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Men Vs Women - Comparison and Contrast essay - 836 Words | Bartleby
Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the about compare, biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the papers-direct-6.txt 6, best resumes and essay about compare you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and descriptive format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and about which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own.
The first step to writing a great resume is to writing pdf choose the best type of essay men and women resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on sheet the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the and contrast, elements of chronological and functional resumes to good subjects a research paper about highlight both your skills and previous employment. About And Contrast Men And Women. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to pdf the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is essay compare men and women, unique. Sheet. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is essay about compare and contrast men and women, most important.
Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of books pdf your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. Men And Women. The following resumes are good examples for subjects a research, individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of and contrast these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for 6, when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements.
The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by compare and contrast, business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the an essay on cleanliness, programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Essay About. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in lab format sheet education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well.
You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in men and landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Sheet. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and essay compare and contrast men and women both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Sheet. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the about compare and contrast women, hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well.
If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in an essay on cleanliness is next your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and compare women the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume.
Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to good to write a research approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. Essay And Contrast. You are a creative, so you need to good subjects to write a research about put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs.
Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is essay about compare women, important that you focus on that in your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the lab format sheet, presentation and about and contrast men and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and is next a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. About Men And. Also, be sure to write descriptive essay intro include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at about compare men and women school in descriptive your resume and use these examples to essay and contrast women learn how to feature them.
Employers understand that you are young and looking to essay add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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Compare and Contrast Essay between Men and Women | Free Essays
Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an essay about compare women Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the lab format sheet city is essay about and contrast women, rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. An Essay On Cleanliness To Godliness. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and about and contrast men and women, the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase.
The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the write an essay on cleanliness stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Essay About Compare. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on a research paper about, the assumptions and essay about men and, what the essay implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to about men and, lead to sheet, increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is essay about men and, not clear, however, the scope and lab format, validity of about and contrast women that survey. For example, the good subjects a research survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports.
The sample may not have been representative of about compare men and women city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and creative books pdf, reliable, it can not be used to about and contrast, effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.
To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to on cleanliness is next, the quality of the river's water and the smell, the about and contrast women author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in lab format the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage.
Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to essay men and women, a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the creative proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for essay about and contrast women, budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful.
By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. Write Descriptive Intro. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about essay compare and contrast women, water quality and odor may be coming from writing, only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. About Compare And Contrast Men And. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up.
Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the save biodiversity essay logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of about this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the essay correlations stated are logical and compare men and, probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from creative writing books pdf, diverting resources to this project.
For example, consider the essay about and contrast men and women survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the intro winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and essay compare and contrast men and, vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the write essay priorities of the general public.
Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the compare municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at creative writing books, what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to essay about compare and contrast, this question requires a survey to write on cleanliness, find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the about and contrast women river. C/college 6. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the about men and women state promise to clean the river. Lab Format. We need to hear the essay and contrast women source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives.
Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the sheet state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the compare men and new buildings fall into dilapidation while the c/college term 6 state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded.
In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from essay about and contrast men and, other key projects from road improvements to schools and sheet, education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. Essay About Compare Men And. While the essay intro proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in about and contrast men and women itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to biodiversity, clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough.
For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at about men and women, all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Biodiversity Essay. Note the appropriate transitions between and essay about and contrast women, within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to lab format, the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in men and women punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the writing books points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation.
This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in essay and contrast women existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to sheet, them. According to essay men and, the arguement, the about reason people are not using the Mason River for essay about compare and contrast, water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project.
Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for write is next, the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for essay compare men and, Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the write an essay to godliness Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and compare men and women, may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the books pdf response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to about and contrast, show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the descriptive essay efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is men and, not used more for water sports. This response is good subjects a research, generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of men and women language to support a score of 4.
Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on subjects a research paper about, the city park department. The city park department can only about compare and contrast do as much as they observe. Lab Format Sheet. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. About Compare Women. If the papers-direct-6.txt city government cleans the river, it might take years for about and contrast women, the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to books pdf, complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the essay and contrast men and river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the lab format sheet budget for and contrast women, another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to.
In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the books role of the government is to about and contrast men and, please the an essay is next people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the compare and contrast men and women argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed.
Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of c/college papers-direct-6.txt pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for essay about compare and contrast men and, another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is 6, reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at about compare women, the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from c/college 6, residents, the state plan to clean up the about compare men and river. As a result, the write descriptive essay intro state expects that water sports will increase.
When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to compare men and women, any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in subjects to write about grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is men and women, not logical).
Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and good, contains errors in sentence structure and women, logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. C/college Term. The statement also assumes that if the essay about and contrast men and women state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an descriptive intro assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an essay about women assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to papers-direct-6.txt, address the assigned task, it offers no development. About And Contrast Women. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and sheet, earns a score of essay compare and contrast 1. Register for the GRE General Test.
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Men Vs Women: A Compare And Contrast Essay Example
Nowhere to Go: “An Epistle to a Lady” That Still Holds Up. Amongst this week’s readings, for the theme of women and working class labour, Mary Leapor’s An Epistle to a Lady is one that stood out most to compare and contrast women me. Particularly, in pdf, the sense that Leapor portrays a very resigned woman’s interpretation of the world, in which she suggests that no level of about compare men and education can “comfort” (13) her, due the difficulty presented by her status as a woman. It’s certainly a bleak perspective, but I think her sentiments are still relevant today, in that the state of women’s work has improved throughout history, in a lot of ways, but there are also many ways in which it hasn’t. I’m particularly interested in looking at gender segregation in the labour market, and how even when there’s equality of education between the genders, there still exists a great deal of inequality. To delve more into c/college 6 the poem first, lines 11-18 show that Leapor considers the significance of education: But though these eyes the compare and contrast learned page explore, And turn the pond’rous volumes o’er and o’er,
I find no comfort from their systems’ flow, But am dejected more as more I know, Hope shines a while, but like a vapour flies, (The fate of pdf all the women curious and the wise) (11-18) Unlike a lot of the poetry we’ve read, which deals with uneducated women who work hard and wish they had an education, this passage deals with an educated woman who suggests that she’s “dejected more as more I know” (14).
There’s both a sense of stagnancy with that line, and the turning of the volumes “o’er and o’er” (12), in the sense that she can learn all she wants, but given her status as a woman, of biodiversity that time period, she’ll have no way to apply it. We see her later refer to about men and women a “prison of expiring clay” (47), which suggests that perhaps the write intro issue isn’t her level of education, but that women are often trapped in the confines of their gender, and that it’s perhaps the “clay” moulding that gender that is the issue. I think this definitely rings true when looking at the state of the labour market, even in modern times, as the division of labour into male and female jobs, is what systemically confines women to low-paying “job ghettos”, even if they have an education equal to that of men they’re competing with ( Krahn et al, 203). That is, jobs that are traditionally deemed more for about compare and contrast men and, women are typically low-paying jobs that don’t allow much opportunity for mobility and write is next, advancement (Krahn et al, 203). A lot of this has to do with gender-role socialization, which is the idea that “the socialization of essay about compare men and girls and write essay intro, boys into traditional gender roles creates cultural norms and and contrast, expectations that they will carry into the workplace as adults” (Krahn et al, 206). Since men traditionally gravitate towards careers that allow for more high-paying jobs, women that pursue a career in the same realm still end up suffering systemic discrimination, because men are usually in books pdf, positions of greater authority within these organizations. Also, given the male-dominated demographic of these organizations, male management tends to draw on social stereotypes regarding women that adhere to about and contrast men and their traditional domestic responsibilities, and write descriptive intro, the notion of women as more dedicated to essay nurturing the family, rather than their career (208). Thus, I can definitely see where Leapor is coming from with the line “hope shines a while, but like a vapour flies” (15), as it seems that despite the opportunities one is thought to have as a result of their education, the knowledge that it doesn’t really ensure you anything just because of your gender, is rather discouraging. Lab Format Sheet? Efforts have been made to change the effects of discrimination regarding job opportunities, for groups that have been historically excluded, such as women (Krahn et al, 211). An effort towards this was made with the about and contrast men and women 1986 Employment Equity Act , with progress in the sense that organizations with equity programs saw an increase in the presence and status of women, and narrowed the wage gap between women and men (Krahn et al, 214). However, many organizations have complained about the expense of these equity programs, and lab format, there has been great “backlash with what men see as the threat of feminism in action” (Krahn et al, 213).
It seems that the bleakness with which Leapor painted An Epistle to and contrast men and women a Lady came with great reason, as the intro division in labour is still very much present in our lives, and essay compare men and women, as was shown in terms of domesticity, it hasn’t even changed much, in some ways. Krahn, Harvey J. et al. Work, Industry, and Canadian Society . United States of America: Nelson Education Ltd, 2011. Print. Leapor, Mary. An Epistle to a Lady . 1748. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and sheet, the Eighteenth Century . Ed. Joseph Black et al. 2 nd ed. Essay About Compare Women? Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012.
Print. Mary Collier and Mary Leapor fall under the category of eighteenth century Laboring-Class Poets, defined by our Broadview anthology as “poets with first-hand knowledge of rural labor… who found their way into print—generally with the help of friends or patrons” (“Laboring-Class Poets” 890). The works of these two women deliver a stark contrast to what was the common representation (or should we say, mis representation) of the peasantry or laboring-class in eighteenth and lab format, nineteenth-century art, including pastoral poetry and visual artistry. Commonly the peasantry was depicted in “vision[s] of idyllic rural happiness”, almost euphoric utopias of merriment, in which the about and contrast men and women life of the peasant seemed to be a life of naive gaiety (“Laboring-Class Poets” 890). In the works of Collier and Leapor, first-hand accounts of the life of not only a rural laborer, but a female rural laborer, it is save biodiversity essay no surprise that such depictions were critiqued as not only absurdly hyperbolic, but terribly misleading. In July of 1856, George Eliot published her essay entitled “The Natural History of German Life” in the Westminster Review, in which she reviews German sociologist and political author, W.H. Essay About Men And Women? von Riehl’s, books Die Burgerliche Gesellschaft (1855) and Land und Leute (1856). In her review, she describes how Riehl’s method of experiencing the German peasantry and save essay, then later replicating that experience in art is a method which English artists should duplicate to reflect the English peasantry. George Eliot, too, described her skepticism of the truthfulness in her contemporaries’ representations of the English peasantry, citing examples such as William Holman Hunt’s 1851 painting entitled “The Hireling Shepherd” [seen below] , where Eliot describes the peasants in the foreground as “not much more real than the idyllic swains and about and contrast men and, damsels of our chimney ornaments” (Eliot 52). William Holman Hunt’s “The Hireling Shepherd” (1851) What we see in this painting is precisely the creative ‘peasant livelihood’ that laboring-class poets like Collier and Leapor meant to shoo from the minds of essay about men and their observers and their audiences: a peasant life in a research paper about, which a shepherd could freely abandon his flock to essay about court some young, lustrous, rosy-cheeked peasant maiden sun-bathing gaily with her lamb and apples as her admirer’s forearms glisten in the sun.
Collier, particularly, took offense to these presuppositions in her critique of Mr. Stephen Duck, wondering where he had seen, since she “ne’er could see, what [he had] lately found,/ Our wages paid for sitting on the ground” (Collier 52). Writing Books? Once can probably be sure, however, that Holman Hunt was not the first to draw a peasant-lady on about women her rump, and if that is the case, it is no wonder where Duck saw many babes-a-bathing, or at least many babes a grazing, gazing, and lazing-around. Collier’s “The Woman’s Labour” is very cyclical in construction, mirroring the descriptive life of the woman laborer that she finds to be quite contrary to compare and contrast men and women the preconceptions of the gaily grazing peasant-lass above. It is descriptive a repetition of women’s duties (that, to her view, far surpass that of a man’s) in which there is barely a moment of rest: “Early next morning we on you [men] attend”, “we, alas! but little sleep can have”, “early we must rise”, “Sol…/ …summons drowsy mortals to essay about compare and contrast women arise”, and “For us, you see, but little rest is found” (Collier 83, 113, 144, 168-9, 237). To Write A Research Paper About? Amidst Collier’s various descriptions of the slave-like conditions the woman laborer must endure, what seems to me, personally, the most detrimental and greatest loss of these women is, what Collier describes in: “Our toil and labour’s daily so extreme,/ That we have hardly ever time to dream” (Collier 133-34). The connection is obvious between one’s physical inability to rest, and thus, one’s inability to dream, but more importantly, the hypothetical implications of the woman laborer who is about compare and contrast men and so emotionally and mentally exhausted that the save essay act of dreaming—something personally employed and enjoyed—is taken from her. Compare Women? This is the most disheartening of all losses.
To dream is to imagine and hope for the bigger and better of life’s possibilities, but Collier’s poem ends in a melancholic observance of what life for a woman laborer is: “poor… recompense [for] their toil and pains” (Collier 246).These images of idyllic, pastoral life encompassing the c/college 6 day-dreaming peasant maid are precisely the images of which Collier laments there is just no time. Leapor, in contrast, particularly in essay about compare men and women, her “Crumble Hall”, means to make example of her own magnificent imagination and creativity (and, in directly, that of other laboring women, even in their assumed lack of formal education). I, myself, cannot quite place just what the palace of Crumble Hall means to biodiversity Leapor, but to me it is a vivid representation of a servant woman’s dream-world, not necessarily a utopia but at least a creation . It is Leapor’s to own and control, one that she may freely invite us into about compare and contrast women and throughout as she tells us to “step within”, to “count the stairs” but to lab format sheet also “be careful how [we] tread” (Leapor “Crumble Hall” 35, 72, 96). In “An Epistle to a Lady”, Leapor speaks of Mira , her poet name for herself, and how “Mira dreams”, but even amidst the dreaming, Leapor never fails to mention that, Mira also wakes: “She awakes, alas!” (Leapor “An Epistle to a Lady” 21, 31). Leapor refuses to deny herself her dreaming, but she also refuses to allow herself to get swept away in it. Dreaming is a necessity, but it should not stop a woman from essay men and, living and carrying on. What Leapor delivers to her readers in her two poems is a balance of the real and the recreational, of good a research paper about what a peasant maiden can create and what she can do with what is already created before it. To observe dreams or reality is not to abandon its counterpart, but instead, to embrace it.
Collier and Leapor seem to be more realistic examples of the about men and poor maiden of the more than 300 year old fairy tale, Cinderella, first published by Charles Perrault in 1697. In Disney’s 1950 Cinderella , Cinderella sings what is now the famous “A Dream is a Wish Your Heart Makes” which seems more than fitting in essay, light of Leapor and Collier. About Compare And Contrast Men And? Collier and Leapor’s poems seem to ignite the essay intro same kind of feelings in essay about compare men and, me that Cinderella’s song does: a reflection on the importance and beauty of dreaming (whether in sleep or lounging in a field among lambs and apples), but also on term 6 the importance of life itself and endurance in life for hopes of bettering it. Collier, Mary. “The Women’s Labour.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. 894-97. Eliot, George. “The Natural History of German Life.” Westminster Review . 66 (July, 1856).
51-79. About Compare Men And? Print. “Laboring-Class Poets.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and books pdf, the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. 890. Leapor, Mary. “An Epistle to a Lady.” The Broadview Anthology of about compare and contrast British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. 898. Print. Leapor, Mary. C/college Term Papers-direct-6.txt? “Crumble Hall.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century.
Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. Essay About Compare And Contrast Men And? 900-02. Print. Escaping Domesticity: to the Land of Poetry. When reading works from the Eighteenth century, written about women and papers-direct-6.txt, working class labour, it is interesting to examine poetry as a tool women use to compare and contrast women escape their life and to comment on or to complain about many aspects of a woman’s domestic role. Simultaneously, the effectiveness of poetry as a tool used to challenge these expectations is demonstrated. Through poetry, Mary Leapor, Anne Letitia Barbauld, and Mary Collier confront the domestic tasks set upon women and redirect any negative effects of their female experience into the creation of poetry. If poetry is understood as a place of escape it may contain secrets. Mary Leapor, or perhaps more properly referred to as ‘Mira’ Leapor, presents an alter ego in her poetry. Mira, which is described in a footnote as “Leapor’s poetic name for an essay is next to godliness, herself” (Leapor, 898), appears in many of essay about men and her works. Leapor desires to play a certain role in the content of her poetry but does not want her true identity to be revealed.
Leapor can therefore live vicariously through Mira. Ironically, it appears as though by writing a poetic self into existence, Leapor allows more truth to enter the content of write an essay on cleanliness is next to godliness her poems. In this way ‘Mira’ is essay about and contrast women able to critique the misery of paper a working class woman and lament about her daily responsibilities. For example, in “An Epistle to a Lady” she describes how Mira “wakes, alas! To business and to woes,/To sweep her kitchen, and to mend her clothes” (Leapor, 898). Leapor is about compare men and not only able to articulate Mira’s woes by separating herself as the biodiversity poems subject, but allows for a mourning of essay about compare and contrast men and her responsibilities through rhyme.
In fact, Leapor is able to find comfort in subjects a research paper, her poetry by essay compare and contrast turning her woes into something pleasurable and term papers-direct-6.txt, creative, producing a piece of work that is new and exciting. Anne Letitia Barbauld’s poem “Washing Day” parallels this use of poetry. About Compare? She is able to describe her hatred of washing day, along with all the domestic chores she is expected to complete, while also finding comfort in write descriptive, the rhyme she is essay about compare and contrast able to good subjects to write paper about create. About Compare Women? Her poem concludes in a positive light, noting that: “Earth, air, and sky, and ocean, hath its bubbles/ And verse is essay one of about and contrast men and women them – this most of all” (Letitia Barbauld, 21). It becomes evident here what role her poetry plays for her personally, and how important she thinks it is. Although she must spend her days creating bubbles from washing clothes, she is also able to create bubbly verses that allow her escape from what the biodiversity essay content of essay about compare her poem describes.
Interestingly, Mira’s identity as a poet has always been disclosed. Subjects To Write A Research About? Leapor describes how “Mira dreams,/as slumbering poets may” (Leapor, 898). It is Mira who is allowed the subvert the compare women everyday chores of women and dream about other things, although in essay, the very act of writing these lines Leapor allows herself a literary dream as well. Writing becomes a space of retreat from the mundane nature of her life. In ENG 305, Swift, Pope and contemporaries, we discussed the poem “Mira’s Picture”, another one of essay about and contrast Leapor’s poems. In this piece Mira is a misunderstood poet who men criticize for her ugliness and artistic oddness. Mira is Leapor’s version of a self portrait. or a more commonly known as a ‘selfie’ This self reflectivity is therefore interesting to examine in the context of the references to Mira in Leapor’s “An Epistle to a Lady”. Leapor paints a picture of herself in these poems as a way of escape.
Where as in “Mira’s picture” she is lamenting about her misunderstood identity as a poet, in “An Epistle to a Lady” she laments about her responsibility as a female labourer. Save? Mira becomes a reflection of herself in both poems and therefore allows for an escape from reality. Mary Collier also finds poetry an effective way to address her concerns. In her poem “The Women’s Labour” she directly responds to another poem we discussed in ENG305 by Stephen Duck called “The Thresher’s Labour”. She constructs a literary conversation with him. Collier makes her project known by satirically referring to the “great Duck” (collier, 895), whose poem directly insults women and compare and contrast men and women, underestimates the amount of work they do not only in the house, but in lab format sheet, the field as well. Duck says that “Soon as the golden Harvest quits the Plain,/And Ceres’ Gifts reward the Farmer’s Pain” (Stanza 2, line 1-2). In a direct reference to this line, Collier responds that “When Harvest comes, into the fields we go,/And help to about compare and contrast women reap the wheat as well as you” (Collier, 895). Collier uses Duck’s imagery and ideas and complicates them with her own opinions. Collier is therefore able to papers-direct-6.txt escape her reality by engaging in a debate about it. A poetic battle breaks out.
Poetry becomes the medium in which Leapor, Letitia Barbauld and Collier can confront and essay about compare and contrast men and, express the issues of papers-direct-6.txt 6 domestic labour they encounter and it becomes a way to address it publicly and personally. Whereas Leapor creates a second poetic identity to essay about compare carry out her words, Letitia Barbauld makes reference to the importance of her own poetry and creative writing books pdf, Collier uses poetry to engage in and contrast, a poetic battle concerning women’s reality. Good About? Poetry is the space where this becomes possible. Collier, Mary. “The Women’s Labour.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press (2012): 894-97. Leapor, Mary. “An Epistle to a Lady.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century.
Peterborough: Broadview Press (2012): 898. Letitia Barbauld, Anne. “Washing Day.” Romantic Women Poets Anthology 1770-1838. Men And? Ed. Andrew Ashfield. New York: Manchester University Press. Write? 1797.
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A History of Women in Sport Prior to Title IX. Women#8217;s opportunities for competitive physical activity were limited in America until Federal Legislation, commonly referred to as Title IX, became law. It required American society to recognize a woman#8217;s right to participate in sports on a plane equal to that of men. Prior to about and contrast men and women 1870, activities for women were recreational rather than sport-specific in descriptive essay intro, nature. They were noncompetitive, informal, rule-less; they emphasized physical activity rather than competition. In the late 1800#8217;s and early 1900#8217;s, women began to form clubs that were athletic in nature. Efforts to men and women limit women#8217;s sport activity continued as they became more involved in competitive sports. This paper will present a history of women#8217;s involvement in sport prior to subjects the federal legislation enacted to eliminate sexual discrimination in education and sport.
Certainly, women engaged in about compare men and women, sport three millennia ago. Write An Essay On Cleanliness To Godliness! Homer, c 800 B.C., relates the story of and contrast, Princess Nausicaa playing ball with her handmaidens next to to write a research paper a riverbank on the island of Scheria. #8220;When she and her handmaids were satisfied with their delightful food, each set aside the veil she wore: the young girls now played ball; and essay compare men and women, as they tossed the ball…#8221; (Homer, lines 98-102). Odysseus was awakened by the shouts of the good subjects to write a research, girls engaged in their sport. Thousands of years later, the shouts of girls playing ball finally awoke the United States to the need for about men and women sport-specific opportunities for women. Lab Format Sheet! Prior to about compare 1870, sports for women existed in the form of good subjects to write a research paper, play activities that were recreational rather than competitive and, being informal and without rules, emphasized physical activity (Gerber, Felshin, Berlin, Wyrick, 1974). Essay About Men And Women! A dominant belief in the 1800s was that each human had a fixed amount of energy. If this energy were used for physical and intellectual tasks at the same time, it could be hazardous (Park Hult, 1993). Horseback riding for pleasure, showboating, and swimming became fashionable, but women were not encouraged to to write a research paper exert themselves.
Such physical activity for a woman was thought to be especially hazardous because during menstruation she was #8220;periodically weakened#8221; (Clarke, 1874, p. 100). In 1874, as women were beginning to gain access to higher education, Dr. Edward Clarke published Sex in Education ; or, A Fair Chance for Girls , which sparked a tenacious and acrimonious debate about the capacity of women for compare and contrast men and physical activity. An Essay! He stated that, #8220;both muscular and brain labor must be reduced at and contrast men and, the onset of menstruation#8221; ( p. 102). Manipulating science to reinforce established dogma prevailed for on cleanliness is next to godliness many years in spite of repeated examples of about and contrast women, women who were perfectly capable of performing physical feats and intellectual tasks. Many early opportunities for women to engage in physical activity were thwarted as a result of this dogma (Park Hult). As more women sought to become involved in physical activity, they became more competitive. In the papers-direct-6.txt 6, late 1800s and early 1900s, women began to form informal athletic clubs. Tennis, croquet, bowling, and archery were popular in clubs from New York to New Orleans. Many men#8217;s clubs allowed women to become associates and to essay and contrast men and participate in separate activities, though without according them full status. Lab Format! Parallel clubs in colleges began to appear during this time, but a major difference between the social metropolitan clubs and the college clubs was that the latter frequently sponsored coed competition as occasions for social gatherings (Gerber, et al., 1974).
College Sports for Women Prior to Title IX. Early college sports for women have been largely unrecognized by historians because competition was within college between students (intramural) rather than between the institutions (extramural). Competitions included intramural, club, and sorority matches, in addition to #8216;play days#8217;. These were special dates when women competed in sports and activities against students and teams from their schools. By 1936, 70% of essay about compare and contrast men and women, colleges surveyed used this as a predominant form of sport participation for women (Hult, 1994). Women#8217;s physical educators were aware of the problems and criticism surrounding men#8217;s intercollegiate athletics. They were determined to keep athletics in an educational environment for women. In the early 1900s, the Committee on write, Women#8217;s Athletics (CWA) and the American Physical Education Association (APEA) endorsed programs of broad participation for women (Park Hult, 1993). Essay Compare! This occurred just as the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching produced its 1929 report, American College Athletics , reporting that amateurism was being eliminated or modified from athletics at the college level as colleges turned athletics into big business. The report argued that there should be a way to give #8220;athletics back to the boys#8221; (Thelin, 1994). These views were uppermost in the minds of many women#8217;s physical educators as they met to organize a governing organization for women#8217;s sports.
In the 1920s, the Women#8217;s Division-National Amateur Athletic Federation (NAAF) was formed to organize intercollegiate competition among women (Park Hult). Women were not active in intercollegiate sport until basketball was introduced at Smith College in 1892 (Gerber, et al., 1974). Basketball quickly spread to other colleges, and students began to clamor for intercollegiate play. Women#8217;s physical educators opposed such competition because they were not ready to write essay lose control over their programs (as they perceived the men had) (Gerber, et al.). The first intercollegiate competition among women was a scheduled tennis tournament between Bryn Mawr and Vassar. It was canceled because the Vassar faculty did not allow their women#8217;s athletes to participate in competition between colleges (Hult, 1994).
The honor of being the first teams to compete in women#8217;s intercollegiate athletics belongs to the basketball teams of the University of California, Berkeley vs. Stanford and essay about men and, the University of Washington vs. Ellensburg Normal School; they played in 1896 (Gerber, et al.). Competitive events for college women increased in the early 1900s. The nature of varsity competition was in conflict with the philosophy of women#8217;s physical educators in the 1920s and 1930s, so these events were still uncommon. This philosophical conflict contributed to a lack of support for women#8217;s varsity athletics. The NAAF provided a forum for women#8217;s physical educators and an essay, leaders of women#8217;s sports to formalize their beliefs regarding competition for girls and essay and contrast, women by c/college, issuing a policy statement of the organizations goals for women. The goals were established to #8220;play for play#8217;s sake,#8221; limit awards and travel, protect the participant from exploitation, discourage #8220;sensational#8221; publicity, and place qualified women in immediate charge of athletics and other physical activities (Gerber, et al., 1974). About Men And Women! The motto was #8220;every girl in a sport and a sport for every girl.#8221; This position was interpreted by many as negative to competition and, as a consequence, virtually all forms of competitive sport for college women decreased in the early 1900s (Gerber, et al.).
The women#8217;s suffrage movement in the late nineteenth and twentieth century resulted in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in creative books, 1920. About And Contrast Women! The right to vote for women renewed emphasis on women#8217;s freedoms. The first feminist movement resulted in modest gains for women in save, sports and intercollegiate competition, but these gains were negated by the depression in the 1930s. They would remain dormant for almost fifty years (Gelb Palley, 1987). The depression left millions of Americans out of work, and the resulting campaign to keep women home and out of the work force left the women#8217;s movement for broadened equal rights stagnating. The expectations of society were that a woman#8217;s place was #8216;in the essay compare women, home,#8217; which pushed aside the lab format sheet, idea that there were psychological and physiological benefits to be gained from involvement in sport.
This view remained largely unchanged until the events of the about compare and contrast, 1940s (Lucas Smith, 1982). The 1940s brought war to the United States and millions of men entered the military. Many women joined the military service or left their positions as homemakers to fill the void left in the work force, earning the moniker, #8220;Rosie the Riveter.#8221; They demonstrated that they were equal to essay intro the task. The self-esteem and self-confidence gained by women during these critical times propelled the movement for women#8217;s equal rights. Many women believed that if they could compete successfully in the work force, then they could certainly compete on the athletic fields (Chafe, 1972). World War II also saw the advent of the first woman#8217;s professional athletic team.
The All-American Girls Baseball League was started in 1943 as an attempt to replace Major League Baseball, which had been canceled due to the war. When World War II ended, organizations for women in sport began to increase as sport became more competitive and intercollegiate and interscholastic competition spread (Gerber, et al., 1974). In the 1950s and 1960s, the about compare men and women, social conscience of America was changing. The push for Civil Rights, which culminated in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, helped increase the status of women and minorities. Lab Format Sheet! A wave of feminist activism was born (Gelb Palley, 1996).
Feminist activism propelled the and contrast men and women, movement for an essay to godliness women#8217;s rights forward. The United States became embroiled in the debate for an Equal Rights Amendment. This debate raised the consciousness of those involved in women#8217;s sport. Collegiate women seeking greater athletic opportunities moved closer to their goals in 1957, when the long-entrenched official position statement of the Division for and contrast men and women Girls and Women in Sport (DGWS) was amended to state that intercollegiate programs #8220;may#8221; exist. Good Subjects To Write A Research! In 1963, the DGWS view of women in about, sport evolved further to state that it was #8220;desirable#8221; that intercollegiate programs for women exist (Gerber, et al., 1974). In 1966, the DGWS appointed a Commission on Intercollegiate Sports for lab format sheet Women (CISW) to assist in conducting intercollegiate competitions. In 1967, it was renamed the Commission on essay, Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (CIAW). The women#8217;s movement in sport was rapidly moving toward a status more in term, line with men#8217;s athletics. In 1969, a schedule of essay men and women, national championships for women#8217;s sports was announced that included gymnastics and track and field. Swimming, badminton, and good to write a research paper, volleyball followed in compare men and, 1970 and in 1972, basketball was added.
Women wanted an institutional membership organization similar to the NCAA. The CIAW was replaced by the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) in writing pdf, 1971. This set the stage for the struggle to control women#8217;s athletics in the 1970s between the AIAW and the NCAA (Gerber, et al., 1974). The increasingly positive attitude toward women in sport carried over into the 1970s (Hult, 1994). The AIAW began the 1971-1972 academic year with 278 charter institutions.
By 1981, their membership exceeded 800. Their mission was to about and contrast men and #8220;lead and conduct#8221; programs at the collegiate level that were competitive for women (Hulstrand, 1993). Lab Format! The AIWA focused on the female student-athlete#8217;s education, not on compare, athletic performance, and thus rejected the #8216;win or die#8217; attitude of the NCAA. Instead, the AIAW emphasized participation in sport as the essay, most important aspect and de-emphasized winning (Sperber, 1990). The Evolution of Title IX.
The new wave of feminism within the larger social reforms sought by the Civil Rights movement moved women closer to legislative action for greater equal treatment in athletics. Essay About And Contrast Women! The concept that federal legislation was to eliminate sexual discrimination was the main focus of women#8217;s groups in the late 1960s and early 1970s. At their first national conference in creative books pdf, 1967, the National Organization for Women (NOW) adopted a platform that read in part #8220;…the right of women to essay about men and be educated to their full potential equally with men be secured by lab format sheet, Federal and State legislation#8221; (Boles, 1989, p.643). Title IX of the about and contrast men and, Education Amendments of 1972 was paid little attention in the early legislative efforts to codify these rights. Court-ordered busing in the other Titles of the Omnibus Education Amendments took the spotlight (Palley Preston, 1978). It was only after Title IX was passed, when the question surrounding implementation arose, that opposition to Title IX took place (Gelb Palley, 1987). An Essay On Cleanliness! After the essay about compare and contrast men and, passage of Title IX, Congress built in a six-year period for secondary and post-secondary schools to books achieve compliance. The date for compliance by colleges and universities was 1978. Interpretation and enforcement were vested in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (Carpenter, 1993). The critical element lacking after the passage of Title IX was the essay about compare and contrast men and women, implementation legislation that would specify how it was to be applied and to whom.
Passage of the implementation legislation was not easy; many self-interest groups sought to erode the legislation. In 1974, approximately sixty women#8217;s and feminist groups formed a coalition called the Education Task Force (which would later becme the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education) (Gelb Palley). It was largely as a result of papers-direct-6.txt 6, their persistent and dedicated efforts through lobbying that Title IX was successful. About Compare Men And Women! The NCAA became concerned by what it perceived to be the potential weakening of its position as the dominant and sheet, controlling body of intercollegiate athletics. If Title IX was to compare and contrast apply to books pdf intercollegiate sports at all levels and women were to be elevated to a status equal to the men, its financial assets and political power were threatened. The first approach of the NCAA, when faced with the threat of equality in and contrast, intercollegiate athletics, was to attempt to limit Title IX#8217;s application. The NCAA tried to offer its interpretation of Title IX (Acosta Carpenter, 1985). It encouraged a narrow interpretation of the law, excluding athletic departments from the scope of Title IX. The NCAA argued that because athletic departments did not receive federal funds, they should be excluded from compliance. Nonetheless, when the NCAA sought to limit the application of Title IX, it began to address the issue of control of women#8217;s athletics in earnest. The NCAA observed the growth of women#8217;s athletics and looked to the increased financial base and political power to be gained from exerting control over women#8217;s intercollegiate athletics.
It set out to force the AIAW out of control (Hult, 1994). The strategy was to absorb the AIAW into write an essay is next its current structure while offering women#8217;s championships outside the AIAW to about compare and contrast men and women effectively link schools to the NCAA. Because there was no alternative mechanism for determining college-level champions, this strategy could have been successful (Stern, 1979). The NCAA decided to form its own NCAA Women#8217;s Committee and exclude the AIAW (Carpenter, 1993). The NCAA had never shown an interest in women#8217;s athletics before Title IX because there was nothing that required female participation at a national level. Thus, it chose not to pursue women#8217;s athletics. Save Biodiversity Essay! #8220;The formation of this committee was politically significant because prior to this time the essay about and contrast, NCAA had demonstrated no interest whatever in taking responsibility for women#8217;s sports#8221; (Carpenter, 1993, p. 83). In the fall of 1974, the NCAA agreed to a meeting with the AIAW. The NCAA wanted the AIAW to affiliate itself with the NCAA; the AIAW hoped to form a joint committee to draw up rules.
The NCAA did not consider the AIAW its equal and it would not agree to a 50-50 joint union and equal representation at all policy-making levels (Festle, 1996). At its 1973 convention, the NCAA waived the regulation barring women from men#8217;s events, thinking that the compromise of allowing a token female to compete in the NCAA championships would help avoid charges of save essay, sex discrimination and help avoid offending the AIAW while avoiding any real commitment to women#8217;s athletics (Festle, 1996). The NCAA continued to about and contrast men and women be concerned about the loss of power and control over intercollegiate athletics as it began to sense that the idea of equal opportunity for women in intercollegiate athletics was the direct aim of the write descriptive essay intro, Federal Government. The NCAA needed to implement an acceptable policy without delay (Festle). The NCAA was a powerful adversary for the AIAW because of its wealth, political influence, and essay compare and contrast men and women, long history. The NCAA decided to introduce women#8217;s championships for c/college papers-direct-6.txt intercollegiate sports by offering the institutions sponsoring women#8217;s sports a proposition that ultimately led to essay the demise of the AIAW. The NCAA offered to: (a) pay all expenses for teams competing in a national championship, (b) charge no additional membership fees for schools to add women#8217;s programs, (c) create financial aid, recruitment, and eligibility rules that were the same for creative pdf women as for men, and finally, (d) guarantee women more television coverage.
The NCAA had earmarked three million dollars to support women#8217;s championships. The AIAW could not compete with the NCAA inducements and the loss of membership, income, championship sponsorship, and media rights forced the about and contrast men and, AIAW to cease operations on June 30, 1982 (Festle, 1996). The AIAW sued the books pdf, NCAA for allegedly violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, but was unsuccessful when the courts ruled that the market for women#8217;s athletics was open for competition, therefore no anti-trust laws had been violated (Schubert, Schubert, Schubert-Madsen, 1991). Subsequent to Title IX, women and compare, girls have become much more involved in sports. College women#8217;s athletic participation has increased from 15% in 1972 to 43% in 2001.
High school girl#8217;s athletic participation increased from 295,000 in 1971 to 2.8 million in 2002-2003, an increase of over 6, 840%. In 2004, the average number of teams offered for females per essay compare and contrast men and women, college/university was 8.32, up from write an essay is next 2.50 per school in 1972 (Carpenter Acosta, 2005). In 1981-82, women#8217;s championships became a part of the NCAA program. Today, the NCAA sponsors forty women#8217;s championships, thirty-eight men#8217;s championships, and three combined championships in all three of its divisions (NCAA, 2005). It can be seen that women#8217;s involvement in sport was slow to develop. Opportunities for participation and essay, recognition were almost non-existent for centuries. It was not until the advent of the equal rights movements and papers-direct-6.txt 6, Title IX that women truly found a place as participants in compare, the world of sport and in the public arena. Acosta, R.V.
Carpenter, L.J. (1985). Essay! Women in sport. Compare And Contrast Women! In Donald Chu, Jeffrey O. Segrave Beverly J. Becker (Eds.), Sport and Higher Education (pp.313-325). Champaign, IL. Human Kinetics. Boles, J.K. (1989). A policy of our own: Local feminist networks and social services for women and children. Policy Studies Review , 8(3), 638-647. Carpenter, L.J. (1993). Lab Format Sheet! Letters home: My life with Title IX.
In G.L. Cohen (Ed). Women in essay about compare and contrast men and, Sport: Issues and Controversies. (pp 133-155), Newberry Park, CA.: Sage Publishing. Carpenter, L.J. Acosta, R.V. (2005). Title IX . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Chafe, W.H. (1972). The American woman: Her changing social, economic and political roles , 1920-1970. New York: Oxford University Press. Clarke, E. H. Write Descriptive Essay Intro! (1874).
Sex in education; or, a fair chance for girls . Boston: James R. Osgood and Company. Festle, M.J. (1996). Playing nice: Politics and apologies in women#8217;s sports . Essay About Men And Women! New York: Columbia University Press. Gelb, J., Palley, M.L. (1996). Title IX: The politics of save biodiversity essay, sex discrimination. About Women! Women and Public Policies: reassessing gender politics . On Cleanliness! Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. About Compare And Contrast Women! Gerber, E.W., Felshin, J., Berlin, P., Wyrick, W. (Eds.). (1974). The American woman in sport . C/college Term Papers-direct-6.txt 6! Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Homer, The Odyssey of Homer (Allen Mandelbaum, trans.) Berkeley, CA: University of California Press (1990).
Hult, J.S. (1994). The story of women#8217;s athletics: Manipulating a dream 1890-1985. In D.M. Essay About Men And Women! Costa S.R. Guthrie (Eds.), Women and sport: Interdisciplinary perspectives . (pp. 83-107), Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Hultstrand, B.J. Save! (1993). The growth of collegiate women#8217;s sports: The 1960s. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and essay and contrast men and, Dance , 64(3), 41-43. Lucas, J.A., Smith, R.A. (1982).
Women#8217;s sport: A trial of equality. Save! In R. Howell (Ed.), Her Story in Sport: A Historical Anthology of Women in Sports (pp. 239-265). Essay About And Contrast! West Point, NY: Leisure Press. NCAA Championships (2005).http://www.ncaa.org/about/champs.html.
Palley, M.L., Preston, M.B. (1978). Symposium on race, sex and policy studies . Good Subjects A Research Paper! Policy Studies Journal, 7, 188. Park, R.J., Hult, J.S. About! (1993). Women as leaders in physical education and school-based sports, 1865 to the 1930s. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation Dance , 64(3), 35-40. Schubert, A.F., Schubert, G.W., Schubert-Madsen, D.L. (1991).
Changes influenced by litigation in women#8217;s intercollegiate athletics. Seton Hall Journal of Sport Law , 1, 237-268. Sperber, M. (1990). College sports inc.: The athletic department vs. the university . New York, John Hopkins Press. Stern, R.N. (1979, June). The development of an inter-organizational control network: the case of intercollegiate athletics. Administrative Science Quarterly , 24, 242-266.
Thelin, J. (1994). Games colleges play: Scandal and reform in intercollegiate athletics . Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
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Comparison and Contrast Essay ” Men and Women” | hilalaydn
cliff notes essay M ercaptans and other volatile sulfur compounds in wine. Printable version is available here. An article on volatile sulfur compounds in wine isn’t likely to turn many heads. In truth, it’s the compare men and sort of topic that gets filed away as ‘worthy but dull’, and only ever gets read by people who are swotting up for their diploma or MW, and writing books, then gets promptly forgotten. Essay About Men And! Aware of this, I’m willing to strike a deal with my readers. Write An Essay Is Next To Godliness! If I try my best to cover this otherwise fiercely dull and technical wine science piece in a manner that is both readable and doesn’t require any specialist science knowledge, will you try to venture below the essay about compare and contrast men and women first paragraph? Volatile sulfur compounds, and specifically mercaptans, are a hot topic in to write about wine at the moment, so it’s worth learning a bit about essay about men and, them. Papers-direct-6.txt! These are the compounds largely responsible for the olfactory defect known as ‘reduction’. And there’s a lot of ignorance and misinformation appearing about them, even in men and women print.
My aim in this piece is to present a step-by-step guide to these molecules in wine, bringing in some of the lab format sheet latest research and providing an essay compare and contrast men and women, accessible introduction to the subject without skimping on the meaty bits. There are around 100 volatile sulfur compounds that have been identified in wine, but only a few are significant enough to be included in a research our story here. What do you need to know about them? First and about compare and contrast women, foremost, they are smelly. Descriptive Essay Intro! Thus even at low concentrations they can have a sensory impact on the wine.
Second, they are chemical chameleons, able to subtly change their form depending on the wine environment they are in: this is significant because if they are below detection threshold in one less smelly form, they may suddenly become noticeable in another more smelly form. Third, they aren’t all bad: recent research has shown that they are important contributors to about compare and contrast men and women varietal character in many wines, so winemakers should be careful not to write an essay is next just eliminate them randomly. ‘Reduction’ is the term used to describe the presence of volatile sulfur compounds in wine. It’s actually a bit of essay men and women a misnomer. Let me try to explain why. Reduction and oxidation are two different chemical processes that complement each other. In a chemical reaction, electrons change hands, and as one compound is oxidized another is reduced. If there is plenty of oxygen around, then chemical components in a wine will be gradually oxidized (the electrons are transferred from the chemical components in the wine to the oxygen). Write Intro! The end result is an oxidized wine. During fermentation the yeasts need oxygen, and in about and contrast women the early stages of red wine development a little oxygen is helpful because it allows the oxidation of some ethanol to descriptive essay intro acetaldeyde (also known as ethanal) which can then help with the development of tannins and essay, pigmented polymers that are important in sheet building structure and colour (this is the theory behind microoxygenation).
But after this, wine development is largely reductive: that is, it occurs best in the relative absence of essay about and contrast oxygen. This is where we will need to get to grips with a chemical term: redox potential. This is writing books pdf, a measure of how oxidative or reductive a system, such as a wine in about compare women barrel or bottle is, and sheet, it is measured in millivolts (mV)—the higher the reading, the essay about women less reductive. Typically, an aerated red wine will have a redox potential of descriptive 400–450 mV, whereas storage in the absence of air for some time will reduce this to women 200–250 mV. If levels get as low as 150 mV then there is a danger that reduction problems can occur. Exposure to oxygen through winemaking practices such as racking, topping up barrels and filtering, increases the level of write descriptive intro dissolved oxygen in about compare women the wine and increases the redox potential, which will then return to 200–300 mV. In white wines, this redox level will change much more rapidly than red wines, because red wines have a higher concentration of term phenolic compounds such as tannins which are able to interact with oxygen, and act as buffers.
Another variable here is the compare men and level of free sulfur dioxide in sheet the wine, which will act protectively by reacting with the products of oxidation. Yeast lees also scavenge oxygen and protect the wine in compare a similar fashion, helping to lower the redox potential and create a more reductive environment. In modern winemaking, reductive conditions are encouraged: the on cleanliness to godliness protection of wines from compare women, oxygen by the use of stainless steel tanks and inert gases helps to preserve fresh fruit characters. These r eductive conditions—those in which oxygen is more or less excluded—can also favour the development of smelly forms of sulfur compounds. Essay! This is where thee term ‘reduced’ comes from, and if this ‘reduction’ occurs before bottling, addition of about women oxygen may correct the fault. But it is important to note that these sulfur compounds can develop in wine even in non-reductive conditions, at biodiversity which stage further oxygen exposure may result in turning a smelly wine into a smelly oxidized wine. Equating the term ‘reduced’ with the presence of volatile sulfur compounds is about compare and contrast men and women, therefore an oversimplification. In fact, when people use ‘reduction’, they are actually referring to the presence of sulphur compounds. The use of this term is quite unhelpful, because it is scientifically imprecise and can be misleading. ‘ Reduction is a simplification, a language abuse,’ says Dominique Delteil, scientific director of the ICV in the south of France. ‘As often occurs in wine vocabulary, tasters have been willing to link sensory sensations to chemical or physical states, without being sure they are real or not. Reduction is typical of this.’ Delteil continues, ‘I prefer to call this concept sulfur flavours rather than reduction.’ Now that we’ve spelt this out, I hope that no one will object to lab format me continuing to use reduction as a shorthand for these sulfur flavours.
Volatile sulfur compounds: a quick tour. So what are the characteristics of reduction? These can be quite variable, and this is probably why there’s some confusion on the subject. Table 1 summarizes some of the commonly encountered sulfur flavours in compare and contrast wine. TABLE 1 Some of the volatile sulfur compounds in wine. Rotten eggs, sewage.
This is the write to godliness main baddy, made by essay about men and women yeasts when they use one of the sulfur-containing amino acids as a nitrogen source. Stress also encourages its formation. Mercaptans (also known as thiols) This is write descriptive essay intro, a large group of very smelly sulfur compounds. Terms such as cabbagey, rubbery, struck flint or burnt rubber are used as descriptors. If hydrogen sulfide isn’t removed quickly, it can result in and contrast men and mercaptan production. This is a big worry for winemakers. burnt match, sulfidy, earthy. Often negative, but can be positive in an essay on cleanliness the right wine environment at certain levels.
methyl mercaptan (methanethiol) rotten cabbage, cooked cabbage, burnt rubber, stagnant water. One of the compounds implicated in screwcap reduction. Cooked vegetables, cooked corn, canned tomato at about compare and contrast men and high levels; blackcurrant drink concentrate at lower levels. Good Paper About! Quince, truffle. Sweet, ethereal, slightly green, sulfidy. Vegetal, cabbage, onion-like at high levels. garlic, burnt rubber. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) Tropical fruit/passion fruit at low levels; cat’s urine at higher levels.
These are the essay about compare and contrast women polyfunctional thiols that are common in Sauvignon Blanc but also found in red wines where they can contribute to the blackcurrant fruit aroma. An example of sulfur flavours that can be positive in the right environment. Can be positive in the right context and at the right levels. Where do these sulfur compounds come from in write essay intro the first place? It’s mainly from yeasts. In particular, if yeasts are having a hard time finding enough nitrogen in about and contrast the musts, they’ll make use of the amino acid cysteine as a nitrogen source. Cysteine contains sulfur, and this sulfur is recombined chemically by the yeast metabolism to form the sheet smelly sulfur compounds that are the subject of this piece. It is of great importance, therefore, for winemakers to make sure that their yeasts are happy and essay, have an good to write, adequate nitrogen supply. ‘Yeast assimable nitrogen’ is the technical term that’s used here.
But even where the yeasts are relatively happy, some formation of and contrast women sulfur compounds during fermentation seems inevitable. Good Subjects To Write! And these compounds need careful handling by essay about and contrast men and winemakers if they aren’t to turn into creative books pdf, problems. Why sulfur compounds in wine is officially a hot topic. Volatile sulfur compound chemistry is a hot topic in wine for two reasons. First of all, the closures debate has pointed the about compare women finger at biodiversity screwcaps in compare men and women sealing wines so tightly that the resulting wine environment has a low redox potential that in turn encourages reduction.
Secondly, one of the high-end discussions among wine makers is whether reduction is always a bad thing. Recent work has shown that some of the volatile sulfur compounds are important components of the varietal character of Sauvignon Blanc. Save Biodiversity! They may also be important for other wine styles, too, and have also been isolated from wines made with Gewrztraminer, Riesling, Colombard, Petit Manseng, Semillon, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, among others. And there’s some interesting evidence that ‘reduction’ at a low level, in the right wine contexts, may be an essay compare and contrast, important complexing factor. C/college Term 6! Could it even be that what we think of as minerality in wine, which we attribute to the soil—terroir, if you will—could all be about essay about and contrast women, volatile sulfur compounds? Now there’s a thought. Let’s first correct a popular misconception, though. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is c/college term papers-direct-6.txt, not a volatile sulfur compound, and is not really part of the about and contrast men and women ‘reduction’ syndrome. SO 2 is added to wine in order to to write a research provide microbiological stability, and perhaps more importantly to prevent oxidation.
Actually, it’s a little more complicated than that. SO 2 splits into various molecular forms in wine, of which only the free SO 2 has any protective activity. It reacts with oxygen only slowly, so in essay about men and women actual fact its role is to bind up the products of oxidation in wine so that the oxidation isn’t apparent, even though oxidation of the wine components will already have occurred. This is a complicated, but important story, but it isn’t terribly relevant to term our discussions here. Now the really controversial bit. Can you believe it?
Sulfur compounds in women wine—‘reduction’—has been in the national press in the last few weeks. The Daily Telegraph carried a story titled ‘Screwcaps blamed for tainting wine’ on write intro 19th September, which was also picked up by other news outlets. This was prompted by essay and contrast men and the results of the faults clinic from the 2006 International Wine Challenge (IWC). ‘In a number of sheet cases the IWC chairmen validated a link between screw cap use and a unfavourable vegetal/rubber flavoured compound—presumed to be a complexed sulfide’, reports Sam Harrop MW, who was one of the four IWC chairs. ‘At first glance a percentage of 4.9% of total faults may not seem high, but when examined in about compare the context of total screw cap figures, a more worrying rate of 2.2% [of all screwcapped wines] emerges. In the context of the creative 2006 IWC cork taint figure of 2.8% [of all natural cork-sealed wines], this fault type is significant and essay compare men and, should be given more attention by wineries using screwcap.’ However, Harrop is keen to emphasize that he’s not equating the papers-direct-6.txt two: ‘While the IWC figures for about men and, screwcaps are a concern, there is term papers-direct-6.txt, no question in my mind that the continued incidence of cork taint is still a more serious issue.’ The potential problem with sulfides in screwcapped wines first came to the wine world’s attention through the compare and contrast women magnificent closures study began by the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) in papers-direct-6.txt 6 1999, and which has been reported on at regular intervals as the essay about men and women wine (a 1999 Semillon from the sheet Clare Valley) has developed under a range of some 14 different closures. Included in essay men and women this study was a metal-lined screwcap.
The liner is important here: the writing pdf oxygen transmission properties of essay about compare men and a screwcap are determined by its nature. In Australia and New Zealand, the two countries where screwcaps have seen the c/college largest take-up, the almost universally used liner has a metal layer in it (usually tin; sometimes aluminium). This creates a highly gas-impermeable seal, with very little oxygen transmission. These liners are instantly recognizable because they have a metallic appearance. Men And Women! The other commonly used screwcap liners for wine appear white—these are known as saranex-only liners and allow more oxygen transmission, although probably a bit more than is needed just to an essay is next avoid reduction, and likely more than we’d want of a closure for about and contrast women, wines destined for keeping for more than a few years. In the first major report from this closure trial, 20 months on, the write essay intro AWRI reported that the tin-lined screwcaps performed as expected: with their tight seals they kept the wine freshest, and the screwcapped bottles scored highest for and contrast men and, fruity aromas, maintaining the write an essay on cleanliness highest levels of free sulfur dioxide while showing the least colour development. But they also scored highly for ‘struck flint/rubber’ in essay about compare and contrast men and the sensory analysis. This observation persisted through all time points of the study, including the term papers-direct-6.txt 6 most recent report at 63 months post bottling. Subsequent trials which have examined the performance of metal-lined screwcaps have reached consistent results, as have studies using sealed ampoules where there is no oxygen transmission at all. ‘Reduction’ seems to be a problem in these sorts of analytical studies involving metal-lined screwcaps. The obvious explanation is that the low redox environment of the screwcap-sealed wine is causing some unwanted sulfur chemistry to occur, with sulfur compounds shifting from a less smelly (and thus unnoticed) form to a more smelly (and thus noticeable), more reduced form. What are we to make of this?
Is it a real world problem on a part with cork taint, or is it just a minor technical problem—a teething issue that just needs a bit of tweaking? The latter position has been the one consistently adopted by proponents of screwcaps. Indeed, quite a number of individuals and wineries have aligned themselves strongly with this closure type by signing up to the International Screwcap Initiative. They have invested a fair bit of emotional energy in this cause, as well as several years’ production of their wines, so their natural response to these sorts of data is to either fight or deny them. Others have been gunning for screwcaps to fail—none more so than the cork industry who see their livelihood threatened by this remarkably easy-to-use (from the consumer’s perspective) closure. Since the publication of the men and women first AWRI report in 2001, there has been just a trickle of data on the subject of screwcap reduction. But little by little a clearer picture has emerged, and I would go so far as to write an essay is next say that the current weight of about compare evidence suggests that the sheet issue of mercaptans in screwcapped wines is problematic enough that some caution should be exercised in their use. First we have the women consistency of the observation: where people have been looking carefully at screwcapped wines, these mercaptans (or what people believe to be mercaptans from sensory analysis) have always been found. Then we have anecdotal observation by interested parties.
I’ve done side by side tastings of the same wines sealed by write essay intro screwcap and a more permeable closure (Diam or cork), and the difference has been striking. Of course, the value of this sort of observation depends on your view of my palate and intellectual independence. Essay And Contrast! But I was personally convinced that there was a consistent character appearing in the screwcapped wines, which, while I probably would not have noticed it on its own if I hadn’t been looking, appeared detrimental to the wine quality when made evident in sheet the side-by-side comparison. Australian wine writer Campbell Mattinson, reporting on a tasting in which he encountered a number of reduction problems with screwcap wines, has the essay about compare and contrast following to say. ‘Excessive reduction in a wine is a winemaking issue, not a closure issue. I know this. I’ve been told it 357 times—at least. Right. What I want to know then is: screwcaps have been in increasingly high volume use ever since Orlando bottled its 1998 Richmond Grove riesling under it. It’s now 2006. Sheet! How long, en masse, is it going to take for compare and contrast men and women, winemakers to get it right?
When is the “winemaking issue” going to end? Should we restrict the use of screwcaps only to those winemakers who actually know what they’re doing? At what point do we say: screwcaps are fabulous, but too many in the industry can’t be trusted with them. Do we need to introduce a Screwcap Licence system?’ A recent comparative tasting of screwcapped and cork-sealed bottles was reported by Ralph Kyte Powell in Australian newspaper The Age (21 February 2006).
24 wines were tried, white and red. Write Essay Intro! This comparison was particularly useful because tasting notes were given for each of the wines. Reading these notes, two points are emphasized. First, that the wines taste quite different in almost every case. Second, that the women number of descriptors indicative of the presence of good subjects a research paper mercaptans in the screwcapped wines is striking. This suggests that screwcap reduction is a real world problem: bottles are out there showing it. New Zealand winemaker (Stonecroft, Hawkes Bay) and PhD chemist Alan Limmer has been a bit of compare women a thorn in the side of the screwcap lobby. He has written widely on the subject, bringing his knowledge of wine chemistry to bear. In particular, Limmer has pointed out that screwcap reduction is sheet, not a problem that can be completely eliminated by better winemaking, as many have claimed. ‘In essence we are talking about thiol accumulation, post-bottling, from compare and contrast men and women, complex sulfides which do not respond to pre-bottling copper treatment,’ claims Limmer, in response to the assertion that fining with copper removes reduction defects. ‘This reaction occurs to all wines containing the appropriate precursors, irrespective of sheet closure type.
But the varying levels of oxygen ingress between closures leads to about and contrast women significantly different outcomes from a sensory point of view.’ Limmer’s explanation for screwcap reduction is that sulfides present in the wine at bottling necessitate a very small level of oxygen ingress through the save essay closure, otherwise they can become reduced to thiols. Because sulfides are less smelly, it is essay compare men and women, possible for a wine that is clean at bottling to taste reduced after bottling if the closure doesn’t permit enough oxygen ingress. Save Biodiversity! So the use of a closure, such as cork, which does allow a little oxygen ingress (but not too much) is a necessary concession to essay about and contrast men and women the vagaries of sulfur chemistry. Write Essay! Of course, we’d rather not have the sulfides in the wine at all, which would then avoid problems with reduction to mercaptans at a later stage. But, as Limmer points out: ‘Controlling ferments to not produce the complex sulfides is beyond our means currently.
This sulfide behaviour of the ferment is more controlled by the yeast genetics than the winemaker,’ he explains. ‘It is not the winemaker’s fault these compounds exist in the wine at bottling. We can minimize it to some extent by providing optimum nutrient conditions for the ferment, and employing some specific winemaking regimes. But, the research tells us this only has a slight impact on essay about compare women the complex sulfide pattern produced by the yeast.’ Limmer reinforces his point: ‘The patterns are quite specific to each yeast type, almost irrespective of nutrient conditions. Every wine contains these complex sulfides.’ What can winemakers do to eliminate unwanted sulfur compounds from their wine? A healthy ferment should help, and then copper fining is widely touted as the solution. This certainly gets rid of mercaptans, but it doesn’t eliminate disulfides which can, as we have seen, can revert in a low redox environment to mercaptans. For this reason, Limmer calls copper fining ‘the Ambulance at the bottom of the cliff’. Besides, copper fining will also remove the desirable sulfides which are important for varietal character in Sauvignon Blanc and descriptive essay intro, other grapes. The new cork taint?
We have to be careful, however, not to overstate the potential threat caused by about and contrast women mercaptans in wines that are sealed by ultra-low permeability closures such as tin-lined screwcaps. A Research About! The extent of screwcap reduction is currently unclear. It seems that there are some things that winemakers can do to miminize its occurrence, even if, as Limmer asserts, it can’t be avoided altogether. The IWC data indicating that 2.2% of screwcapped wines suffered from mercaptan problems are alarming, but it should be borne in mind that cork taint irredeemably ruins bottles it affects, while very few consumers will have a problem with low level mercaptans in their wines [although most of essay about compare women us can remember at least one occasion where friends or relatives have happily sipped corked wine; still, I think there’s some validity to essay my point]. I doubt that most of the essay about wine trade would spot this as a problem in all but the most extreme cases, so it is unfair to equate it with the very well recognized problem of cork taint. Having said this, though, screwcap-sealed wines affected by mercaptans should be a major concern for save essay, winemakers because the closure is modifying the flavour of the wine, which is emphatically not reaching the consumer ‘the way the winemaker intended’. It would be dangerously complacent for the industry to and contrast men and take the view that if the consumer doesn’t notice it, then it doesn’t matter. Personally, I am slightly concerned that low level mercaptans may be affecting far more than 2.2% of wines sealed with screwcaps. ‘They impact from an organoleptic perspective towards the end of the palate’, claims Limmer, ‘imparting a “mineral” or bitter/hard/astringent aspect.
This has the appearance of shortening or closing up the palate, so the wine does not display a fine fresh long finish, but ends abruptly, and somewhat harshly.’ This is describing something I’ve certainly noticed in side-by-side comparisons of cork and screwcap-sealed wines. Is it happening all the time, but going more-or-less undetected? Gregor Christie of membrane cork company ProCork has been concerned enough about this problem that he has sent of wines for testing at ETS laboratories in California. Clearly, Christie has a commercial imperative for showing that ProCork is superior to tin-lined screwcaps in c/college this regard, but even given this motivation, the results are interesting. Essay About Compare And Contrast Men And Women! Christie took the 2002 Clare Valley Semillon used in the commercial closure trial run by the AWRI, comparing ProCork with natural cork and screwcap, and write descriptive, submitted bottles sealed with all three closures to ETS for essay compare and contrast men and, testing for a range of creative writing volatile sulfur compounds. And Contrast Women! For methyl mercaptan, which has a perception threshold of 0.3 parts per billion (ppb), both the creative cork- and ProCork-sealed bottles were below detection limit. However, the screwcapped bottle showed a level of 0.6 ppb, above perception threshold. But a sense of perspective is called for here. Essay Women! There’s a real danger that the message that is distilled by journalists from all this technical talk becomes a misleading ‘screwcaps taint wine’ story. The picture emerging is a complex one, but such a simplification would be dangerous if it caused producers to back away from adopting alternative closure solutions, which would then have the knock-on effect of removing any incentive from the cork industry to put its house in c/college papers-direct-6.txt 6 order and do all it can to reduce taint levels. However, complications like this mercaptan issue should put pressure on winemakers to essay compare be more curious about the closures they are using.
They should ask more questions about save biodiversity essay, issues like oxygen transmission, and insist on seeing independently validated data on men and women closure performance rather than accepting manufacturer’s testimonials or sales pitches unquestioningly. Article originally appeared in c/college papers-direct-6.txt Harpers Wine Spirit Weekly in 2006. Posted here February 2007. Copyright Jamie Goode.