or ISO (International Standards Organization). Certifications or other proof of professional or industry knowledge - Include all proof of professional knowledge or achievement, particularly focusing on those that are current, like applicable course work, post-graduate courses, professional training, on-the-job-training, and certifications, etc. Clients and/or categories of the best ever essay clients. Mention those groups of clients who need your services, like national specialty retailers or SME (small and medium enterprises) for example.

If one of your clients was a very well-known or well-respected company or person, like the on strategic, Department of the best advice i was given Defense or Warren Buffett, include those names -- unless the relationship was classified or company confidential. Major projects. Psycology Essay! If you were involved in any major projects, name and describe them, highlighting the relevancy to your target job. Your publications. If you have written any books, white papers, or articles, particularly relevant to the job or profession you are targeting, be sure to include it. Patents. If you have created anything(s) that was then patented, add them using the complete name(s), keyword-rich description(s), and advice i was ever patent number(s). Include the words that are appropriate for you and your target job, but don't be inaccurate or deceptive. Marketing mode is fine. Artificial! Scam mode is not a good long term strategy.

People are fired for lying on their resume or job application. Now that you understand more about keywords for your resume (or for the best i was ever essay this version of your resume), put them to use. Read How to Optimize the Right Keywords for Your Resumes for methods of researching and using the student loan, best keywords. Optimizing your resume for an employer's or recruiter's search should increase the effectiveness of your resume. Know what works NOW for your job search! Online job search expert Susan P. Joyce has been observing the the best advice ever given essay, online job search world and write to describe essay teaching online job search skills since 1995. The Best I Was! A veteran of the United States Marine Corps and a recent Visiting Scholar at the MIT Sloan School of Management, Susan is on strategic planning, a two-time layoff “graduate” who has worked in human resources at Harvard University and in the best advice given essay a compensation consulting firm. Fang Thesis! Since 1998, Susan has been editor and publisher of Follow Susan on Twitter at given @jobhuntorg and on Facebook, LinkedIn, and Google+. Guide to Personal SEO for Job Search and Careers: Getting Started with Personal SEO. More about Keywords in Social Media: Real employers who value your experience are looking for you here.

Jobs across the thesis, state - not available elsewhere on the Web. Only here. Advice I Was Ever Given Essay! Copyright NETability, Inc. Planning! 1998 - 2017. All rights reserved.

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resume withdrawal Protracted Withdrawal Syndromes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Vol. 8 pp. 19-28 · 1991. Professor C Heather Ashton DM, FRCP. School of Neurosciences. Division of Psychiatry. The Royal Victoria Infirmary. Queen Victoria Road.

Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP. Abstract: The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is a complex phenomenon which presents serious difficulties in definition and measurement. It is particularly difficult to set out the best i was ever essay, precise limits on its duration. Many withdrawal symptoms are a result of pharmacodynamic tolerance to benzodiazepines, some mechanisms for white fang thesis, which are discussed. Such tolerance develops unevenly in different brain systems and may be slow to reverse. Withdrawal symptoms occurring in the first weeks after cessation of drug use tend to merge with more persistent symptoms that may last for many months.

These prolonged symptoms do not necessarily constitute true pharmacological withdrawal symptoms, but are nevertheless related to long-term benzodiazepine use. Such symptoms can include anxiety, which may partly result from a learning deficit imposed by the drugs, and a variety of sensory and motor neurological symptoms. The protracted nature of some of these symptoms raises the possibility that benzodiazepines can give rise not only to the best advice essay slowly reversible functional changes in the central nervous system, but may also occasionally cause structural neuronal damage. Keywords: benzodiazepines; withdrawal syndrome; tolerance; protracted symptoms; tinnitus; brain mechanisms. Drug withdrawal syndromes, in general, tend to on strategic consist of mirror images of the drugs' initial effects. The Best I Was Given Essay! Thus, abrupt withdrawal from chronic usage of mba thesis on strategic planning, beta adrenoceptor antagonists such as propranolol may give rise to tachycardia and palpitations; abrupt withdrawal from antihypertensive doses of clonidine may be followed by hypertension, anxiety, and other signs of increased sympathetic activity.

Benzodiazepines are no exception: On sudden cessation after chronic use, anticonvulsant effects may be replaced by epileptic seizures, muscle relaxation by increased muscle tension, hypnotic effects by increased anxiety. The same symptoms can occur in attenuated form when the drugs are withdrawn slowly. However, all of these symptoms are not inevitable in any individual patient. The Best Essay! The particular features of the withdrawal syndrome and their time of onset, duration, and severity are greatly modified by many other factors. Such factors include pharmacokinetic variables, dosage and dissertation duration of ever given, drug use, rate of withdrawal, the presence or absence of the to describe, original disorder (such as anxiety) for which the drug was prescribed, personality characteristics, physical makeup and susceptibility, and the use of concomitant treatments. These variables alone make it difficult to characterise specific features of the withdrawal syndrome. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that, as long-term medication, benzodiazepines have mainly been prescribed for anxiety and insomnia, disorders which themselves include most features of the drug withdrawal syndrome. When such patients undergo reduction of benzodiazepine dosage, especially slow reduction, how can one specify which emergent symptoms are true, drug-related withdrawal symptoms, which are pseudowithdrawal symptoms (Tyrer, Owen, Dawling, 1983), which represent a return of the original anxiety state, and which are the natural reactions of an anxious personality undergoing the the best advice i was given essay, stress of withdrawal? In circumstances such as these, the psycology essay, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome becomes largely a matter of definition.

Nevertheless, the existence of a benzodiazepine withdrawal reaction, from both high and low (therapeutic) doses of benzodiazepines, is no longer in dispute, and many attempts have been made to define and the best i was measure it and to estimate its incidence and summer duration. Definitions and Measurements. Symptoms occurring during benzodiazepine withdrawal have been described by many authors (Ashton, 1984, 1987; Busto, Sellers, Naranjo, Cappell, Sanchez, Sykora, 1986; Hallström Lader, 1981; Murphy, Owen Tyrer, 1983, 1984; Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b; Smith Wesson, 1983; Tyrer et al ., 1983; Tyrer, Rutherford, Higgett, 1981; Winokur, Rickels, Greenblatt, Snyder, Schatz, 1980; among others). Commonly described symptoms are shown in Figure 1. The Best I Was Ever Essay! None of these symptoms are specific to benzodiazepine withdrawal: They include all of the psychological and somatic symptoms of anxiety, although certain symptom clusters are characteristic. Owen and student loan Tyrer (1983) and the best given essay Petursson and Lader (1981a b) emphasised the student loan, appearance of new symptoms, not experienced before withdrawal and uncommon in anxiety states. These new symptoms include hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli (sound, light, touch, taste, and smell) and the best essay perceptual distortions (e.g., sensation of the floor undulating, feeling of motion, impression of walls or floor tilting). There also appears to be a higher incidence than usually seen in anxiety of fang, depersonalisation, derealisation, paraesthesiae, and extreme dysphoria, an amalgam of anxiety, depression, nausea, malaise, and depersonalisation (Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b). Visual hallucinations, distortion of body image, psychotic reactions, formication, muscle fasciculation and advice i was given twitching (occasionally resembling myoclonus), and considerable loss of weight are also described during benzodiazepine withdrawal and are unusual in anxiety states. Smith and Wesson (1983) and Ashton (1984) drew attention to the characteristic fluctuation of dissertation student, symptoms, which may wax and wane without obvious psychological provocation.

Smith and Wesson (1983) suggest that this wavelike symptomatology is an important marker for distinguishing the low-dose benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome from symptom re-emergence. However, since symptoms may fluctuate in the course of the day or over periods of days or weeks, accurate recording is difficult. Since no particular symptom is exclusive to the best ever benzodiazepine withdrawal, how can one define the syndrome? Tyrer et al . (1981, 1983) have attempted various methods in placebo controlled studies: The appearance of two or more new symptoms during the withdrawal period. New symptoms in one study included perceptual disturbances, sensory hypersensitivity, and fear of imminent death (1981), and in another study (1983), psychotic symptoms, depression and dysphoria, muscle twitching, and abnormal sensations of movement. The choice of two new symptoms as the mba thesis on strategic, minimum number necessary to qualify as withdrawal is i was given essay clearly arbitrary. An increase in self-rated symptoms (Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale) to greater than 50% of baseline levels, followed by a return to lower values. Symptom resolution is clearly an important feature in differentiating between symptoms due to withdrawal and white fang thesis symptom re-emergence, emergence, or overinterpretation. I Was Essay! As Smith and Wesson (1983, p. 88) point out: Withdrawal symptoms subside with continued abstinence, whereas symptoms of other aetiology persist. Psycology Essay! However, a measure of symptom resolution is given not applicable to on strategic patients who drop out of the best advice i was essay, withdrawal studies, perhaps because of intolerable true withdrawal symptoms.

It is noteworthy that 45% of patients dropped out of one study (Tyrer et al ., 1981). A combination of methods (1) and white fang thesis (2) so that a withdrawal reaction is defined as the appearance of new symptoms that resolved before the end of the study (20 and 14 weeks after the end of withdrawal [Tyrer et al ., 1983]). More recently Tyrer, Murphy, Riley (1989) have produced a questionnaire of symptoms that are relatively specific to benzodiazepine withdrawal in that they mainly occur during periods of drug withdrawal and return towards baseline levels after withdrawal. Pseudowithdrawal symptoms were defined as symptoms occurring when patients thought they were reducing but their drug consumption and blood concentrations of benzodiazepines were unchanged. Such definitions, derived from advice ever double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, have been extremely helpful in the recognition of benzodiazepine dependence, especially low-dose dependence. However, they are of necessity arbitrary and can only be approximate, since the dissertation loan, appearance or severity of any particular symptom or symptom cluster may actually represent a variable combination of the best i was given essay, true withdrawal, pseudowithdrawal, and re-emergence of anxiety, and the same patients liable to planning pseudowithdrawal reactions are also likely to be most vulnerable to true withdrawal effects. Furthermore, definitions based on differences from advice i was essay prewithdrawal symptoms do not take into account the possibility that, due to mba thesis on strategic planning the development of tolerance, withdrawal symptoms may already be present while patients are still taking benzodiazepines. Such a situation is most clearly seen with relatively short-acting benzodiazepines.

For example, patients taking triazolam as a hypnotic commonly develop daytime anxiety (Oswald, 1989) and even hallucinations or psychotic reactions. These are almost certainly withdrawal effects since they are immediately relieved by taking the drug but eventually disappear after the drug is stopped (Ashton, 1987). Similarly, with lorazepam and alprazolam (Hermann, Brotman, Rosenbaum, 1987) patients often develop increasing anxiety and panic as well as craving between doses (Ashton, 1984). They appear to undergo a miniwithdrawal between each dose, which is advice given essay temporarily relieved by the next tablet, but disappears after total cessation. An analagous condition is seen with alcohol: alcoholics commonly complain of tremor and insomnia, symptoms which are temporarily relieved by thesis statement alcohol but which only disappear after a period of abstinence. Even with long-acting benzodiazepines such as diazepam, there is usually a history in long-term users of steadily increasing anxiety, with the development over the years of new symptoms such as agoraphobia, often with perceptual distortions and depersonalisation, despite continued usage of these supposedly anxiolytic drugs. These symptoms have often been temporarily alleviated by a moderate increase in dosage or the addition of the best i was ever, another benzodiazepine, but eventually re-emerge during further chronic use and write to describe essay only disappear after the the best advice i was given, benzodiazepine is stopped (Ashton, 1984, 1987).

Mechanisms of tolerance and withdrawal symptoms are discussed below, but tolerance is difficult to demonstrate in clinical practice. Because of these many immeasurable factors, it is doubtful whether the boundaries of research paper, a true benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome can ever be clearly demarcated. The overall incidence of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is unknown. The Best Given! As with cigarette smokers (Ashton Stepney, 1982), there may be a large, uncounted population who quit regular benzodiazepine usage after months or years without ever coming to medical attention. Tyrer (1990) notes that it is psycology essay surprising how many patients in ordinary practice have no difficulties whatsoever in reducing their benzodiazepines, and the incidence of the best i was ever, a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in general practice appears to be around 30% (Tyrer et al ., 1981, 1983; Tyrer, 1989; Tyrer, Murphy, Riley, in press; Tyrer, 1990). On the other hand, in fang, selected patients referred for specialist treatment, the incidence may be 100% (Ashton, 1987; Lader Olajide, 1987; Petursson Lader, 1981a). It is also worth noting that withdrawal syndromes in the form of the best advice ever given essay, rebound insomnia (Kales, Scharf, Kales, 1978) or more general symptoms can occur in summer, experimental subjects and in nonanxious patients prescribed benzodiazepines for sports injuries (Lader, 1988). In addition, a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome has been described in neonates whose mothers took therapeutic doses of the best advice essay, benzodiazepines during pregnancy (Rementeria Bhatt, 1977). Not surprisingly, the observed incidence of benzodiazepine withdrawal reactions depends not only on patient selection but also on the criteria used for psycology essay, measurement.

In the study of Tyrer et al . (1983), when definitions of i was ever essay, withdrawal (1) and (2) (see above) were used singly, the mba thesis on strategic planning, incidence of pseudowithdrawal reactions was around 20%. With the combined definition (3) (see above) the incidence of true withdrawal symptoms was 44% and there were no pseudowithdrawal reactions. Advice Ever! This incidence of course only white thesis applies to the best advice ever essay those consenting to take part in essay, the study and the best ever given essay managing to finish it. It cannot account for write, dropouts during withdrawal or for individuals declining to undergo withdrawal (45.5% of eligible patients in the best advice i was essay, the study of write essay, Tyrer et al ., 1981). Thus the incidence of benzodiazepine withdrawal, like its diagnosis, becomes largely a matter of definition. The identification of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is difficult enough; its duration is even more difficult to delineate. Most estimates suggest a duration of the best advice i was given essay, approximately 5-28 days, with a peak in severity around 2 weeks post withdrawal, after which most symptoms return to artificial sweeteners prewithdrawal levels (Busto et al ., 1986; Murphy et al ., 1984; Owen Tyrer, 1983; Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b; Tyrer et al ., 1981, 1983).

To a large extent the the best ever given essay, apparent duration depends upon how long the patients are followed up, and several authors have drawn attention to the prolonged nature of postwithdrawal symptoms in some cases. For example, Smith and Wesson (1983) observed that symptoms after withdrawal from low-dose benzodiazepine typically take 6-12 months to subside completely. Dissertation Loan! Prolonged symptoms included anxiety, insomnia, paraesthesiae, altered sensation, muscle spasms, and advice i was ever psychosis. Ashton (1984, 1987) reported a similar protracted time-course. Tyrer (1990) refers to a post-withdrawal syndrome in the 6 months after withdrawal. Hallström and Lader (1981) found the write to describe, Hamilton Anxiety Score still raised above baseline levels by follow-up several months later when successfully withdrawn patients had resumed their normal life (Hallström Lader, 1981 p. 237). Olajide and advice i was essay Lader (1984) suggested that depression may be an research paper, integral part of the the best advice i was given, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome and may last several months after withdrawal in susceptible individuals; this phenomenon was also observed by Ashton (1987). Busto, Fornazzari, and Naranjo (1988) described two cases in whom severe tinnitus first appeared during benzodiazepine withdrawal and persisted for 6 and 12 months after discontinuation before finally diminishing or disappearing. In one of essay about summer vacation, these cases the tinnitus was immediately alleviated by diazepam in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted over the best i was ever given essay 1 week, 6 months after withdrawal; after a further 6 months of abstinence the tinnitus had became tolerable. In a recent study of 68 patients who were withdrawn from benzodiazepines over spanish essay vacation a 6-week period and followed for a further 4 weeks, Tyrer et al . (1989), using a self-report scale, found a wide variation in the time at which individual symptoms peaked.

Mean scores for some symptoms (depression, dizziness, paraesthesiae, feeling of unreality) peaked early, while mean scores for others (nausea, memory impairment, faintness, touch sensitivity, and motor impairment) were maximal 8 weeks after the start of withdrawal. Although individual patient's scores were not reported, and 30% withdrew from the study, these findings suggest that symptoms can persist beyond the 5-28 days usually regarded as the the best i was ever given, duration of the withdrawal syndrome. Ashton, Rawlins and Tyrer (1990) used the rating scale shown in Figure 1 to record the symptoms of patients undergoing diazepam withdrawal under double-blind placebo controlled conditions. Withdrawal took place over 4 weeks, and patients were followed for 8 weeks after the end of withdrawal. Half the patients received placebo and the other half withdrawal. Analysis of the on strategic planning, time-course of selected symptoms in the 11 out of 12 patients in the placebo group who successfully completed withdrawal is shown in Table 1. Eight weeks after the end of withdrawal, mean scores for headache, dizziness, depression, tinnitus, paraesthesiae, and motor symptoms remained higher than prewithdrawal scores; other symptoms had declined although few had disappeared. These findings again show that duration of symptoms after benzodiazepine withdrawal is often a matter of months rather than weeks. Advice I Was Ever! Different symptoms persisted in the Tyrer et al . (1989) and Ashton et al . (1990) studies, which differed also in psycology essay, size of sample, patient selection, and rate of withdrawal.

To what extent such persistent symptoms are true withdrawal symptoms is unknown. A further problem in the best essay, assessing the duration of the withdrawal syndrome is the interpretation of the baseline (prewithdrawal) symptoms and anxiety scores. Patients presenting for benzodiazepine withdrawal often have high levels of anxiety and many psychological and somatic symptoms. Figures 2 and 3 show Hospital Anxiety Depression (anxiety) (Zigmond Snaith, 1983) and symptom rating scores for 12 patients on benzodiazepines compared with the scores of student, 18 healthy university students approaching their exams. The Best Advice I Was Ever! Both groups took placebo tablets and were followed for 20 weeks. The benzodiazepine group withdrew from the benzodiazepines between weeks 8 and 12. It is clear that the patients had considerably higher scores than the normal subjects on both scales, even at planning, the beginning of the study while they were still taking benzodiazepines. Certainly in advice essay, these patients the benzodiazepines were not effectively controlling anxiety and, as argued above, it is possible that at least some of the presenting symptoms were due to withdrawal symptoms even in the presence of the drug, as a result of the development of drug tolerance.

Such symptoms would be expected to white fang thesis statement disappear after withdrawal, but they could be slow to given resolve. Artificial Sweeteners Research Paper! There was no evidence of advice ever essay, resolution below baseline levels 8 weeks after withdrawal, but unfortunately (as in planning, most studies) formal assessment stopped at this point. However, continued clinical contact with most of these patients has shown that anxiety symptoms have declined over time. The Best Advice Ever Essay! This slow improvement bears out the observations quoted above (Ashton, 1984, 1987; Busto et al ., 1988; Hallström Lader, 1981; Olajide and white thesis statement Lader, 1984; Smith Wesson, 1983) that symptoms improve gradually for the best advice ever essay, many months after withdrawal, and some patients are able to resume normal lives after years of essay about vacation, incapacity before withdrawal. Which of these long-lasting symptoms can one attribute to true drug withdrawal effects? Is it possible to the best advice ever given pinpoint a time at planning, which the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome ends and to the best advice ever given essay say with certainty that any residual symptoms must be due to on strategic planning other factors? The problem is the best advice i was given similar to that of designating which effects of spanish about summer, a bout of influenza or infectious mononucleosis can be attributed to the specific virus. Do such effects include only those of the advice essay, viral toxaemia? Do they include secondary bacterial infection consequent upon the impact of the virus? Do they include the write to describe essay, period of postviral lethargy and depression which, like benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms, tends to recur in wave-like fashion for the best i was essay, several months? Once again, the psycology essay, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome appears to slip through the fingers and one is led back to a question of definition.

Probably a clear definition of duration is impossible because drug-induced perturbations of central neurotransmission merge imperceptibly into the best given, the background of individual, genetically determined, and learned patterns of brain activity. Protracted Symptoms After Benzodiazepine Withdrawal. All the problems of definition discussed above are multiplied in research, any attempt to describe protracted benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes. Yet anyone observing patients for long periods after withdrawal cannot fail to be struck by the persistence of certain symptoms in some patients. These may not be true benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms; nevertheless they are possibly related to benzodiazepine use and the best advice i was ever essay often present a clinical problem.

Listed below are examples of some protracted symptoms that from personal observations and other reports appear to be relatively common after benzodiazepine withdrawal. Unfortunately, there are no data available on the incidence and duration of such symptoms in comparable patients not treated with benzodiazepines, nor of their relative incidence in patients undergoing benzodiazepine withdrawal. Nor are there any known predictive factors to indicate which patients might be especially vulnerable. Anxiety: As discussed above, anxiety may persist for many months after benzodiazepine withdrawal, yet slowly decline below prewithdrawal levels after 1-2 years (Ashton, 1987). One reason for the slow resolution may be that benzodiazepines inhibit the learning of spanish essay about summer, stress-coping strategies. Such effects have been demonstrated in animals and man (Gray, 1987). Consequently there is advice i was given a long period after benzodiazepine withdrawal when patients have a decreased ability to cope with stressful situations (Ashton, 1989; Murphy Tyrer, 1988; Owen Tyrer, 1983).

Recovery may require many months of learning new strategies of stress control to replace the years of coping with stress by means of exogenous drugs. Hence persisting anxiety after benzodiazepine withdrawal does not necessarily imply the re-emergence of an anxiety state existing before benzodiazepine treatment; it may represent the student, uncovering of a type of learning deficiency induced by long-term benzodiazepine use. People who take benzodiazepines tend to advice i was essay have high ratings for trait anxiety (Ashton and psycology essay Golding, 1989; Golding Cornish, 1987; Golding, Harper, Brent-Smith, 1983) which may confer a particular vulnerability to the stress of withdrawal. Nevertheless, even without formal treatment, protracted anxiety symptoms, including agoraphobia and panic, may gradually resolve after benzodiazepine withdrawal (Ashton, 1987) although the the best i was ever given, process may be hastened by behavioural treatments. Depression: Depression can be caused or aggravated by chronic benzodiazepine use (Lader Petursson, 1981), yet it also appears to be a feature of the withdrawal syndrome (Olajide Lader, 1984). It may be severe enough to qualify as a major depressive disorder (Ashton, 1987) and may persist for some months. Psycology Essay! Olajide and Lader (1984) suggest that the mechanisms for the best advice essay, postwithdrawal depression may be central serotonin depletion, but there is no direct evidence for this.

Clinically, the depression is not different from depressive illness in general, and it responds to antidepressant drugs. It is not clear whether protracted depressive symptoms are more common in psycology essay, patients with a previous history of depression or whether it recurs in subsequent years after withdrawal. Tinnitus: Tinnitus is a common symptom of benzodiazepine withdrawal and advice i was given essay may initially result from the characteristic general hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli. It usually resolves in a few weeks, but occasionally qualifies as a protracted symptom. Busto et al . (1988) describe two cases in which tinnitus persisted for 6 and 12 months after withdrawal and essay mention a third patient who was unable to withdraw from benzodiazepines because of severe tinnitus at each attempt. Further cases of protracted tinnitus personally observed are described below. Case 1: Female, aged 54. Advice I Was Given! Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 8 years. Withdrawal slowly from oxazepam 45mg daily in 1986. Essay About! Right-sided tinnitus first noticed during previous attempts at withdrawal; became severe after final withdrawal and is still constantly present and severe 2 years later, remaining mainly unilateral.

No abnormality detected on skull x-ray, CAT scan, EEG, or ENT examination, apart from slight bilateral (symmetrical) high-tone deafness. Not clinically anxious or depressed; all other withdrawal symptoms resolved quickly. Taking no medication. Case 2: Female, aged 62. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 18 years. Withdrawn slowly from advice i was ever given diazepam 15mg daily in spanish essay about vacation, 1988. Bilateral tinnitus first noticed during previous attempts at withdrawal, becoming severe after final withdrawal, and still present, severe, and continuous 1 year later.

ENT investigation: moderate bilateral high-tone deafness; wears hearing aid. No clinical anxiety or depression; no other withdrawal symptoms; no medication. Case 3: Female, aged 58. Duration of i was ever given, benzodiazepine usage: 20 years. Essay About Vacation! Withdrew from diazepam 20mg daily over 4 weeks in 1988. Developed acute psychotic reaction, which resolved in one week. The Best Advice I Was! First noticed left-sided tinnitus 1 month after withdrawal. Three months later restarted diazepam 20mg daily because of unremitting tinnitus, but experienced only write slight improvement. Second withdrawal over one year 1988-9. Left-sided tinnitus severe throughout withdrawal and i was ever still persisting though becoming intermittent.

ENT examination negative except for slight bilateral (symmetrical) high-tone deafness. Medication: mianserin 30mg daily, started after onset of tinnitus; carbamazepine recently added with no effect on artificial sweeteners paper tinnitus. Case 4: Female, aged 70. Duration of the best i was ever, benzodiazepine usage: 20 years. First noticed tinnitus, mainly right-sided, on withdrawal from flurazepam 30mg daily in 1985. Tinnitus continuous ever since, not relieved by a course of diazepam. ENT examination normal. Drugs: no psychotropics; inhalers for asthma. Tinnitus is fairly common in the general population and the apparent relation to benzodiazepine use may be incidental, but these cases raise the fang statement, suspicion that benzodiazepines may occasionally cause permanent or only the best advice essay slowly reversible brain damage. Such damage may not be detectable on CAT scans; one study (Lader Petursson, 1984) suggested a mild degree of cortical shrinkage in chronic benzodiazepine users, but this finding was not confirmed in a later study (Perera, Powell, Jenner, 1987).

Two of the above patients also complained of unilateral headaches. Paraesthesiae: Paraesthesiae, in the form of tingling, pins and needles or numbness of the extremities or circumoral region, is another common symptom of benzodiazepine withdrawal. White Fang Thesis! The symptom also occurs in anxiety and the best advice ever essay possibly results from hyperventilation. Spanish About Summer! Benzodiazepines depress the sensitivity of the respiratory centre to carbon dioxide (Gilmartin, Corris, Stone, Veale, Gibson, 1988) and it is advice i was given possible that the respiratory centre becomes hypersensitive during withdrawal, triggering hyperventilation. Psycology Essay! Resolution of paraesthesiae usually occurs within a few weeks of withdrawal.

Occasionally, however, patients complain of numbness or of a burning sensation affecting the fingers, feet, and advice i was ever given legs that may be protracted for months or years. The symptoms suggest a peripheral sensory neuropathy and there may be demonstrable sensory impairment to light touch. Two patients summarised below typify several similar cases personally observed at a benzodiazepine withdrawal clinic. Case 1: Female, aged 56. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 15 years. Severe continuous burning pain of psycology essay, feet first noticed in advice essay, 1984 during slow reduction of lorazepam 7.5mg to white fang thesis statement 1.5mg daily. Changed to advice i was ever essay diazepam and slowly withdrawn over loan 1 year 1987-8. Burning feet persisted for a further year, gradually decreasing in intensity and now almost disappeared.

No abnormal signs; good peripheral pulses. Medication; promethazine 50mg nocte since 1988. Case 2: Female, aged 67. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 12 years. First noticed severe burning pain in feet and legs in 1981 during reduction of medazepam 15mg to ever essay 5mg daily. Pain persisted during diazepam substitution and slow withdrawal in 1985. 1986: still severe burning pain in legs not relieved by chlordiazepoxide. 1989: pain still present. Spanish Essay About Summer! Neurological examination, nerve conduction studies, serum foliate and B 12 levels normal; peripheral pulses present and normal. Formication is also common during benzodiazepine withdrawal, and the best advice given many patients temporarily complain of a feeling of insects crawling on the skin or of lice or nits in the hair. Occasionally, more bizarre sensations are reported, such as a feeling of slime or water running over the body, a sense of inner vibration, or a feeling of sweeteners research paper, trembling inside, and these symptoms may be protracted.

Such symptoms may be variants of the burning sensations described above or may possibly be psychotic, but have a temporal relationship to benzodiazepine withdrawal. Motor Symptoms: Increased muscle tension, hyperreflexia, tremor, fasciculation, and muscle jerking are common features of benzodiazepine withdrawal but usually resolve within weeks. Occasionally muscle jerking persists for a year or more after withdrawal, and the clinical picture may suggest myoclonus, tics, or exaggerated startle reactions. Shoulder girdle and limb muscles are usually affected, but blepharospasm can occur. The Best Advice Ever Given! Some patients complain of violent jerking of the whole body at the onset of sleep, which may occur 20 or more times a night. Restless legs syndrome may also be protracted. Dissertation Loan! Some of these symptoms may result from increased peripheral sympathetic tone since they are often improved by propranolol. Others may be centrally generated and at least partially respond to carbamazepine. The Best Advice! Blepharospasm can be controlled by local injection of botulinum toxin at 3 monthly intervals.

Protracted motor symptoms such as these raise the possibility that benzodiazepines are capable of causing long-term hyperexcitability of motoneurons or central motor pathways. Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Gastrointestinal symptoms are extremely common during chronic benzodiazepine use and in withdrawal. Many chronic benzodiazepine users have been investigated by gastroenterologists and found to have irritable bowel syndrome (Ashton, 1987). Psycology Essay! Gastrointestinal symptoms may be aggravated by hyperventilation (Lum, 1987) and the best ever given may disappear completely after benzodiazepine withdrawal, even in patients who have had irritable bowel syndrome for years. Nevertheless, there remains a sizeable core of patients who complain of psycology essay, food intolerance and gaseous abdominal distension which first appears during withdrawal and is protracted for many months. The Best Advice Ever Given! Tests for specific food allergies almost always prove negative, and the condition is unresponsive to conventional treatment. Patients often turn to alternative or fringe medicine, undergo various forms of diet, and become convinced that they have intestinal candidiasis or damage to the immune system. None of these claims have scientific support, although Lum (1987) reports that hyperventilation provokes histamine release and that the incidence of psycology essay, food intolerance and pseudo-allergic reactions is high in chronic hyperventilators. The effect of benzodiazepine withdrawal on gastrointestinal function and on coriocosteroid and immune responses (known to advice i was ever essay be affected by dissertation loan stress) perhaps merits further attention. Brain Mechanisms of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptoms. The primary effect of benzodiazepines is enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity on postsynaptic GABA-A receptors in the brain.

The effect results from an interaction with specific benzodiazepine binding sites on the GABA-receptor complex (Möhler Okada, 1977; Squires Braestrup, 1977), which increases the affinity of the receptors for GABA (Costa, 1981). GABA neurons consist of small interneurons forming local circuits which exert a powerful influence on the excitability of other neurons passing through their spatial domain (Bloom, 1985). Such local GABA circuits are widely distributed throughout the i was essay, brain, including the reticular formation, limbic system structures, cerebral and cerebellar cortex (Young Kuhar, 1980). Spanish Essay Summer Vacation! GABA is a universal inhibitor of nervous activity and also inhibits the release of excitatory neurotransmitters (Benton Rick, 1976). Thus the actions of benzodiazepines include not only enhancement of GABA activity at i was, many brain sites but also decreased release of acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin (Faefely, Pieri, Pole, Schaffer, 1981). The clinical effects of psycology essay, benzodiazepines probably result from a combination of these primary and secondary effects at critical sites. For example, the anxiolytic effects may be due to decreased serotonergic and noradrenergic activity in septo-hippocampal pathways (Gray, 1981).

Thus benzodiazepine actions are by no means confined to the best given essay a particular neurotransmitter or brain pathway. Any chronically used drug gradually engenders a series of homeostatic responses which tend to restore normal function despite the presence of the drug. Planning! With chronic benzodiazepine use, compensatory changes occur in GABA receptors. Such changes consist of decreased sensitivity of these receptors to GABA, probably as a result of alterations in given, affinity state and dissertation decreased density (Cowan Nutt, 1982; Nutt, 1986). In addition, there are changes in the secondary systems controlled by GABA, so that the output of excitatory neurotransmitters tends to be restored, and/or the sensitivity of the best advice ever essay, their receptors increases.

The whole complex of primary and secondary changes eventually results in benzodiazepine tolerance. This pharmacodynamic tolerance develops unevenly to different benzodiazepine effects. Artificial Sweeteners Research Paper! For example, tolerance appears more rapidly to hypnotic and anticonvulsant than to i was ever essay anxiolytic effects (Sepinwall Cook, 1979). Tolerance to different effects may also vary between individuals, possibly due to write to describe variations in intrinsic GABA activity in ever given, different parts of the brain, which are in turn reflected in psycology essay, personality characteristics and susceptibility to stress. I Was Ever! Tolerance is never complete and probably never reaches a perfect equilibrium in all brain systems, which may be one reason for the high morbidity amongst chronic benzodiazepine users (Ashton, 1987).

Acute tolerance, especially to hypnotic effects, can be manifested rapidly, but chronic tolerance develops over white fang thesis a time-course of several weeks. Once established, chronic tolerance can last for months or even years after cessation of some central nervous system depressants such as alcohol (Cicero, 1979) and probably also benzodiazepines. The development of given essay, pharmacodynamic tolerance sets the scene for the withdrawal syndrome. Cessation of the drug exposes all the adaptations which have accrued to artificial sweeteners research counteract its presence, releasing a rebound of unopposed activity involving many neurotransmitters and their receptors and many brain systems. Clinically this state is manifested as the the best given essay, withdrawal syndrome, consisting of effects that are largely the opposite of those originally induced by the drug. The distribution, duration, and severity of symptoms depend on the particular systems that have undergone adaptive modulations and dissertation student the degree of the adaptive changes induced, as well as on the rate of drug withdrawal.

Some authors distinguish between rebound and withdrawal effects, but the the best, mechanism is the same for both (Lader, 1988) Acute withdrawal effects are reversed by an appropriate dose of the drug, which restores the status quo . As the homeostatic changes slowly reverse, withdrawal symptoms decline. The process of essay, reversal, like that of tolerance acquisition, does not necessarily proceed evenly in all systems. The variable time of the best essay, emergence and dissertation student loan duration of individual symptoms during benzodiazepine withdrawal noted by Tyrer (1989) and i was essay Ashton et al . (1990) (Table 1) may reflect this uneven course. The perturbations of brain function induced by benzodiazepines are exceedingly complex, and sweeteners research it is not surprising that withdrawal symptoms are many and variable. Different symptoms may reflect disturbance of the balance between different neurotransmitter systems as suggested by Ashton (1984) and advice i was ever essay are likely to show large interindividual differences depending on personal characteristics and susceptibilities. As discussed above, it is difficult to set a definite time limit on the reversal of tolerance and, therefore, the end of the withdrawal syndrome.

In general, tolerance declines over a matter of weeks, but in psycology essay, some cases it may endure for a year or more (Cicero, 1979). Delayed or slow reversal of tolerance may account for some protracted withdrawal symptoms. However, some changes induced by the best ever given benzodiazepines may be permanent or only very slowly reversible. Since benzodiazepines apparently inhibit learning, especially for coping with stress strategies (Gray, 1987), cessation after many years of use may expose a learning deficit, especially in the ability to cope with stress. Dissertation! This may persist as protracted anxiety, and may possibly be related to protracted depression. Anxiety symptoms are likely to endure until new learning has induced the appropriate synaptic changes, which probably involve modification of endogenous GABA activity. Finally, there remains the question of advice i was given, whether benzodiazepines can cause structural neurological damage.

Like alcohol, benzodiazepines are lipid soluble, are highly concentrated in the brain, and impair cerebral cortical, cerebellar, and thesis limbic system function. It is ever essay possible that use over many years could cause physical changes such as cortical shrinkage, which may be only partially reversible. Such changes have been demonstrated by CAT-scan studies in young alcoholics (Lee, Möller, Hardt, Haubek, Jenson, 1979; staff, British Medical Journal, 1981) although not conclusively in chronic benzodiazepine users (Lader Petursson, 1984; Perera, Powell, Jenner, 1987). However, such techniques may not be sensitive enough to detect subtle changes. Nor are standard tests of intellectual function sensitive enough to psycology essay detect minor degrees of cognitive impairment that may persist after withdrawal in some long-term users. It remains possible that some protracted benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms (including tinnitus and other neurological and psychological symptoms) could result from physicochemical neuronal damage. These symptoms would not be fully relieved by restarting benzodiazepines. There are still many puzzling features of benzodiazepine withdrawal, and the benzodiazepine story remains unfinished (Ashton, 1984). Ashton, H. (1989). Risks of dependence on benzodiazepine drugs: A major problem of long-term treatment.

British Medical Journal , 298, 103-104. Ashton, H., Golding. J.F. I Was Ever Essay! (1989). Tranquillisers: Prevalence, predictors and possible consequences. Data from a large United Kingdom Survey. British Journal of Addiction , 84,541-546. Ashton, H., Rawlins, M.D. Tyrer, S.P. (1990). A double blind placebo controlled study of buspirone in diazepam withdrawal in chronic benzodiazepine users.

British Journal of spanish essay vacation, Addiction, 157, 232-238. Ashton, H., Stepney, R. Essay! (1982) Smoking: Psychology and pharmacology , London: Tavistock Publications. Benton, D., Rick, J.T. (1976). The effect of mba thesis planning, increased brain GABA produced by amino-oxyacetic acid on i was ever arousal in rats. White Fang! Psychopharmacology , 49, 85-89. Bloom, F.E. (1985). Neurohumoral transmission in the central nervous system. In A.G.

Gilman, L.S. Goodman, T.W. Rall, F. Muland (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of the best advice i was essay, therapeutics (pp. Loan! 236-259). New York: Macmillan. Busto, U., Fornazzari, L., Naranjo, C.A. (1988). Protracted tinnitus after discontinuation of advice, long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology , 8, 359-362.

Busto, U., Sellers, E.M., Naranjo, C.A. Cappell, H.P., Sanchez, C.M., Sykora, K. (1986). Withdrawal reaction after long-term therapeutic use of dissertation, benzodiazepines. New England Journal of Medicine , 315, 654-659. Cicero, T.J. (1979). Advice I Was Ever Given! Tolerance to and physical dependence on alcohol: Behavioural and neurobiological mechanisms. in Brain and to describe essay pituitary peptides (pp.1603-1617). Munich: Ferring Symposium 1979.

Costa, E. (1981). The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the action of 1,4 benzodiazepines. In J.W. Lamble (Ed), Towards understanding receptors (pp. 176-183). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland. Cowen, P.J., Nutt, D.J. (1982).

Abstinence symptoms after withdrawal from the best advice ever tranquillising drugs: Is there a common neurochemical mechanism? Lancet ,2,360-362. Gilmartin, J.J., Corris, P.A., Stone, T.N., Veale, D., Gibson, G.J. (1988). Effects of diazepam and artificial sweeteners paper chlormethiazole on the best ever given essay ventilatory control in normal subject. Research! British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , 25, 766-770. Golding, J.F., Cornish, A.M. (1987).

Personality and life-style in medical students: Psychopharmacological aspects. Advice I Was Ever! Psychology and Health , 1, 287-301. Golding, J.F., Harper, T., Brent-Smith, H. (1983). Personality, drinking and drug-taking correlates of sweeteners research, cigarette smoking. Personality and the best advice i was given essay Individual Differences , 4, 703-706. Gray, J.A. (1981). Planning! Anxiety as a paradigm case of emotion.

British Medical Bulletin , 37, 193-197. Gray, J. A. The Best I Was Ever Given Essay! (1987). The neuropsychology of emotion and personality. In S.M. Stahl, S.D. Iverson, E.C. Goodman (Eds.), Cognitive neurochemistry (pp.171-190). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Haefley, W., Pieri, L., Pole, P., Schaffer, R. (1981). Dissertation Student! General pharmacology and i was given essay neuropharmacology of benzodiazepine derivatives. In H. Hoffmeister, and G. Stille (Eds.), Handbook of on strategic, experimental pharmacology (Vol.

55, 11, pp. 13-262). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Hallström, C., Lader, M. The Best I Was Given Essay! (1981). Benzodiazepine withdrawal phenomena. Spanish Essay Vacation! International Pharmacopsychiatry , 16, 235-244. Hermann, J.B., Brotman, A.W., Rosenbaum, J.F. (1987). Rebound anxiety in panic disorder patients treated with shorter-acting benzodiazepines.

Journal of Clinical Psychiatry , 48 (suppl. 10), 22-28. Kales, A., Scharf, M.B., Kales, J.D. (1978). Rebound insomnia: A new clinical syndrome. The Best! Science , 201, 1039-1041. Lader, M. (1988). The psychopharmacology of addiction - Benzodiazepine tolerance and dependence.

In M. Lader (Ed.), T he psychopharmacology of addiction (pp. 1-14). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lader, M.H., Olajide, D. Psycology Essay! (1987). A comparison of buspirone and placebo in relieving benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. Advice Given Essay! Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology , 7, 11-15. Lader, M.H., Petursson, H. Artificial Sweeteners! (1981). Benzodiazepine derivatives - Side effects and given essay dangers. Biological Psychiatry , 16, 1195-1212.

Lader, M.H., Ron, M., Petursson, R.H. (1984). Computed axial brain tomography in long-term benzodiazepine users. Psychological Medicine , 14, 203-206. Lee, K., Moller, L., Hardt, F., Haubek, A., Jenson, E. (1979). Alcohol-injured brain damage and liver damage in young males. White Fang Thesis! Lancet 2, 759-761.

Lum, L.C., (1987). Hyperventilation syndromes in medicine and psychiatry: A review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine , 80, 229-231. Möhler, H., Okada, T. (1977). Benzodiazepine receptors: Demonstration in the central nervous system. The Best Advice Given Essay! Science 198, 849-851.

Murphy, S.M., Owen, R.T., Tyrer, P.J., (1984). Withdrawal symptoms after six week’s treatment with diazepam. Lancet , 1389. Murphy, S.M., Tyrer, P. Psycology Essay! (1988). The essence of benzodiazepine dependence. (pp. 157-167). The Best Ever Given Essay! Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nutt, D. (1986). Benzodiazepine dependence in the clinic: Reason for anxiety? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 7, 457-460. Olijade, D., Lader, M. (1984). Sweeteners! Depression following withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use: A report of the best advice ever, four cases.

Psychological Medicine , 14, 937-940. Oswald, I. (1989) Triazolam syndrome 10 years on. Lancet 1, 451-452. Owen, R.T., Tyrer, P. (1983) Benzodiazepine dependence: A review of the evidence. To Describe Essay! Drugs , 25, 385-398. Perera, K.M.H., Powell, T., Jenner, F.A. (1987). Computerised axial tomographic studies following long-term use of benzodiazepines. Psychological Medicine , 17, 775-777.

Petursson, H., Lader, M.H. (1981a) Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment. British Medical Journal , 283, 634-635. Petursson, H., Lader, M.H. (1981b). Benzodiazepine dependence. British Journal of Addiction , 76, 133-145. Rementeria, J.L., Bhatt, K. (1977).

Withdrawal symptoms in the best advice i was ever given, neonates from psycology essay intrauterine exposure to diazepam. Journal of Paediatrics , 90, 123-125. Sepinwall, J., Cook, L. (1979). Mechanisms of advice i was ever essay, action of the benzodiazepines: Behavioural aspects. Federation Proceedings 39, 3024-3031. Smith, D.E., Wesson, D.R. (1983). Benzodiazepine dependency syndromes.

Journal of white statement, Psychoactive Drugs , 15, 85-95. Squires, R.F., Braestrup, C. The Best Advice Ever Given! (1977). Benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. Artificial Paper! Nature , 266,732-734. Staff. (1981). Minor brain damage and alcoholism. British Medical Journal , 2, 455-456. Tyrer, P. (1990) Diagnosis of benzodiazepine dependence . Unpublished manuscript. Tyrer, P., Murphy, S., Riley, P. (1989). Advice Essay! The benzodiazepine withdrawal symptom questionnaire.

Journal of Affective Disorders , 19, 53-61. Tyrer, P., Owen, R., Dawling, S. Sweeteners Research Paper! (1983). The Best Advice I Was Ever Given! Gradual withdrawal of diazepam after long-term therapy. Lancet 1, 1402-1406. Tyrer, P., Rutherford, D., Higgett, T. (1981). Benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms and thesis statement propranolol. Advice I Was Ever! Lancet , 1, 520-522. Winokur, A., Rickels, K., Greenblatt, D.J., Schatz, N.J. (1980). Withdrawal reaction from long-term low dosage administration of diazepam.

Archives of mba thesis on strategic planning, General Psychiatry , 37, 101-105. Young, W.S., Kuhar, M.J. (1980). Radiohistochemical localisation of benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain. The Best Advice I Was Given Essay! Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , 212, 337-346. Zigmond, A.S., Snaith, R.P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica , 67, 361-370. FIGURE 1. WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS RATING SCALE. Ratings: 0=none 1=mild 2=moderate 3=severe.

FIGURE 1. Withdrawal Symptoms Rating Scale. FIGURE 2. Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale scores for anxiety over 20 weeks in fang thesis statement, 18 healthy students and 12 patients taking diazepam (7.5 SD 4.6 daily). Patients and the best advice essay students took placebo tablets until week 20. Patients withdrew from diazepam during weeks 8-12. One patient dropped out after 12 weeks for domestic reasons. Circles represent placebo group; triangles represent students. FIGURE 3. Withdrawal symptoms scores over white fang thesis 20 weeks in i was given, 18 healthy students and 12 patients taking diazepam (7.5mg SD 4.6 daily).

Patients and procedures as in Figure 2. Symptom rating shown in Figure 1. On Strategic! Circles represent placebo group; triangles represent students. TABLE 1. Scores for ever given essay, selected symptoms before, during, and after diazepam withdrawal. ( n = 11; mean total scores on withdrawal symptoms scale shown in Figure 1. (postwithdrawal score equal. to or less than prewithdrawal. greater than prewithdrawal. Sensory hypersensitivity: to light, sound, taste, smell. Anxiety: Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale (anxiety) scores. Paraesthesiae: tingling, numbness, altered sensitivity in limbs, face, trunk.

Motor symptoms: total score for stiffness, weakness, tremor, muscle twitches, ataxia.

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Good luck and thanks for leaving a comment! Hope this helps! Having troubles with writing an excellent essay. Given? Thanks! :) I hope it helps you come up with some ideas! :) Good luck and thanks for stopping by! hello , im from egypt and i need this book .. On Strategic Planning? how many days will it take to receive it?? You don’t have to wait at all – it’s an i was instant download as a .PDF file, so you’ll have it in a couple of minutes! Once you have it, you can print it off for yourself, or work straight from the computer like I do with my students!

[…] the SAT essay examples and evidence at my official […] I am definitely in for an 800 on the SAT Writing. No kidding. Studying for the SAT Writing has never been this sweet. I can spot any error, tell you the kind, and profer a possible revision in seconds. Isn’t that grand? I think you already covet my skill. My essay is another thing to behold. I absolutely know I will not go short of essay evidence on test day.

It may sound cavalier but it is the truth. Merely looking at an essay prompt, I already have more than three WONDERFUL evidences to pick from. This makes life easy and about vacation sweet and drastically raises your score. I am still surprised at i was given essay how easily my Writing score rose to an 800 in two weeks. Guys, Gurls, you NEED to check this out! I’ve been looking for this kind of book for a really long time. Your website has been giving me a lot of help and it makes me excited to dissertation student, study SAT too. I appreciate it! Are these generic examples like Ghandi and Martin Luther King or are they somewhat unique?

They’re definitely more unique than Gandhi and the best ever given MLK! Almost all of my examples are famous in some way, but I definitely got off the beaten path and picked some interesting topics. Loan? My motto was, if I didn’t find it interesting to research, they weren’t worth using. You should purchase a copy and i was ever given see for spanish about summer vacation yourself! :) If you don’t like it for i was ever some reason, you can get a complete money-back refund! I really study a lot to psycology essay, reach 800 points, but I have only 2 weeks to prepare for SAT. I’ll gonna take the SAT in nov.

3 and my mom registered me last week. I don’t know what to do, I’m really scared because 2 weeks is the best advice given not enough for me to prepare. And my mom will gonna buy the official SAT study guide book next week. I’m really stressed about this. Psycology Essay? What should I do. John – I understand how stressful it can be. Take a deep breath and try to relax a little bit! Worrying doesn’t help you; it’s better to take action. Advice I Was Ever Given Essay? If I were you, I would get my SAT prep e-books from the bookstore on this site, particularly the Grammar and artificial research paper Math books, and use the diagnostic tests in those books to find your weak spots.

Then, make sure to advice given, practice those weak spots until you understand them better. 2 weeks is not a long time, but if you use it well, it’s enough to improve your score significantly. Here’s another tip – if I were you, I wouldn’t worry much about the sweeteners paper, Essay score or my Critical Reading score. The Best Advice? The essay score doesn’t matter all that much, and the Critical Reading score is to describe very tough to advice given essay, improve in only 2 weeks because it’s based on your life-long reading skill level and vocabulary. So, if you stay focused on the Math and Grammar, you will maximize your score improvement. Just my $.02; hope it helps. By the mba thesis planning, way, if you join the given essay, mailing list, you get a huge discount on my complete SAT prep e-book collection, so that’s probably how you can get the psycology essay, best value for your money. Good luck and remember to relax – life goes on after the SAT! :) You might just save my life, you know. While my English may be strong in terms of grammar and diction, I don’t follow an the best i was American curriculum so I’m not really familiar with American/European history and the literature of a million years ago. So the essay pretty much always lowers my SAT score.

Thanks a million billion for white thesis this :) It makes me very cheerful to help a student in need :) Yes, I’ve noticed that many of the families that buy the advice i was, Essay Examples are from countries from outside the US, although I also think they’re useful even for students who grew up here and write have forgotten what they learned in History class, haha.. does the ever essay, book contains the explanation about artificial, what type of theme we can use ,like the one you explain in advice i was essay the literature ? and how can i buy one in PDF? Do you send it by dissertation post or email it. It’s an instant e-mail download! can any one help me please?

I need this book, I will be taking the i was essay, SAT on 26 Jan! Please help me, I am broke, I dont have any email is Hey Conrade, I just sent you an e-mail with an idea for how I might be able to help you out, […] below mentioned some of the research paper, SAT essay topics that you can write […] Hey christian this is the best advice i was alaa, i am an international SAT candidate i’d like to thank you for your beneficial information but i’d to let you know about my problem;it’s in writing the dissertation loan, essay ,like i know how to the best i was given, get good ideas but i don’t really know how to express or convey my idea and i alwasys mess up :( So can please give me a solution or way to get rid of my problem? I’ll be really grateful and thanx again. This document of examples is mba thesis on strategic planning amazing. My SAT is tomorrow and I needed a handful of concrete examples to give me more confidence in the essay section of the exam. The Best I Was Essay? I highly recommend this to anyone who is unsure of what examples to use for write to describe essay whichever question the SATs throw at us. Thanks a ton for this guide :)

Ah, who doesn’t love positive reviews :) Thanks for i was ever given essay returning to tell us that my guide was useful to you! For anyone who’s on fang thesis, the fence about purchasing your instant download – don’t forget that you’re covered by a 30-day money-back guarantee! About Christian Heath: SAT Prep Tutor. Christian has scored a perfect 2400 on the best advice i was given, the SAT. He's personally tutored over 200 students in one-on-one lessons through his independent SAT tutoring company. Although he's only 26 years old, his tutoring methods were an spanish essay vacation overnight local success in the Austin, TX area, and he started this website to share his tips worldwide. He's also the author of an the best essay internationally-read SAT prep textbook series and creator of the white thesis statement, Winning College Scholarships video course.

Want to learn more about Christian's qualifications and how this site can help you improve? Keep reading.

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LA Youth » Essay contest: What s the best advice you ve gotten?

10 Most Useless Resumes Employers Don#8217;t Want Anymore. One of the most important parts of applying for a job is presenting your resume. You have to make sure it’s error free, it contains an accurate representation of your career accomplishments, and it’s easy to read. However, there are some other things you might be forgetting when putting together your resume. Not to fear. Given! We’ll offer you a rundown of some resume mistakes that could cause you to lose out on a job interview. Here are the 10 most useless resumes employers don’t want anymore. Leave the cute pictures for student your Facebook profile. |

Unless you’re applying for an acting role or some other position where appearance is important, don’t include a picture of yourself. When you add a photo, it could put you in the best i was ever, a position to be discriminated against based on race, age, or gender. Including a picture is generally more acceptable outside the United States, but if your job is U.S. based, your best bet is to forget the head shot. Career expert Lisa Rangel told HR Bartender that including a photo also shows you don’t have a clear understanding of how the hiring process works. “In the U.S., employers are to spanish essay summer make employment decisions based on qualifications and not appearance, race, gender, and other categories protected by labor laws,#8221; Rangel said. #8220;Photos give information that shouldn’t contribute to a hiring decision. Therefore, resumes in the U.S. don’t need and shouldn’t have pictures. Including a photo on i was, U.S. resumes can send a message that the artificial sweeteners research candidate doesn’t understand hiring protocols.#8221; 2. A resume without social media links.

Show the interviewer you#8217;re part of the digital age. | We live in a digital age now. If you don’t have any social media accounts, now is the time to get at advice given least one. Psycology Essay! At the bare minimum, you should have a LinkedIn account. This gives potential employers a brief look at the best ever essay your work history. Most employers will conduct a brief internet search to see what you’re all about. A CareerBuilder survey found 43% of psycology essay, employers check a candidate’s social media profiles. If you have little or no online presence, this could raise a red flag. Hiring managers might assume you’re resistant to change and that technology scares you. Don’t ruin your first impression before you’ve even met.

Even if you#8217;re a frustrated writer, don#8217;t write your novel. | A resume, unlike a curriculum vitae, should not be several pages long. Job seekers seem to get the two confused, so we’ll break it down for you. A curriculum vitae, which means “course of life” in Latin, is a document that can be two or more pages and contains detailed information about your professional achievements. The goal is to provide an account of your entire work experience. A resume, on the other hand, provides a brief summary of your work history. When a recruiter asks for your resume, they are expecting something brief. It’s generally best not to submit anything longer than two pages. Don#8217;t go overboard with keywords. The Best Ever! | Now that most employers are using technology to store and track resumes, it’s important to make sure you have the right keywords. However, make sure you don’t overdo it.

Applicant tracking systems can flag resumes that use a keyword too many times. In life and in job searching, moderation is white fang thesis key. So if you want a real, live human to get their hands on your resume, don’t go overboard trying to sell yourself. 5. A resume with irrelevant work experience. Only list what is the best i was given essay relevant. | Justin Sullivan/Getty Images. Each resume and artificial sweeteners job application should be tailored to the job you’re applying for. The Best I Was Given! Take the time to make sure the jobs and psycology essay experience you have listed align with what the employer is requesting in given essay, the job description. No matter how impressive your performance was as a short-order cook at your local diner, it won’t matter if it’s completely unrelated to the job you’re trying to get, and you’d be hard-pressed to demonstrate transferable skills. 6. To Describe! A resume listing your interests and the best i was essay hobbies.

What you do during your free time is your business, so don’t include it on your resume. | Do you like to fang statement take long walks on the beach or knit quietly by the best ever essay, the fireplace? Are you the hot dog eating champion in your town? Chances are hiring managers don’t care about this. What you do during your free time is your business, so don’t include it on your resume. Unless your interests and hobbies are directly related to white fang the job you’re applying for, it’s best not to mention it.

You can elaborate on your career goals and objective when you get to the interview. | Objectives generally aren’t necessary anymore. You can elaborate on your career goals when you get to the interview. The only time an advice ever objective might be appropriate is when you are making a significant career change. This might give the interviewer a better understanding of why you’re applying for the job and research could reduce your chances of the best advice ever given, getting passed over for an interview. As an alternative, career expert Kimberly Myers recommends including a professional summary. Sweeteners! Let your resume breathe. | Hiring managers and recruiters are reading dozens of resumes a day. Do yourself #8212; and them #8212; a favor, and ever given let your resume breathe.

Although it’s best to white thesis statement keep your resume to one or two pages, don’t try to win the advice i was ever given page-count contest and squeeze everything onto one page. Artificial Paper! It’s better to advice ever have a readable resume that’s two pages than one with a layout so tight it looks like a newspaper. 9. Write To Describe! A resume with too much white space. Too much white space is bad. | The Best I Was Ever! If you don’t have a lot of work experience, you might have a difficult time formatting your resume. You might be tempted to use a lot of space to stretch out the formatting.

Unfortunately, including too much space will likely draw attention to the fact that you lack inexperience. Dissertation Student Loan! If you have volunteer experience, your best bet is to include that with the rest of the best ever given, your work history. Dissertation! Just make sure to identify it as such. Just say no to ever old resumes. Write! | As you gain more experience, you should be taking the advice i was ever essay time to update your work history. Artificial Paper! Once you’re in advice i was given, the interview (if you get that far), it’s unlikely you’ll have the time to spanish summer email an updated version of your resume. Even if the interviewer allows you to do that, it just looks unprofessional.

Failure to keep your work experience updated sends the message that you’re not serious about ever essay your career.

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LA Youth » Essay contest: What s the best advice you ve gotten?

Free Information Technology essays. 1.1 Problem Statement. Volume, variety and the best advice i was essay, velocity of on strategic planning data is the best i was ever essay increasing day by day, it leads to on strategic planning, the generation of big data and by using existing techniques it is the best i was given essay not easy to process such big volume of data and mine frequent patterns that exist in data . Perform Association Rule Mining and FP Growth on Big Data of E-Commerce Market to find frequent patterns and association rules among item sets present in database by on strategic planning, using reduced Apriori Algorithm and reduced FP Growth Algorithm on top of Mahout (an open source library or java API) built on Hadoop Map Reduce Framework. Big Data refers to datasets whose amount is away from the ability of characteristic database software tools to analyze, store, manage and capture. This explanation is deliberately incorporates and subjective, a good definition of how large a dataset needs to be in order to given essay, be considered as big data i.e. we cannot define big data in terms of being big than a certain number of terabytes or thousands of gigabytes. We suppose that as technology advances with time the volume of spanish essay vacation datasets that would be eligible as big data will also rise. The definition can differ from advice essay, sector to sector; it is depending up on which kind of software tools are normally present and what size of to describe essay datasets are general in a particular industry. According to i was ever given essay, study, today big data in many sectors will range from a few dozen terabytes to thousands of terabytes. ' Velocity, Variety and Volume of data is growing day by day that is why it is not easy to manage large amount of data.

' According to study, 30 billion data or content shared on face book every month. Issues/Problems while analysing Big Data: ' According to analysis, every day more than one billion shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange. ' According to analysis, every day Facebook saves two billion comments and likes. ' According to analysis, every minute Foursquare manages more than two thousand Check-ins. ' According to analysis, every minute Trans Union makes nearly 70,000 update to credit files. ' According to analysis, every second Banks process more than ten thousand credit card transactions. We are producing data more rapidly than ever: ' According to psycology essay, study processes are more and more automated.

' According to study people are more and more interacting online. ' According to study systems are more and more interconnected. We are producing a variety of data including: ' Social network connections. ' Product rating comments. Big data[5][6] is the i was essay term for a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications. Gartner, and now much of the industry, continue to use this 3Vs model for describing big data [7]. In 2012, Gartner updated its definition as follows: Big data is the term that can be defined as high velocity, volume and variety of information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced result building, nearby discovery and process optimization [8]. Additionally, a new V Veracity is added by some organizations to to describe, describe it. Big data has evolved like a very important factor in the economic and technology field, as Similar to advice i was ever given, other important factors of invention like hard-assets human-capital, high in numbers the present economic activity merely could n't take position exclusive of it.

We can say that by essay, looking at the best essay current position of the departments in the US economic companies have minimum of 200TB data storage on paper, an average if considered(as double as the size of Wal-Mart's data warehouse of US-retailer in 1999) having one thousand workers approximately. In fact many departments have 1peta-byte 'PB' (in mean) data storage per advice given essay, organization. The growth of the big data will be continue to reach to an high extent, due to the modern technologies, platforms and their logical units and capabilities for handling large amount of data and also its large no. of artificial sweeteners research paper upcoming users. Utilization of the best i was essay Big Data will turn Out to artificial research, Be a Key base of Competition and Growth for Individual Firms: Usage of the best i was big-data has become an important medium for the leading firms to get better in their data handling. If we consider an example of a retail company, the company can increase its operating margin by sweeteners research, 60% approximately by embracing their big data. Ever Essay. The chief retailers like UK's TESCO and write to describe, many more use big-data to keep market revenue-share in their pocket against from their local competitors. The emergence of big-data also has capability to evolutes new growth opportunities for those companies who have both combine and industry analyzing data. Even the companies who have their data at the mid-point of large info data about the objectives and demands of i was essay their users, services, buyers, products suppliers can be easily analyzed and captured using big-data.

The big-data usage in any firm or company can facilitate the healthy and more enhanced analyzing of data and its outcome, by deploying the big-data in the firm there will be lower prices of product, higher quality and healthy match between the company and mba thesis on strategic, customer's need. We can say that the step forward towards the acceptance of big data can improve customer surplus and advice given, acceleration of performance along all the companies. Figure1.1: Types of data generated. Significance of Big Data: ' The administrator of the Obama has announced the idea of big-data Rd which is student very useful to handle the several obstacles and problem which government is facing now a days. Their idea comprised of the best advice essay 84 big-data programs with 6 different departments. ' Big data study played a big role for Obama's successful 2012 re-election campaign. ' uses two data warehouse that consists of 7.5 petabytes and 40 petabytes as well as 40 petabytes Hadoop cluster for merchandising, recommendations and to describe, search. ' Everyday, also handles large amount of data (in millions) and its related back-end operations as well as requested queries from third part sellers on an average of more than half million. ' More than 1Million consumer-transactions processes every hour in Walmart, that is put into databases and the best advice given, estimation is mba thesis done on data. ' Facebook also has 50 billion pictures of its user and i was essay, process it very well.

' F.I.C.O. that is essay 'Falcon Credit Card Fraud Detection System' handles and secure 2.1-billion active a/c worlds widely. ' According to the best i was ever, estimation, the size of the data stored of business and companies is increasing to the double in every 1.2 years. ' Windermere Real Estate uses various 'GPS signals' from nearly 100 million drivers which help new home seekers to determine their critical times to from vacation, work around the times. ' Hadoop is an open source that is the best ever called free software framework or technology for processing the huge datasets for certain kinds of problems on the distributed system. ' Hadoop is an open source piece of software that mines or extracts the sequential and non-sequential big-data for on strategic planning, a company and then integrates that big-data with your present business intelligence ecosystem. ' Hadoop works on essay, the most important principle called Map-Reduce (map task reduce task), the main work of the map-reduce is to divide the input dataset into number of independent pieces which are then processed in to describe the parallel-manner by the map tasks.

' The output generated by the map task will become input to the reduce task after performed sorting on the best advice ever, the output by framework. ' A file system is used to store the input and the output of the artificial sweeteners paper jobs. ' Some tasks failed during execution so framework takes care of advice i was given monitoring the tasks, 're-executes' the failed tasks and write to describe, scheduling the tasks. History of Hadoop: ' The main or the very important organization from where the history of Hadoop began is none other than best company of the world 'Google'. ' Google published two academic research papers on the technology called 'Google File-System' (GFS) and 'Map-Reduce' in the year 2003 and 2004.

' After some time these two technologies combined together and provided a good plat-form for processing huge amount of advice given essay data in well-organized or effective manner. ' Doug Cutting also played a very important role to develop Hadoop an open source framework that provides the 'implementations' of 'Map-Reduce' and 'Google File System'. ' Doug Cutting had been working on the elements of open source web search engine called 'Nutch' that completely resembles with the technologies 'Map-Reduce' and 'Google File System' published in artificial paper the Google's research paper. ' In this way Hadoop was born but when it was developed first time, it was named as the 'subproject of Lucene'. ' After that Apache open source foundation did some changes in it and named as 'Apache's open source framework Hadoop' that can be used for processing Big Data in less time. ' Later Doug Cutting was hired by another big company that is yahoo. He and other employees of yahoo contributed a lot to Hadoop but after some time Doug Cutting moved to the best ever essay, 'Cloudera' and his other teams was hired by an organization called 'Hortonworks'. ' Still we can say that yahoo has the biggest contribution to develop Hadoop. What is Apache Mahout? ' Mahout is an API or we can say that it is the library of scalable 'machine-learning' or 'collective-intelligence' algorithms like (classification, clustering, collaborative-filtering and white, frequent-pattern-mining) that is mailnly used for mining frequent item sets, it takes a group of item sets and identifies that which individual items usually or mainly appear together.

' When the size of data is too large then in such kind of advice circumstances Mahout is write used as the best 'machine-learning' tool because number of algorithms like clustering, pattern mining and collaborative-filtering has been implemented in mahout, it can produce the outputs fast when used on top of Hadoop. History of Mahout: ' The life of Mahout was started in the year 2008, at this time it was treated as the the best i was given 'sub-project' of one of the major project of Apache named as 'Apache's Lucene Project'. ' The techniques like search, text-mining and 'information-retrievel' were implemented by Apache's Lucene project. ' Some of the members of the project Lucene were working on student, the same technology that is 'machine-learning' areas, so these members also contributed to mahout and the best advice i was ever, a separate project named 'Mahout' was generated which works on write to describe, the principle to predicts future on the basis of past.. ' The algorithms implemented in Mahout were not only the best i was ever implemented in thesis statement the conventional way but also implemented in such a way that Mahout Framework and algorithms could easily process the large amount of data while working on top of Hadoop using Mahout. Now in the best ever given essay the next section I will present the brief introduction of each algorithm that has been implemented on Mahout. ' Collaborative-Filtering is the technique of filter out some important data from the large amount of data which user browse, preference and rate, in artificial sweeteners research paper other words we can say that collaborative filtering is the process of generating predictions on the basis of users past behavior or history and suggest or recommend users the top most predicted data or top 'N' recommendations so that it might be helpful for user in his/her future decisions. ' Collaborative-Filtering can be performed in two ways, item-based collaborative filtering and user-based collaborative filtering. ' User-based collaborative filtering is the technique that find neighbors having similar taste like user from the large amount of user preferences database then suggest or generates the recommendations for user but like and the best advice i was given essay, dislike of user is not static so the recommendations generated using this technique is not so effective and bottleneck problem also occurs so Item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is used these days to generate recommendations for a user because it removes the problem of bottleneck and it first finds the essay items having similar relationship that user has liked from large pool of items and then generate the recommendations. ' Item based collaborative filtering works on the principle that similarity among item remains static but user likes and dislikes may change so this technique generates good quality of ever recommendations as compared to user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. ' Association-rule-mining is the technique used to find some rules on the basis of on strategic planning which the growth of an organization can be increased.

' There are number of algorithms on the best advice i was essay, the basis of write essay which we can find frequent patterns from the large of dataset, on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some rules that would be really helpful to increase the turnover of an organization. Architecture of Map-Reduce: A paper on the idea named 'Map-reduce' was published by 'Google' in 2004 that was used as architecture. Map-reduce [9] named architectural framework is able to model the parallel processing and its implementation used to process the large amount of data stored. Using this technology, the requested query is splitted into sub queries and then distributed among several parallel sites and processed parallel which is advice i was given called the 'Map-step'. Then the to describe results obtained are combined and delivered that is the reduce step.

This 'frame-work' was extremely successful; in fact the others wanted to make its replica. Therefore, Map Reduce framework's implementation named 'HADOOP' was adopted by an Apache open source project. Figure1.3: MAP-Reduce Flow. Existing Techniques and Technologies: The several technologies have been adapted and developed to manipulate, analyse, visualize and advice ever given essay, aggregate huge quantity of data. These technologies and techniques describe from numerous areas including computer science, applied mathematics, economics and statistics. A number of technologies and techniques were developed in essay vacation the world having access to smaller variety and volumes in data but they have been effectively adapted so that they could be valid to ever, very big sets or more dissimilar data. Big data needs outstanding technologies to resourcefully process large amount of sweeteners data within sufficient intervened times. A 2011 report on big data suggests suitable Big Data techniques include:

A/B Testing: It is a technique in which the i was essay comparison between control group and different test groups is done to obtain the answer that what changes can improve the aim of it. Association Rules: A set of these techniques is used find significant relationships that are association rules between identifiers of huge data storage. Psycology Essay. Numbers of algorithms are present inside this technology to produce and test feasible rules. Classification: A technique which is mainly used to classify the items present in the dataset and usually used to predict the nature of a class using other attributes. For Example: Prediction of weather on the basis of previous day's weather. Cluster Analysis: It is the technique used to advice i was ever essay, group the white thesis number of objects having similar properties into one cluster and other objects having similar properties with each other but dissimilar to other cluster group into one cluster. It is i was ever given essay a type of 'unsupervised-learning' because training data are not used. Research. This technique is in dissimilarity to classify a data mining technology called as 'supervised learning'.

Data combination and Data Integration: These are the techniques that gather the the best given data from several locations then analyze the data for producing good understandings in such a way that is artificial sweeteners much effective and i was given essay, possibly more precise. Machine Learning: A branch or part of computer_science generally called artificial intelligence that is related with the design and improvement of thesis statement algorithms, which allow computer systems to develop activities on the basis of realistic data. Natural language processing: NLP is the technique to ever given, process natural language using collection of techniques from the field of computer science which is named as AI linguistics also consists of number of algorithms to to describe essay, analyze human or natural language. Sentiment Analysis: This is an the best advice, application of natural-language-processing that is spanish vacation (NLP) and other critical techniques to recognize and mine the knowledge from i was ever, inputs. Some important aspects of its examination comprises of artificial sweeteners research paper identifying the product, aspect and feature. Big Data Technologies: There are emergent techniques that can be applicable to modify, analyze, aggregate read the big data. Big Table: Big table is the PDDS i.e. proprietary distributed-database-system built on the GFS i.e. 'Google-File-System' Encouragement for HBase. Business Intelligence (BI): A sort of application software builds to analyze, present and report data. Business Intelligence tools normally analyze data which is earlier stored in i was essay 'data_mart' or 'data_warehouse'.

Cassandra: An open-source DBMS (database management system) specially aimed to handle large quantity of data on a distributed system. Dynamo: Amazon developed a private DDSS that is distributed data storage system developed called 'Dynamo'. Google File System: This is dissertation student loan a private distributed file system developed by Google as a part of the motivation for Hadoop. HBASE: This is an open-source non-relational DDB that is advice ever distributed data base based on spanish essay summer vacation, Big Table product of Google. This project was initially developed by Power set but now it is managed by the Apache Software Foundation as part of the i was ever Hadoop. Map Reduce: This is a software framework developed by the best company of the world that is 'Google' for handing out large datasets for specific kinds of requested queries on data stored at distributed sites. R: This is a software environment and an open source programming language for graphics and statistical computing.

Relational Database: This is a database formed up through a collection of tuples columns collectively stored in tabular form. RDBMS i.e. Relational Database Management Systems is the database system consists of structured-data and stored in form of tuples and columns. To Describe. SQL is the advice ever essay best language for write essay, managing or maintaining relational databases. 1] A.Pradeepa, A.S.Thanamani. Advice Ever Essay. 'Hadoop File System And Fundamental Concept of Map Reduce Interior And Closure Rough Set Approximations [5]'. In this paper authors described that big data-mining and knowledge-discovery is the research huge challenges because the volume or size of data is growing at an unprecented approximation scale. Map-Reduce have been implemented to achieve many large-scale computations.

Recently introduced or presented Map-Reduce proficiency has received or gained much more consideration and attention from ever given essay, both the sides that is the industry for write, its applicability and the scientific-community in big-data analysis .According to the authors of the best advice ever given essay this paper, for mba thesis planning, mining and finding some knowledge from big data, they presented an algorithm corresponding to the Map-Reduce based on abrasive theory, that are put forward to deal with the massive or large amount of data and also measured the performances on the large or big data sets to i was ever given essay, show that the proposed work can effectively or accurately processes the big data and find the results in less time. 2] Md.R.Karim1, A.Hossain, Md.M.Rashid. 'An Efficient Market Basket Analysis Technique with Improved Map Reduce Framework on spanish essay about summer vacation, Hadoop [6]'. In this paper, authors described that market-basket analysis techniques are considerably important to every day's business decision because of its capability of mining customer's purchase rules by discovering that which items they are buying so frequently and together. The traditional single processor and the best ever given, main memory based computing is not proficient of handling ever growing huge transactional data. In this paper an effort has been taken to remove these limitations. Psycology Essay. First author will eliminate null transactions and rare items from the segmented dataset before applying their proposed HMBA algorithm using the ComMap-Reduce framework on i was given, Hadoop to generate the mba thesis absolute set of maximal frequent item-sets. 3] J.W. The Best Advice I Was. Woo, Yuhang Xu. Thesis Statement. 'Market Basket Analysis Algorithm with Map/Reduce of Cloud Computing [7]'.

In this paper, authors explained the advice i was ever given Map-Reduce approach that has been very popular or effective, in essay vacation order to compute or calculate enormous volumes of data, since google implemented its platform on google distributed file systems that is called (G.D.F.S) and advice given, Amazon web service that is called (A.W.S), provides its services with a platform called Apache Hadoop. 4] J.W. Woo, S.Basopia, Yuhang Xu. 'Market Basket Analysis Algorithm with no-SQL DB HBase and Hadoop [8]'. In this paper authors presented a new schema that is spanish essay vacation called H-Base which is used to process transaction data for market basket analysis algorithm. Market basket analysis algorithm runs on apache Hadoop Map-Reduce and read data from the best advice i was given essay, HBase and HDFS, then the to describe essay transaction data is converted and the best advice ever given essay, sorted into data set having (key and value pair) and after the completion of whole process, it stores the psycology essay whole data to the H-Base or Hadoop distributed file system that is HDFS. 5] D.V.S.Shalini, M.Shashi and A.M.Sowjanya. 'Mining Frequent Patterns of Stock Data Using Hybrid Clustering[9]'. In this paper, authors described that the classification and patterns in the stock market or inventory data is really significant or important for ever essay, business-support and decision-making. White. They also proposed a new algo that is algorithm for the best i was given, mining patterns from large amount of stock market data for white fang statement, guessing factors that are affecting or decreasing the product's sale. To improve the execution time, the proposed system uses two efficient methods for clustering which includes PAM that is Partitioning Around Medoids and i was ever given, (BIRCH) that is Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies along with (M.F.P). The best well-organized iterative clustering approach that is called as PAM.

PAM is psycology essay used initially or to start the clustering and after that PAM was combined with frequent pattern mining algorithm that is called FPM algorithm. 6] W.Wei, S.Yu, Q.Guo, W.Ding and L.Bian. 'An Effective Algorithm for Simultaneously Mining Frequent Patterns and Association Rules[10]'. According to the authors of the best advice ever essay this paper algorithms like Apriori and FP -Growth break the problem of mining association rules into two different sub problems then find frequent pattern and generate the summer vacation required rules. To solve the problem we catch a deep insight of the best advice i was ever given FP-Growth algorithm and propose an effective algorithm by using the FP-tree called AR-Growth Association Rule Growth which can concurrently discover frequent item sets and association rules (AR) in fang a large database. 7] J.W.Woo. 'Apriori-Map/Reduce Algorithm [11]'.

In this paper, authors presented number of methods or techniques for converting many sequential algorithms to the corresponding or related Map-Reduce algorithms. They also described that Map-Reduce algorithm of the legacy Apriori algorithm which has been common or same to collect the item sets frequently, arose to compose association rules in data mining. Theoretically it shows that the proposed algorithm provides the high performance computing depending upon the number of i was essay Map-Reduce nodes. 8] L.Hualei, L.Shukuan, Q.Jianzhong, Y.Ge, L.Kaifu. 'An Efficient Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithm for Data Stream [12]'. In this paper authors proposed or we can say presented a novel structure NC-Tree (New Compact Tree), which can re-code and filter original data to compress dataset. At the dissertation student same time, a new frequent pattern mining algorithm is also introduced on the bases of it, which can update and the best advice ever given essay, adjust the tree more efficiently. There are mostly two kinds of algorithms that is essay summer vacation basically used to mine frequent item sets using frequent pattern mining approach. One is Apriori algorithm that is based on generating and testing and the other one is FP-growth that is based on dividing and conquering, which has been widely used in static data mining. For data stream, the frequent pattern mining algorithms must have strong ability of updating and adjusting to further improve its efficiency. 9] S.K Vijayakumar, A. Bhargavi, U. Praseeda and S. A. Ahamed. 'Optimizing Sequence Alignment in Cloud using Hadoop and MPP Database'[Sequence Alignment].

In this paper authors discussed about sequential-alignment of bio-informatics big data. The size of advice ever data is growing day by day in thesis statement the field of bio-informatics so it is not easy to process and find important sequences that are present in bio-informatics data using existing techniques. Authors of this paper basically discussed about the new technologies to store and process large amount of data that is 'Hadoop' and i was ever given, 'Green-plum'. Green-plum is the massively parallel processing technique used to store petabytes of data. Fang Thesis. Hadoop is also used to process huge amount of data because it is also based on the best given essay, parallel processing and generates results in very less time as compared to existing technologies to process the huge amount of data. Authors also mentioned about the proposed algorithm for sequential-alignment that is 'FAST-A'.

10] S.Mishra, D.Mishra and S.K.Satapathy. 'Fuzzy Pattern Tree Approach for Mining Frequent Patterns from Gene Expression Data'[paper4]. In this paper the main focus of the authors on the 'frequent pattern mining of gene- expression data'. As we know that frequent pattern mining has become a more debatable and focused area in last few years. There are number of algorithms exist which can be used to frequent pattern from the data set. But in this paper authors applied the fuzzification technique on the data set and after that applied number of essay about summer techniques to find more meaningful frequent patterns from data set. 11] L.Chen, W.Liu. 'An Algorithm for Mining Frequent Patterns in Biological Sequence' [paper7]. In this paper authors describe that the existing techniques used to the best advice ever given essay, mine frequent patterns from large amount of biological data is to describe essay not efficient and time consuming. They proposed a new technique called 'Frequent Biological Pattern Mining' or 'FBPM' to mine frequent patterns from large amount of biological data.

They also compared the results of both the techniques that are existing techniques and proposed techniques on the basis of execution time to find frequent patterns and number of patterns mined. 12] B.Sarwar, G.Karypis, J.Konstan, and the best advice given, J.Riedl. 'ItemBased Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Algorithms'. In this paper authors talked about the recommendation systems and described various techniques to develop a good recommendation system that can be used to generate best recommendations for the users. Recommendation systems are the system with the fang statement help of which we can predict the future after applying some collaborative-filtering algorithms, on the basis of users past activities. Two most famous collaborative-filtering techniques that we generally use to predict the future data that would be helpful for user on his/her next purchase are Item-based-collaborative-filtering algorithm and User- based-collaborative-filtering algorithm. Item-based- collaborative-filtering algorithm works on the best, the principle of comparing the similarities between items and suggests those items to the users which are quite similar to his/her taste. On the other hand user-based-collaborative-filtering algorithm works on the principle of finding nearest-neighbours of target user which agrees on the similar item in terms of rating or having some similarity in items, find nearest users having similar taste to the target user and suggest those items to the target user which are liked by his/her nearest-neighbours. Design and psycology essay, Implementation. 3.1 Proposed Methodology: According to our dissertation title we are working to find frequent patterns and on the best advice i was, the basis of the frequent patterns some recommendations would be suggested to fang, the user using frequent pattern mining algorithm, Hadoop and Mahout. 1. First of all my main work is to collect the real time data set of the best given essay E-commerce website.

2. Spanish About. Once the data set has been collected, next step is to clean the data set. The Best Given. Cleaning of dataset means remove the essay summer unwanted fields and convert the format of dataset into desired format. 3. After converting the dataset into a meaningful format, make a java program that can read the dataset and generate frequent patterns and ever given, association rules from the dissertation student data. 4. For finding the frequent patterns from the dataset apply the advice ever given reduced apriori algorithm and create a map-reduce program that will implement reduced apriori algorithm. 5. Combine the program with Hadoop to artificial sweeteners research, find the the best advice given essay frequent patterns in less time as compared to spanish about, find the frequent patterns by executing program in eclipse. 6. Apply the dataset using mahout on the best advice ever, top of Hadoop in distributed environment to find recommendations by artificial paper, using collaborative filtering approach.

7. Compare the execution time of finding frequent patterns and association rules using (Hadoop, Mahout) and simple java program. 3.2 Proposed Architecture: 'Hadoop is an open source that is called free software framework or technology for processing the huge datasets for certain kinds of problems on advice given, the distributed system. 'Hadoop is an open source piece of mba thesis software that mines or extracts the sequential and non-sequential big-data for a company and i was ever given, then integrates that big-data with your present business intelligence ecosystem. 'Hadoop works on the most important principle called Map-Reduce (map task reduce task), the main work of the map-reduce is to divide the input dataset into number of independent pieces which are then processed in the parallel-manner by the map tasks. 'The output generated by the map task will become input to spanish essay summer vacation, the reduce task after performed sorting on the output by framework. 'A file system is used to store the input and the output of the jobs. 'Some tasks failed during execution so framework takes care of monitoring the tasks, 're-executes' the failed tasks and scheduling the tasks. ' There are numbers of sub-components in the best i was ever given the Hadoop but two core or main components of Hadoop are 'Map-Reduce' (Used for processing) and 'Google File System (GFS)' or 'Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)' (Used for storage). ' 'Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)' and 'Map-Reduce' are designed to keep this thing in mind that they both could be deployed on the single cluster and so that both processing system and storage system could work together.

Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS): ' HDFS stands for 'Hadoop Distribute File System', this is a file system basically used by Hadoop having distributed nature and produce high output per unit time. ' HDFS is the distributed file system because it distributes the artificial data across number of advice i was ever essay nodes so that in case of failure data could be easily recovered. ' HDFS stores the data on sweeteners paper, number of data nodes after dividing the whole data into number of data blocks. ' The default block size is 64 MB but it is configurable according to the best i was, the size of data is going to process using Hadoop. ' HDFS maintains the replicas of data block across multiple data nodes so that in case of any failure data can be recovered and functioning or processing would not stop. Benefits of HDFS Data Block Replication: ' Availability: There are very less chances of the loss of data if a particular data node fails. ' Reliability: There are number of replicas of data so if in psycology essay any case data at particular node corrupts then it can be corrected easily. ' Performance: Data is always available for reducer for processing because multiple copies exist so this is the main reason it also increases the performance. ' Name node is the master node among all the nodes and maintains or allocates the name of all the data blocks created by HDFS.

' Name node is also very helpful to manage the the best advice i was ever essay number of data blocks present on the data node. ' Name node also monitors all the other nodes present in the whole processing of data from HDFS to Map-Reduce and output generation. ' Name node also maintains the information about the location of each file stores in HDFS. ' In different sense we can say that name node maintains the data about data that is 'meta-data' in artificial research paper HDFS. File A is present on Data Node 1, Data Node 2, and Data Node 4.

File B is present on Data Node 3, Data Node 4, and Data Node 5. File C present on Data Node 1, Data Node 4, and Data Node 3. ' Name node is advice ever essay only point of disappointment for the Hadoop Cluster. ' Data nodes are the slave nodes of the master node i.e. name node and is generally used by HDFS for storing the data blocks. ' Data nodes are basically responsible to read the requests from white statement, client's file system and to write the the best i was requests from the client's file system. ' Data nodes also perform a very important function of creating the data blocks, replicated the data blocks on the basis of psycology essay instructions provided by name node. ' Secondary Name Node: ' Secondary name node generally performs the functions of throwing out the non-important things present inside the Name node regularly to prevent it from failure. ' Secondary name node enables the 'check-points' of the 'file-system' inside name node.

' Secondary node is the backup for name node rather than it is a saying that it is a point of failure for name node. ' Map-Reduce are the kind of framework or we can say it is a programming concept used by Apache organization in its product Hadoop, for processing large amount of data. ' Map and Reduce functions have almost created in every programming language having the same functionality Java language. ' Map-Reduce was implemented to process large amount of data by dividing it into two parts that is Map part and Reduce part. ' Map function is used to 'transform', 'parse', 'filter' data and produce some output that will be treated as input for the Reducer. ' Reduce function takes the essay output generated from the Map function as its input and sorts or combine the data for decreasing the artificial sweeteners research complexity. ' Map and the best i was given, Reduce functions both works on fang thesis, the principle of the best i was ever (Key and essay, Value).

' Map function takes the input from advice ever given essay, data node and with help of mapper divide the data into keys and values like (key1, value11), (key2, value12) and (key1, value21), (key2, value22). ' Combiner then summarizes the data and combine the fang values relate to a particular key (key1, value11, value21) and (key2, value12, value22). ' Reduce function then reduce the given essay output generated by combiner and generates the final output (key1, value1), (key2, value2). Nodes in Map-Reduce: The complete Map-Reduce operation comprises of two important jobs that are 'Job-Tracker' which is known as the 'Master Node' and 'Task-Tracker' which is mba thesis on strategic planning known as the 'Slave Node'. ' Job-Tracker usually takes the the best advice i was ever request or tasks from the client and write essay, forward or assign these requests or tasks to the Task-Tracker on top of data node, then Task-Tracker performed the tasks with the essay help of data node. ' Job-Tracker always assigns the tasks to fang thesis, the Task-Tracker on top of data node because data is always available there in the local repository.

' Sometimes it might not be possible for Job-Tracker to assign the tasks for Task-Tracker on data node then Job-Tracker tries to assign the tasks to Task-Tracker in the same rack. ' If in any case a node failure occurs or the Task-Tracker which was processing the task fails then Job-Tracker assigns the same task to other Task-Tracker where 'replica' or copy of same data exists because data blocks are 'replicated' across multiple data nodes. ' In such a way Job-Tracker guarantees that if Task-Tracker stops working then it does not mean that the job fails. ' Task-Tracker is the slave node of the master node i.e. The Best I Was Ever Given Essay. 'Job-Tracker' which takes the request of processing the write essay tasks from Job-Tracker and processes the task ('Map', 'Reduce' and 'Shuffle') using data present in the best i was ever given data block of data nodes. ' Every 'Task-Tracker' is composed of number of about vacation slots that it means it can process number of tasks at the same time. ' Job-Tracker always checks that an empty slot is given present on the same server whenever some task should be scheduled, if empty slots exist that can hosts the data node having data then Job-Tracker give the dissertation task to that slot of Task-Tracker otherwise Job-Tracker looks for the empty slot on the same rack of the machine. ' Each Task-Tracker sends some message in every second to inform the Job-tracker that it is alive and ever given, processing the task. ' Each Task-Tracker has its own JVM to process the white thesis statement task if in any case one Task-Tracker stops working it would be informed to Job-Tracker and Job-Tracker allocates some other Task-Tracker for that task and all other Task-Tracker would be working simultaneously without any kind of i was ever given intervention. ' After the task has been completed the 'Task-Tracker' informs the dissertation loan Job-Tracker. What is Apache Mahout?

' Mahout is an API or we can say that it is the library of scalable 'machine-learning' or 'collective-intelligence' algorithms like (classification, clustering, collaborative-filtering and frequent-pattern-mining) that is mailnly used for mining frequent item sets, it takes a group of item sets and identifies that which individual items usually or mainly appear together. ' When the size of data is too large then in such kind of circumstances Mahout is the best advice ever essay used as the best 'machine-learning' tool because number of algorithms like clustering, pattern mining and collaborative-filtering has been implemented in mahout, it can produce the artificial sweeteners outputs fast when used on top of Hadoop. ' Collaborative-Filtering is the i was ever given essay technique of filter out some important data from the large amount of data which user browse, preference and psycology essay, rate, in other words we can say that collaborative filtering is the given process of generating predictions on artificial sweeteners paper, the basis of users past behavior or history and suggest or recommend users the top most predicted data or top 'N' recommendations so that it might be helpful for user in his/her future decisions. ' All the preferences about the best given essay different set of items from users can come from explicit ratings or from implicit ratings. ' Explicit Rating: It is the kind of essay summer vacation technique in which user suggest his/her preference by giving rating to a particular product or item on a certain scale. ' Implicit Rating: It is the kind of i was given technique in which user's preferences are generated on sweeteners, the basis user's interaction for products. ' With the advice i was ever help of collaborative-filtering we can predict or forecast the write future on the basis of user's past activities or pattern. ' To predict the future on the basis of past activities of users we firstly make or create the database of the user's preferences for items and then apply some algorithms like nearest neighborhood to predict the the best advice given essay future preferences of white fang thesis statement a user on the basis of his/her neighbors having the the best advice i was same perception or taste.

' As the size of about vacation data is increasing on daily basis so that is the main challenge that we require such kind of algorithms that can process millions of data and match a user preference with all other neighbors present in database to get better prediction in the best i was ever given essay less time. ' Second challenge that we usually notice while implement collaborative filtering is spanish essay about that the items or the recommendations preferred to a user should be of better quality so that he/she could have like the recommending products. ' Two issues that we mentioned above are the biggest challenges that should keep in mind while performing collaborative filtering and should concentrate on recommendations suggest to user of good quality. ' Collaborative-Filtering can be performed in two ways, item-based collaborative filtering and user-based collaborative filtering. ' User-based collaborative filtering is the technique that find neighbors having similar taste like user from the large amount of the best i was ever given user preferences database then suggest or generates the recommendations for user but like and dislike of user is dissertation not static so the recommendations generated using this technique is not so effective and advice i was essay, bottleneck problem also occurs so Item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is used these days to generate recommendations for a user because it removes the problem of bottleneck and it first finds the items having similar relationship that user has liked from large pool of dissertation loan items and then generate the recommendations. ' Item based collaborative filtering works on the best advice i was ever given, the principle that similarity among item remains static but user likes and dislikes may change so this technique generates good quality of recommendations as compared to user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. ' Item-based collaborative-filtering algorithm is one of the best algorithms used by to describe, recommendation systems, to generate recommendations using this algorithm firstly we make the set of items that user has rated earlier, after that find a set of (n) most similar items from this set having same similarities to the target item (i) then similarity of the best i was ever essay each item present inside the set of (n) most similar items is white statement calculated. After the computation of similarities, calculate the weighted average sum of user ratings on the best advice ever given essay, set of similar items to find the best recommendations for on strategic planning, the target user.

' Prediction computation and similarity computation are the two techniques used to find the the best advice ever essay future predictions and similarities among numbers of items. Similarity Computation for Items: ' Similarity computation is the technique used to 'find or compute' the value of similarity among items from large number of items and select the set of items having same similarity. ' Similarity between two items a and b is computed after isolated the users who have rated the items a and b, then use some similarity finding techniques to find the similarity Sa,b. ' There are number of techniques that can be used for computing similarity between items are 'Cosine-based' similarity, 'Correlation-based' similarity, 'Adjusted-cosine' similarity. Let's we discuss all three techniques to find similarities between items are: ' Cosine-based similarity is the technique used to find the similarity between two items; this technique considers both the mba thesis planning items for which similarity would be determined as the two vectors in the n-dimensional user space. ' Similarity is measured as the the best advice i was cosine of the angle between both the vectors.

' Similarity between the two items a and b can be denoted as: Here '.' denotes the artificial sweeteners research dot product of both the vectors. ' Correlation-Based Similarity is the other technique used to find the similarity between two items a and b. ' To find the similarity between two items using this technique we use the pearson co-relation method and find the ever pearson co-relation between two items that is Corr(a,b). ' To find the value of pearson co-relation more accurate, we removed the over-rated ratings of the fang statement two items that is the i was ever essay ratings for which users rated both items (a and b) and set of users who rated both items (a and b) are denoted by spanish, U. Pearson correlation formula: ' Adjusted-cosine-similarity is the other technique to calculate the similarity between items so that it could be used for prediction.

' Similarity between two items generated using correlation-based similarity technique does not consider difference between corresponding user's ratings and over-rated rating of related pair. So the results generated are not so accurate. ' Adjusted-Cosine Similarity generates more accurate results as compared to correlation based similarity because it removes the drawback by- 'subtracting' the average ratings of related user's from each extra rated pair. ' User-Based Collaborative filtering is the technique or we can say that it is an advice given, algorithm that is basically used to generate future predictions for a user on the basis of his/her past history or by using his/her neighbors having similar kind of loan taste. ' User-Based Collaborative filtering is the algorithm which works on the principle of generating recommendations for given essay, the user after finding his/her neighbor users from fang, database of items and users, having similar kind of item ratings assigned and similar type of purchase history. ' After generating the given nearest neighbors having same taste for the target user using user-based collaborative filtering algorithm then some techniques are applied to find the spanish essay top recommendations for the target user. ' In this way user based collaborative filtering generates recommendations and it is also known as memory based or nearest neighbor based algorithm to find or suggest best recommendations for the user. User-Based Collaborative-Filtering challenges:

1. The Best Ever. 'Scalability': As the number of users and items are increasing the size of 'user-item' database is also growing so it takes lot of time to artificial research paper, find nearest neighbor of a particular user form large database having millions of users and items exists. So scalability has become a big challenge for advice essay, generating recommendations. 2. 'Sparsity': Recommendation system which is working on the principle of essay about summer vacation nearest neighbor fails in the best i was ever certain circumstances, when the number of spanish about vacation active users who is purchasing some product is the best ever very large, so in on strategic such cases to find nearest neighbors for each active user is very difficult because of the sparsity. ' Association-rule-mining is the technique used to find some rules on the basis of which the growth of an organization can be increased. ' There are number of algorithms on the basis of which we can find frequent patterns from the large of dataset, on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some rules that would be really helpful to increase the turnover of an organization. ' Algorithms like Apriori and the best advice i was essay, FP-growth are mostly used to find the frequent patterns and generate association rules but if the size of data is so huge then these two algorithm would take more time to generate rules thus decrease the efficiency of the algorithm. ' So we implemented both the algorithms using map-reduce technique and then implemented them on top of hadoop to find frequent patterns and association rules. ' So Apriori and FP-growth [10] algorithms find the white frequent patterns from a set of transactional dataset having transaction id and item set(i.e., ), where TID is a transaction-id and item set is the set of items bought in transaction TId.

On the other hand, mining can also be performed on data presented in data format like . ' Apriori algorithm significantly reduces the size of advice ever given candidate sets using the Apriori standard but still it suffers from two problems: (1) generates a huge number of candidate sets, and white fang thesis statement, (2) repeatedly scan the database and the best advice ever given essay, checking the candidates by pattern matching. ' FP-growth algorithm mines the complete set of frequent item sets without generating candidate set. ' FP-growth works on the divide and conquers principle. ' The first search of the database derives a list of frequent items in which the items are ordered into descending order by frequency. ' According to the descending list by frequency, the database is reduced into a frequent-pattern tree or fp-tree, which retains the item set and to describe, their association information. ' The fp-tree is mined or formed by initializing from each one (frequent length-1) pattern as an i was given, first suffix prototype, constructing its conditional pattern base and sub database which consists of the set of prefix paths in the fp-tree co-occurring with the suffix pattern then constructing its conditional fp-tree and performing mining recursively on such a tree.

' The pattern growth is achieved by the combination or concatenation of the write essay suffix pattern with the frequent patterns generated from a conditional FP-tree. How Association Rule Mining Works. Consider the following small dataset having three transactions to know about how association rules mining works: T1: laptop, pen drive, speakers. T2: laptop, pen drive.

T3: mobile, screen guard, mobile cover. T4: laptop, speakers, pen drive. T5: mobile, mobile cover, screen guard. T6: mobile, screen guard. From this small data set we can find the frequent patterns and on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some association rules using FP Growth algorithm. A frequent pattern is a group of advice i was ever essay some items that occur frequently in write essay the transactions or data set. While we find frequent patterns, we also record the support along with each pattern.

Support is simply a count that tells us how many times a particular pattern appears in the whole dataset. Mobile cover = 2. Screen guard = 2. Laptop, pen drive = 3. Laptop, speakers = 2. Mobile, screen guard = 3. Mobile, mobile cover = 2. Laptop, pen drive, speakers = 2.

Mobile, mobile cover, screen guard = 2. Here we assume that support is the best advice i was ever given essay 2 it means all the patterns with support equal to or greater than 2, will considered as frequent patterns. On the essay about summer basis of above frequent patterns we can construct some association rules which follow the minimum support and confidence = 60%. Mobile ' Screen guard (support = 3, confidence = (3/3) =100%) Mobile ' Mobile cover (support = 2, confidence = (2/3) = 66.66%) Mobile, Mobile cover ' Screen guard (support = 2, confidence = (2/2) = 100%) Laptop ' Pen drive (support = 3, confidence = (3/3) =100%) Laptop 'Speakers (support = 2, confidence= (2/3) = 66.66%) Laptop, Pen drive ' Speakers (support = 2, confidence = (2/3) = 66.66%)

On the basis of above small data set we are able to find some association rules that tells us that (screen guard, mobile cover are always buy with mobile phone) and (pen drive, speakers are always buy with laptop. Approach to Design. 4.1 Flow of Implementation: 5.1 Installation of Hadoop: If you have already installed Ubuntu 12.04 or any other version then please follow the steps that mentioned below to install hadoop on Single node pseudo distribute that is ever essay called installation of psycology essay hadoop on your local machine. Step 1: Java Installation. To work on Hadoop, first of all we require to install java on your local machine. The Best Advice Essay. So install the latest version of java that is Oracle JAVA 1.7 which is highly recommended to run Hadoop. On Strategic. Here I am also using oracle java 1.7 for working on hadoop because it is advice ever essay more stable, fast and have several new APIs. Following commands are used for Installing JAVA in Ubuntu:

Open the dissertation terminal using (ctrl+alt+t) then enter the advice i was given essay following commands to install java: 1) Sudo apt-get install 'python-software-properties' 2) Sudo add-apt-repository 'ppa:webupd8team/java' 3) Sudo apt-get update. 4) Sudo apt-get install oracle-java7-installer. 5) Sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-7-oracle. The whole or complete Java Development Kit presents inside the (/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle). When the sweeteners research installation has come to an end then do a check whether java or JDK has correctly set up by using command that is mentioned below. Figure5.1: Java Installed Successfully. Step 2: After successfully installed java, add a separate or personal user for hadoop that is advice ever given essay hduser . Commmands for create 'hadoop- user' and spanish summer, 'hadoop- group':

1)sudo 'addgroup hadoop' 2)sudo ' adduser --ingroup hadoop' hduser. After the successful completion of above steps, we will have a separate user and group for hadoop. Step 3: How to configure ssh. To work with hadoop on advice ever essay, remote machines or at your local machine, hadoop requires ssh access to deal with its nodes. Therefore we required to sweeteners paper, configure ssh access on the best advice i was ever given, localhost for spanish summer vacation, the hadoop user i.e. Advice. hduser that we created in the last step.

Commands to configure ssh access: 1)sudo apt-get install 'openssh-server' 2)sudo ssh-keygen -t 'rsa 'P' cat $HOME/.ssh/ $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys. Figure5.3: Configure ssh localhost. Step 4: Disabling IPv6. To work with hadoop on local or in distributed system we required to disable ipv6 on Ubuntu 12.04. First of all open the'/etc/sysctl.conf'file in any editor of your choice in ubuntu then add the below mentioned lines at psycology essay the end of this file. Now it is the time to restart your system so that the changes that we have done could be reflected. Advice I Was Given Essay. After restarting the mba thesis planning system we can confirm that whether ipv6 has disabled on your local machine by the best i was given essay, using the student command that is mentioned below: 'Cat/proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/disable_ipv6' (If return value = '1' it shows that ipv6 has disabled)

Step 5: After performing the initial steps it is the time to install Hadoop version 1.0.4 on your machine. First of all download hadoop-1.0.4 tar file that is the stable or good release from apache download mirrors, then extract or untar the hadoop downloaded file to a folder named hadoop at usr/local/hadoop . A folder which is common to all the users, it is mostly chosen that we should install or set-up the hadoop into that folder. Use the i was given essay below mentioned commands to untar the hadoop 1.0.4 tar file into loan, hadoop folder: Move to local folder using cd/usr/local then use command mentioned below to the best advice essay, untar hadoop 1.0.4: 1) sudo tar xzf 'hadoop-1.0.4.tar.gz'

2) sudo mv hadoop-1.0.4hadoop. Change the owner of all the files to hadoop group and sweeteners paper, the hduser user using the command: 1)sudo 'chown -R hduser:hadoop hadoop' Now it is the the best i was ever essay time to update the bash file which is artificial sweeteners research paper present inside home directory $HOME/.bashrc : To update the bash file i.e.'.bachrc' for the'hduser'. To open'.bachrc'file, you should be a root user then open it using the the best advice given following command: 1)sudo 'gedit /home/hduser/.bashrc' Figure5.5: Open .bashrc file. Once the '.bashrc' will open then at the end of '.bachrc' file, add the following lines or settings: # set hadoop-related environment variables.

unalias fs-- /dev/null. Alias fs 'hadoop fs' Unalias- hls /dev/null. hadoop fs -cat $1 | lzop -dc | head -1000 | less. # Add hadoop 'bin/ directory'to PATH. Figure5.6: Update .bashrc file.

To verify whether it has been saved correctly or not, please reopen the psycology essay bash profile by using following commands: 2) echo $hadoop_home. 3) echo $java_home. Step 6: Changes in Hadoop Configuration. An XML file is used to configure each component inside Hadoop. 'Common properties' go in core-site.xml', 'HDFS properties' go in hdfs-site.xml', and 'Map-Reduce properties' go in mapred-site.xml'. A conf directory is present inside hadoop folder where all the XML files are located. 1) Changes in '' First of all open the 'conf/'file and set the 'JAVA_HOME'as: 2) Changes in 'conf/core-site.xml' Open the 'core-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the advice i was ever given essay 'configuration ' /configuration' tags. A directory named as'tmp'is created where 'hdfs'will stores its temporary data.

The configurations that we mentioned above, we have used 'hadoop.tmp.dir' property to indicate this temporary directory but on our local machine we are using as'$hadoop_home/tmp'. Commands to 'create tmp directory' and 'change ownership and loan, permissions': 1) sudo mkdir -p $hadoop_home/tmp. 2) sudo chown hduser:hadoop $hadoop_home /tmp. 3) sudo chmod 750 $hadoop_home /tmp. 3) Changes in 'conf/mapred-site.xml' Open the 'mapred-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the i was 'configuration ' /configuration' tags. Figure5.10: Changes in to describe essay 'conf/mapred-site.xml' 4) Changes in 'conf/hdfs-site.xml'

Open the 'hdfs-site.xml'file and the best advice ever, add the following lines or code between the'configuration ' /configuration' tags. Step 7: creating Name Node Directory. mkdir -p $hadoop_home/tmp/dfs/name. chown hduser:hadoop /usr/local/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name. Step 8: Format the name node. Hadoop Distributed file system i.e. hdfs is implemented on top of the local file system of white thesis statement your 'cluster'. So the initial step to starting up your hadoop installation is to the best advice essay, format the.

hadoop file system or name node. $hadoop_home/bin/hadoop 'namenode 'format' Step 9: Starting single node hadoop cluster. Open Terminal then goto /bin directory inside hadoop folder and mba thesis, start hadoop using command mentioned below: Now after successfully performed each step that we mentioned above, it is the time to find whether. all nodes are running properly inside hadoop.

We can use the following command to check it. Output must be like mentioned below, if we are getting such kind of advice ever given essay output it means hadoop is running successfully. 4841 task tracker. 4512 secondary name-node. 4596 job tracker. It means hadoop has installed successfully and working fine. 5.2 Installation of Maven: Open the dissertation student loan terminal then enter the below command to download and install maven. sudo apt-get install maven2. Open the '.bashrc' file and add the lines mentioned below at the end of bash file.

Set the 'java_home' in '.bashrc' file. Export java_home= '/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle' Add Java jre/ 'PATH' of directory. Run mvn --version to verify that it is correctly installed. If the message as shown below displays. It shows maven installed successfully. Figure5.15: Maven Installed Successfully.

5.3 Installation of Mahout: Download the i was ever essay mahout source package in .zip format from the write essay following link: Extract the advice i was essay folder into usr/local/mahout directory and write to describe essay, check that pom.xml file exists inside it or not. Open the terminal and moved to i was ever given, usr/local/mahout directory then enter the following command: mvn install (to install mahout on spanish about summer vacation, top of hadoop) If the message as shown below displays then mahout installed successfully. 5.4 How to Run a Simple Job on the best advice i was ever given essay, Hadoop: 1. Move to /usr/local/hadoop/bin directory and start the all nodes of hadoop using command. 2. Artificial Sweeteners. Create a Word count text file inside local tmp directory using command. 3. Copy the text file from local tmp directory to hadoop distributed file system using following command: fs -copyFromLocal /tmp/Wordcount.txt /user/hduser/wordcountexample/Wordcount.txt.

Figure5.19: Copy text file from the best advice essay, tmp to hdfs. 4. Find list of items present inside word count example directory using command: fs -ls /user/hduser/wordcountexample/Wordcount.txt. Figure5.20: List of items present inside wordcount. 5. Dissertation. Run the the best advice i was given essay Word count file present inside word count example directory using following command: hadoop jar hadoop-examples-1.0.4.jar wordcount /user/hduser/wordcountexample /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output. Figure5.21: Run the word-count map-reduce job. 6. Find the list of items present inside word count example-output directory using following command: fs -ls /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output. 7. Run the output file generated to show the output on console using command: fs -cat /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output/part-r-00000. Figure5.23: Run the output file. Discussion of Results. 6.1 Find Frequent Patterns and Recommendations from essay about summer, Big Data: 1. Open terminal and start Hadoop using command ./

Figure6.1: Start the hadoop nodes. 2. Convert the data set into .dat format which is advice ever essay required by shell script. 3. Add the path of dataset into shell script. 4. Run the dataset on top of Hadoop using Map Reduce to find frequent patterns. Figure6.3: Start Mahout. ' To Run Mahout on top of Hadoop Set MAHOUT_LOCAL=True. ' After Setting MAHOUT_LOCAL=true, go to the bin directory where shell script is kept to find recommendations from sweeteners research, dataset. ' Run the shell script by providing path of dataset. Presentation of Results. After successfully running the script on mahout and performing number of map reduce jobs by hadoop, it generates recommendations in i was given essay very less time as compared to apply same data set using simple java program in eclipse . 1. When the size of data was just 100 MB then Hadoop took 0.18705 minutes to process the data and generate recommendations.

Figure7.1: Data set is running and Map-Reduce took place. Figure7.3: Map-Reduce Job completed. 2. When the size of data was 200 MB then Hadoop took 0.24005 minutes to process the data and generates recommendations. 3. When the size of data was 1 GB then Hadoop took 4.689 minutes to process the data and generate recommendations. When I started the dissertation work I mentioned that size of data is psycology essay growing day by day in advice ever gigabytes or in spanish about summer vacation terabytes volume, so it is not easy for the best i was ever given essay, an organization to handle such big amount of data and could do predictions, find patterns and recommendations from such large amount of data using existing technologies in less time. Spanish About. But we use Hadoop and Mahout both together then the the best ever overhead of an organisation to analyse the big data will become very less and execution time required to find patterns and recommendations will also be so less. We took around 500 GB of e-commerce website data then performed frequent pattern mining and psycology essay, collaborative filtering using Mahout and Hadoop. At the same time we performed the same work using simple java programs in eclipse then compared the execution time of getting outputs. We found that execution time to find patterns and the best ever essay, recommendations using Mahout and Hadoop were very less.

In future we have lot of scope to do because now days the data generated on the e-commerce sites, first of all we collect the data and store it in spanish about summer vacation form of desired form then remove the unwanted columns that are not required in the analysis process then apply the techniques to find patterns and advice ever given, products that can be recommended to the users. But in future we can predict the recommendation on the real time environment like we don't need to store data in mba thesis on strategic planning database, we can directly apply some techniques on real time data that is generated frequently in advice given daily and hourly basis, reduce the overhead and increase the efficiency. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to dissertation student, help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and the best ever given essay, you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in dissertation as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to the best advice i was ever given essay, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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