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A resume format is usually chronological but over time functional and combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is a brief on all the 3 formats. Conversation? It’s the traditional resume format where employment history is writers, listed in the reverse order- commencing with the current one to literature essays, the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is a favorite of the uk essay writers, HR professionals hiring managers all around. The chronological format will allow the candidate to showcase his upward mobility in the career. It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants. Biology? You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to portray a vertical progression in your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of company but in similar trade. The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences.

Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. Uk Essay? It’s the johnson essay, fact that the online, candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is highlighted in the functional format. Chinese Literature Essays? The functional format would be useful for you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. Uk Essay Writers? As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes. Heroes Robert Cormier? Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of writers, qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for samuel the functional side. The introductory section would be followed by job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to another industry. Uk Essay? For example, let’s say you are working as an investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to turn your hobbies into your profession. Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to essay, be really strategic with the overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is relevant when you are proud of the uk essay online, upward mobility that you have attained in robert, your career.

If you are a person with huge or at online least some professional experience in book robert cormier essay, your industry- the chronological style would be the proper resume format for you. Uk Essay Writers Online? The best resume format for macbeth relationship essay a functional resume strategically groups the uk essay online, key skills abilities of the research papers, candidate in various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job. Uk Essay? The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the prospective employer’s attention on your strength which would in turn divert the focus from your absent or flawed employment record. For example, let’s say you are applying for the position of a sales manager in a MNC with an international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in macbeth relationship essay, foreign languages” etc. In some of cases, the functional resume is completely devoid of the employment history. Even if it is online, mentioned, it appears at the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on essays, its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to writers online, commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Make sure it’s easy to read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about your skills under same category and essay, double-spacing before the start of another category.

Use contextual keywords relevant to your job position industry. Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for headings and 12 for uk essay writers the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Johnson Conversation? Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at uk essay writers online a glance. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in your resume. Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at handling big teams for crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in contact details. Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in samuel conversation essay, your career. Writers? Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies.

No lengthy resume. Don’t lie in your resume and be honest. When you are looking for best resume format examples, we at template.net are ready to help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume. Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and a professional tone but it may not be possible for everyone to russia, get it right. Thus one can make use of a resume format. A resume format is uk essay, a detailed layout and format of a resume which can be used by those who are confused about the format of heroes book essay, such a formal document.

A resume format is divided into sections and categories in the exact same way as needed in a resume. It gives the users a reference point of view and idea of how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and uk essay, reference of the users. What makes a resume format the best resume format is the manner in which it is drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to samuel johnson conversation, the user. Online? It must be time saving for the user to use and russia questions, customize and should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the contents of a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to be professional.

There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of its use and the expectation of the targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. For example, CV for applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to uk essay writers, apply for a marketing company. Instead of taking the research, risk of designing CV format yourself, it is better to download for writers online sample CV collection. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of Marketing Resume Format Templates and gcse biology coursework scheme, you can choose the best one that appeals to you and fill in the details to send it out. What kind of Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and writers, targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for biology the employers to uk essay writers online, find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in samuel johnson, your work and study, then it is better to use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully.

Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Online? Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to gcse coursework scheme ocr, spend more time preparing it. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the uk essay writers, data and papers development economics, information about the candidate would be sequentially and uk essay online, it would be easy to locate required information easily.

But in macbeth and lady essay, the case of writers, hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and johnson conversation essay, skills get the priority. But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in uk essay writers, IT firm and literature essays, then based on the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the employers would prefer the most. To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and writers, information about you in gcse biology, one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the resume. For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them.

You should refer to sample resume for uk essay writers online checking out how exactly to fill the data and information to look impressive. Chinese Literature Essays? what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Uk Essay Writers? Out of the four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the chinese literature essays, most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of years. Uk Essay Online? On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of working in essay, two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in writers online, the past.

There are multiple formats available in russia essay, these two categories and one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from. A chronological resume is the most used resumes in the world. In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the uk essay writers online, recent to the earliest format. For example, in literature, academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and then at last school qualification. Similarly, in writers, work experience, your recent work would be listed and in and lady, the end, you can have your internships.

This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by the employers as it is uk essay online, easy for them to get a snapshot of everything very quickly in their mind. There are various types of chronological formats available and russia essay questions, you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the uk essay, variations and research development, choose the best.

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Underdetermination of Scientific Theory. At the heart of the underdetermination of scientific theory by evidence is the uk essay writers online simple idea that the evidence available to us at a given time may be insufficient to macbeth and lady relationship introduction, determine what beliefs we should hold in response to it. In a textbook example, if all I know is that you spent $10 on writers online apples and book, oranges and online, that apples cost $1 while oranges cost $2, then I know that you did not buy six oranges, but I do not know whether you bought one orange and eight apples, two oranges and six apples, and so on. A simple scientific example can be found in the rationale behind the and lady macbeth sensible methodological adage that “correlation does not imply causation”. Writers! If watching lots of cartoons causes children to be more violent in research papers development economics, their playground behavior, then we should (barring complications) expect to find a correlation between levels of cartoon viewing and uk essay, violent playground behavior.

But that is also what we would expect to find if children who are prone to violence tend to enjoy and seek out cartoons more than other children, or if propensities to violence and increased cartoon viewing are both caused by some third factor (like general parental neglect or excessive consumption of gcse mark ocr Twinkies). So a high correlation between cartoon viewing and violent playground behavior is evidence that (by itself) simply underdetermines what we should believe about the causal relationship between the uk essay writers two. Robert Essay! But it turns out writers online, that this simple and familiar predicament only scratches the surface of the research papers various ways in writers, which problems of underdetermination can arise in the course of scientific investigation. 1. A First Look: Duhem, Quine, and the Problems of Underdetermination. The scope of the epistemic challenge arising from underdetermination is not limited only to scientific contexts, as is perhaps most readily seen in classical skeptical attacks on our knowledge more generally.

René Descartes ([1640] 1996) famously sought to macbeth, doubt any and all of online his beliefs which could possibly be doubted by johnson conversation essay, supposing that there might be an all-powerful Evil Demon who sought only to deceive him. Descartes' challenge essentially appeals to uk essay, a form of underdetermination: he notes that all our sensory experiences would be just the same if they were caused by this Evil Demon rather than an external world of samuel tables and chairs. Likewise, Nelson Goodman's (1955) “New Riddle of Induction” turns on the idea that the evidence we now have could equally well be taken to uk essay, support inductive generalizations quite different from research, those we usually take them to support, with radically different consequences for the course of uk essay writers online future events. Papers Development Economics! [1] Nonetheless, underdetermination has been thought to arise in scientific contexts in writers online, a variety of distinctive and important ways that do not simply recreate such radically skeptical possibilities. John Stuart Mill articulated a distinctively scientific version of the concern with impressive clarity in A System of relationship Logic , where he writes: Most thinkers of any degree of uk essay online sobriety allow, that an heroes book, hypothesis. is not to be received as probably true because it accounts for all the known phenomena, since this is online a condition sometimes fulfilled tolerably well by two conflicting hypotheses. while there are probably a thousand more which are equally possible, but which, for want of anything analogous in our experience, our minds are unfitted to conceive. ([1867] 1900, 328) However, the traditional locus classicus for underdetermination in cormier essay, science is the work of Pierre Duhem, a French physicist as well as historian and philosopher of science who lived at the turn of the 20 th Century. In The Aim and Structure of uk essay writers Physical Theory , Duhem formulated various problems of scientific underdetermination in samuel conversation essay, an especially perspicuous and compelling way, although he himself argued that these problems posed serious challenges only to uk essay online, our efforts to chinese literature, confirm theories in physics.

In the middle of the 20 th Century, W. Uk Essay Writers! V. O. Quine suggested that such challenges applied not only to the confirmation of ocr all types of scientific theories, but to all knowledge claims whatsoever, and his incorporation and further development of these problems as part of uk essay online a general account of human knowledge was one of the most significant developments of 20 th Century epistemology. Papers Economics! But neither Duhem nor Quine was careful to systematically distinguish a number of fundamentally distinct lines of thinking about underdetermination that may be discerned in their works. Perhaps the most important division is between what we might call holist and contrastive forms of underdetermination. Holist underdetermination (Section 2 below) arises whenever our inability to test hypotheses in isolation leaves us underdetermined in our response to a failed prediction or some other piece of disconfirming evidence. That is, because hypotheses have empirical implications or consequences only when conjoined with other hypotheses and/or background beliefs about the world, a failed prediction or falsified empirical consequence typically leaves open to us the uk essay online possibility of blaming and abandoning one of these background beliefs and/or ‘auxiliary’ hypotheses rather than the hypothesis we set out to test in the first place.

But contrastive underdetermination (Section 3 below) involves the quite different possibility that for and lady relationship essay introduction any body of evidence confirming a theory, there might well be other theories that are also well confirmed by that very same body of evidence. Moreover, claims of underdetermination of either of these two fundamental varieties can vary in strength and online, character in heroes book, any number of further ways: one might, for example, suggest that the choice between two theories or two ways of revising our beliefs is transiently underdetermined simply by the evidence we happen to have at present , or instead permanently underdetermined by uk essay, all possible evidence. Indeed, the variety of forms of underdetermination that have been suggested to confront scientific inquiry, and the causes and biology mark scheme, consequences claimed for these different varieties, are sufficiently heterogeneous that attempts to address “the” problem of underdetermination for scientific theories have often engendered considerable confusion and argumentation at cross-purposes. [2] Moreover, such differences in the character and uk essay writers online, strength of various claims of underdetermination turn out to be crucial for resolving the significance of the gcse issue. For example, in some recently influential discussions of science it has become commonplace for scholars in a wide variety of academic disciplines to make casual appeal to claims of underdetermination (especially of the holist variety) to support the idea that something besides evidence must step in to writers, do the further work of conversation determining beliefs and/or changes of belief in scientific contexts: perhaps most prominent among these are adherents of the uk essay sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) movement and some feminist science critics who have argued that it is typically the sociopolitical interests and/or pursuit of power and influence by scientists themselves which play a crucial and even decisive role in determining which beliefs are actually abandoned or retained in response to conflicting evidence. Heroes Book Robert Cormier! As we will see in Section 2.2, however, Larry Laudan has argued that such claims depend upon simple equivocation between the comparatively weak or trivial forms of underdetermination that their partisans have managed to establish and the far stronger forms from uk essay online, which they draw radical conclusions about the limited reach of chinese literature evidence and rationality in science. In the sections that follow we will seek to clearly characterize and distinguish the uk essay writers online various forms of both holist and heroes essay, contrastive underdetermination that have been suggested to arise in uk essay, scientific contexts (noting some important connections between them along the way), assess the chinese strength and significance of the heterogeneous argumentative considerations offered in support of and against them, and consider just which forms of underdetermination pose genuinely consequential challenges for uk essay writers scientific inquiry. 2. Holist Underdetermination and Challenges to literature, Scientific Rationality. 2.1 Holist Underdetermination: The Very Idea. Duhem's original case for holist underdetermination is, perhaps unsurprisingly, intimately bound up with his arguments for confirmational holism: the claim that theories or hypotheses can only be subjected to empirical testing in groups or collections, never in online, isolation.

The idea here is that a single scientific hypothesis does not by itself carry any implications about what we should expect to observe in nature; rather, we can derive empirical consequences from an hypothesis only when it is conjoined with many other beliefs and hypotheses, including background assumptions about the world, beliefs about how measuring instruments operate, further hypotheses about the interactions between objects in the original hypothesis' field of study and the surrounding environment, etc. For this reason, Duhem argues, when an empirical prediction turns out to chinese, be falsified, we do not know whether the fault lies with the hypothesis we originally sought to uk essay, test or with one of the many other beliefs and hypotheses that were also needed and used to generate the failed prediction: A physicist decides to demonstrate the conversation essay inaccuracy of a proposition; in order to deduce from online, this proposition the chinese essays prediction of a phenomenon and writers, institute the experiment which is to show whether this phenomenon is gcse coursework mark scheme ocr or is uk essay online not produced, in order to interpret the and lady macbeth results of this experiment and establish that the predicted phenomenon is not produced, he does not confine himself to making use of the uk essay writers online proposition in question; he makes use also of a whole group of theories accepted by him as beyond dispute. The prediction of the phenomenon, whose nonproduction is to heroes essay, cut off debate, does not derive from the proposition challenged if taken by itself, but from the proposition at issue joined to uk essay online, that whole group of theories; if the predicted phenomenon is biology scheme not produced, the only thing the experiment teaches us is that among the propositions used to predict the phenomenon and to establish whether it would be produced, there is at writers online least one error; but where this error lies is just what it does not tell us. ([1914] 1954, 185) Duhem supports this claim with examples from physical theory, including one designed to illustrate a celebrated further consequence he draws from samuel essay, it. Holist underdetermination ensures, Duhem argues, that there cannot be any such thing as a “crucial experiment”: a single experiment whose outcome is predicted differently by two competing theories and which therefore serves to definitively confirm one and refute the other. For example, in a famous scientific episode intended to resolve the ongoing heated battle between partisans of the online theory that light consists of a stream of particles moving at book extremely high speed (the particle or “emission” theory of light) and defenders of the view that light consists instead of waves propagated through a mechanical medium (the wave theory), the online physicist Foucault designed an apparatus to coursework ocr, test the two theories' competing claims about the speed of online transmission of light in gcse biology scheme, different media: the uk essay writers particle theory implied that light would travel faster in water than in air, while the wave theory implied that the reverse was true. Although the outcome of the experiment was taken to show that light travels faster in air than in water, [3] Duhem argues that this is far from chinese essays, a refutation of the hypothesis of emission: in fact, what the experiment declares stained with error is the whole group of propositions accepted by Newton, and after him by Laplace and uk essay writers online, Biot, that is, the whole theory from which we deduce the relation between the index of refraction and the velocity of light in gcse coursework scheme ocr, various media. But in condemning this system as a whole by declaring it stained with error, the experiment does not tell us where the error lies.

Is it in the fundamental hypothesis that light consists in projectiles thrown out with great speed by luminous bodies? Is it in some other assumption concerning the actions experienced by light corpuscles due to the media in which they move? We know nothing about that. It would be rash to believe, as Arago seems to uk essay, have thought, that Foucault's experiment condemns once and for all the very hypothesis of emission, i.e., the assimilation of papers development a ray of light to a swarm of projectiles. If physicists had attached some value to this task, they would undoubtedly have succeeded in founding on this assumption a system of online optics that would agree with Foucault's experiment. ([1914] 1954, p. 187) From this and robert, similar examples, Duhem drew the quite general conclusion that our response to the experimental or observational falsification of a theory is always underdetermined in this way. When the world does not live up to our theory-grounded expectations, we must give up something , but because no hypothesis is ever tested in isolation, no experiment ever tells us precisely which belief it is that we must revise or give up as mistaken: In sum, the physicist can never subject an isolated hypothesis to experimental test, but only writers online, a whole group of hypotheses; when the experiment is in russia questions, disagreement with his predictions, what he learns is that at least one of the hypotheses constituting this group is unacceptable and ought to be modified; but the experiment does not designate which one should be changed. ([1914] 1954, 187) The predicament Duhem here identifies is no rainy day puzzle for uk essay philosophers of science, but a methodological challenge that constantly arises in the course of scientific practice itself. Macbeth Macbeth Relationship! It is simply not true that for practical purposes and in concrete contexts a single revision of writers online our beliefs in response to disconfirming evidence is always obviously correct, or the most promising, or the only or even most sensible avenue to pursue.

To cite a classic example, when Newton's celestial mechanics failed to correctly predict the gcse scheme orbit of Uranus, scientists at the time did not simply abandon the theory but protected it from refutation by instead challenging the uk essay writers online background assumption that the solar system contained only seven planets. This strategy bore fruit, notwithstanding the falsity of Newton's theory: by calculating the location of a hypothetical eighth planet influencing the orbit of Uranus, the astronomers Adams and macbeth and lady essay, Leverrier were eventually led to writers, discover Neptune in 1846. But the very same strategy failed when used to try to explain the advance of the perihelion in Mercury's orbit by postulating the existence of “Vulcan”, an additional planet located between Mercury and and lady macbeth introduction, the sun, and this phenomenon would resist satisfactory explanation until the arrival of Einstein's theory of general relativity. So it seems that Duhem was right to suggest not only that hypotheses must be tested as a group or a collection, but also that it is by no means a foregone conclusion which member of uk essay such a collection should be abandoned or revised in russia questions, response to a failed empirical test or false implication. Writers! Indeed, this very example illustrates why Duhem's own rather hopeful appeal to the ‘good sense’ of scientists themselves in coursework mark ocr, deciding when a given hypothesis ought to be abandoned promises very little if any relief from the general predicament of holist underdetermination. As noted above, Duhem thought that the sort of underdetermination he had described presented a challenge only for theoretical physics, but subsequent thinking in the philosophy of science has tended to the opinion that the uk essay writers online predicament Duhem described applies to theoretical testing in essay, all fields of scientific inquiry. We cannot, for example, test an hypothesis about the phenotypic effects of a particular gene without presupposing a host of uk essay online further beliefs about what genes are, how they work, how we can identify them, what other genes are doing, and so on.

And in the middle of the 20 th Century, W. V. O. And Lady Macbeth Relationship Essay! Quine would incorporate confirmational holism and its associated concerns about underdetermination into uk essay an extraordinarily influential account of knowledge in general. As part of his famous (1951) critique of the essay questions widely accepted distinction between truths that are analytic (true by definition, or as a matter of logic or language alone) and those that are synthetic (true in virtue of some contingent fact about the way the uk essay world is), Quine argued instead that all of the beliefs we hold at any given time are linked in an interconnected web, which encounters our sensory experience only at its periphery: The totality of our so-called knowledge or beliefs, from the most casual matters of geography and history to the profoundest laws of atomic physics or even of pure mathematics and logic, is a man-made fabric which impinges on experience only along the edges. Or, to change the figure, total science is like a field of force whose boundary conditions are experience. A conflict with experience at the periphery occasions readjustments in the interior of the field. But the total field is so underdetermined by its boundary conditions, experience, that there is much latitude of choice as to essay, what statements to uk essay online, reevaluate in the light of any single contrary experience.

No particular experiences are linked with any particular statements in the interior of the field, except indirectly through considerations of equilibrium affecting the macbeth field as a whole. (1951, 423) One consequence of this general picture of human knowledge is that any and all of writers online our beliefs are tested against experience only as a corporate bodyor as Quine sometimes puts it, “The unit of empirical significance is the whole of science” (1951, p. 42). [4] A mismatch between what the web as a whole leads us to expect and the sensory experiences we actually receive will occasion some revision in our beliefs, but which revision we should make to bring the web as a whole back into conformity with our experiences is radically underdetermined by those experiences themselves. If we find our belief that there are brick houses on johnson essay Elm Street to be in conflict with our immediate sense experience, we might revise our beliefs about the online houses on Elm Street, but we might equally well modify instead our beliefs about the research development appearance of brick, or about our present location, or innumerable other beliefs constituting the uk essay online interconnected webin a pinch we might even decide that our present sensory experiences are simply hallucinations! Quine's point was not that any of these are particularly likely responses to recalcitrant experiences (indeed, an important part of literature his account is the explanation of uk essay writers online why they are not), but instead that they would serve equally well to bring the web of research papers development economics belief as a whole in line with our experience. Online! And if the belief that there are brick houses on Elm Street were sufficiently important to us, Quine insisted, it would be possible for us to preserve it “come what may” (in the way of empirical evidence), by making sufficiently radical adjustments elsewhere in the web of belief. It is in principle open to johnson essay, us, Quine argued, to revise even beliefs about logic, mathematics, or the meanings of our terms in online, response to literature, recalcitrant experience; it might seem a tempting solution to certain persistent difficulties in quantum mechanics, for example, to reject classical logic's law of the excluded middle (allowing physical particles to both have and not have some determinate classical physical property like position or momentum at uk essay online a given time). The only test of a belief, Quine argued, is whether it fits into a web of connected beliefs that accords well with our experience on the whole . Research Development! And because this leaves any and all beliefs in that web at least potentially subject to revision on the basis of our ongoing sense experience or empirical evidence, he insisted, there simply are no beliefs that are analytic in the originally supposed sense of immune to revision in light of experience or true no matter what the world is like. Quine recognized, of course, that many of the uk essay logically possible ways of revising our beliefs in response to recalcitrant experiences that remain open to us strike us as ad hoc, perfectly ridiculous, or worse. He argues (1955) that our actual revisions of the web of belief seek to maximize the theoretical “virtues” of simplicity, familiarity, scope, and fecundity, along with conformity to experience, and elsewhere suggests that we typically seek to resolve conflicts between the web of and lady macbeth relationship essay our beliefs and our sensory experiences in accordance with a principle of “conservatism”, that is, by making the smallest possible number of changes to the least central beliefs we can that will suffice to reconcile the web with experience. That is, Quine recognized that when we encounter recalcitrant experience we are not usually at a loss to decide which of our beliefs to revise in response to it, but he claimed that this is simply because we are strongly disposed as a matter of fundamental psychology to online, prefer whatever revision requires the most minimal mutilation of the existing web of beliefs and/or maximizes virtues that he explicitly characterizes as pragmatic. Indeed, it would seem that on Quine's view the very notion of a belief being more central or peripheral or in lesser or greater “proximity” to sense experience should be cashed out simply as a measure of our willingness to samuel essay, revise it in response to recalcitrant experience.

That is, it would seem that what it means for online one belief to be located “closer” to the sensory periphery of the web than another is simply that we are more likely to revise the first than the second if doing so would enable us to bring the web as a whole into conformity with otherwise recalcitrant sense experience. Thus, Quine saw the traditional distinction between analytic and synthetic beliefs as simply registering the endpoints of a psychological continuum ordering our beliefs according to the ease and likelihood with which we are prepared to samuel essay, revise them in order to reconcile the uk essay online web as a whole with our sense experience. 2.2 Challenging the Rationality of Science. Perhaps it is essay unsurprising that such holist underdetermination has often been taken to pose a threat to the fundamental rationality of the scientific enterprise. The claim that the writers empirical evidence alone underdetermines our response to russia, failed predictions or recalcitrant experience might even seem to fairly invite the suggestion that what systematically steps into the breach to do the further work of singling out just one or a few candidate responses to uk essay online, disconfirming evidence is (even if “pragmatic”) something irrational or at least arational in gcse biology scheme, character. Online! Imre Lakatos and Paul Feyerabend each suggested that because of underdetermination, the difference between empirically successful and unsuccessful theories or research programs is largely a function of the differences in chinese literature essays, talent, creativity, resolve, and writers, resources of those who advocate them. And at least since the chinese influential work of Thomas Kuhn, one important line of thinking about science has held that it is ultimately the social and political interests (in a suitably broad sense) of scientists themselves which serve to writers online, determine their responses to disconfirming evidence and therefore the further empirical, methodological, and other commitments of any given scientist or scientific community. Mary Hesse suggests that Quinean underdetermination showed why certain “non-logical” and “extra-empirical” considerations must play a role in theory choice, and claims that “it is russia essay questions only a short step from online, this philosophy of science to and lady, the suggestion that adoption of such criteria, that can be seen to be different for different groups and at different periods, should be explicable by social rather than logical factors” (1980, 33). And perhaps the uk essay writers online most prominent modern day inheritors of this line of thinking are those scholars in the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) movement and in feminist science studies who argue that it is typically the career interests, political affiliations, intellectual allegiances, gender biases, and/or pursuit of power and influence by heroes book robert, scientists themselves which play a crucial or even decisive role in determining precisely which beliefs are abandoned or retained in uk essay writers, response to conflicting evidence.

The shared argumentative schema here is samuel johnson conversation one on which holist underdetermination ensures that the online evidence alone cannot do the work of picking out a single response to such conflicting evidence, thus something else must step in to do the job, and sociologists of chinese literature scientific knowledge, feminist critics of online science, and other interest-driven theorists of science each have their favored suggestions close to hand. In a justly celebrated discussion, Larry Laudan (1990) argues that the significance of such underdetermination has been greatly exaggerated. Underdetermination actually comes in a wide variety of strengths, he insists, depending on precisely what is research development being asserted about the writers online character, the availability, and (most importantly) the rational defensibility of the various competing hypotheses or ways of macbeth introduction revising our beliefs that the evidence supposedly leaves us free to accept. Laudan usefully distinguishes a number of different dimensions along which claims of uk essay underdetermination vary in strength, and he goes on to insist that those who attribute dramatic significance to questions, the thesis that our scientific theories are underdetermined by the evidence invariably defend only the weaker versions of online that thesis, while they go on to draw dire consequences and shocking morals regarding the character and status of the johnson essay scientific enterprise from much stronger versions. He suggests, for instance, that Quine's famous claim that any hypothesis can be preserved “come what may” can perhaps be defended simply as a description of what it is psychologically possible for human beings to do, but Laudan insists that in this form the thesis is simply bereft of interesting or important consequences for epistemology the study of knowledge . The strong version of the thesis along this dimension instead asserts that it is always normatively or rationally defensible to retain any hypothesis in the light of any evidence whatsoever, but this latter, stronger version of the uk essay online claim, Laudan suggests, is one for which no convincing evidence or argument has ever been offered. More generally, he insists, arguments for underdetermination turn on implausibly treating all logically possible responses to the evidence as equally justified or rationally defensible. For example, Laudan suggests that we might reasonably hold the resources of deductive logic to be insufficient to single out just one acceptable response to disconfirming evidence, but not that deductive logic plus the sorts of ampliative principles of gcse biology coursework mark good reasoning typically deployed in scientific contexts are insufficient to do so. Similarly, defenders of underdetermination might assert the uk essay writers nonuniqueness claim that for any given theory or web of beliefs there is at research economics least one alternative that can also be reconciled with the uk essay writers available evidence, or the stronger egalitarian claim that all of the contraries of any given theory can be reconciled with the available evidence equally well. And the conversation essay claim of such “reconciliation” itself disguises a wide range of further alternative possibilities: that our theories can be made logically compatible with any amount of disconfirming evidence (perhaps by the simple expedient of removing any claim(s) with which the uk essay writers online evidence is in conflict), that any theory may be reformulated or revised so as to entail any piece of previously disconfirming evidence, or so as to samuel, explain previously disconfirming evidence, or that any theory can be made to be as well supported empirically by any collection of evidence as any other theory. And in all of these respects, Laudan claims, partisans have defended only the uk essay weaker forms of underdetermination while founding their further claims about and conceptions of the scientific enterprise on versions much stronger than those they have managed or even attempted to relationship essay, defend. Laudan is certainly right to distinguish these various versions of holist underdetermination, and he is equally right to suggest that many of the thinkers he confronts have derived grand morals concerning the uk essay online scientific enterprise from much stronger versions of underdetermination than they are able to gcse mark, defend, but the underlying situation is somewhat more complex than he suggests.

Laudan's overarching claim is that champions of holist underdetermination show only that a wide variety of responses to disconfirming evidence are logically possible (or even just psychologically possible), rather than that these are all rationally defensible or equally well-supported by uk essay online, the evidence. But his straightforward appeal to further epistemic resources like ampliative principles of belief revision that are supposed to help narrow the merely logical possibilities down to those which are reasonable or rationally defensible is itself problematic, at least as part of chinese any attempt to respond to Quine. This is because on online Quine's holist picture of heroes essay knowledge such further ampliative principles governing legitimate belief revision are, of course, themselves simply part of the web of our beliefs, and are therefore open to revision in response to recalcitrant experience as wellindeed, this is true even for the principles of deductive logic and the (consequent) demand for particular forms of logical consistency between parts of the web itself! So while it is true that the ampliative principles we currently embrace do not leave all logically or even psychologically possible responses to the evidence open to us (or leave us free to preserve any hypothesis “come what may”), our continued adherence to these very principles , rather than being willing to revise the web of online belief so as to macbeth macbeth relationship introduction, abandon them, is part of the phenomenon to which Quine is uk essay writers online using underdetermination to draw our attention and cannot be taken for granted without begging the question. Put another way, Quine does not simply ignore the further principles that function to mark scheme, ensure that we revise the uk essay online web of belief in one way rather than others, but it follows from his account that such principles are themselves part of the web and therefore candidates for revision in our efforts to bring the web of beliefs into conformity (by the resulting web's own lights) with sensory experience.

This recognition makes clear why it will be extremely difficult to say how the shift to an alternative web of belief (with alternative ampliative or even deductive principles of belief revision) should or even can be evaluated for its rational defensibilityeach proposed revision will be maximally rational by the lights of the principles it itself sanctions. Gcse Scheme! [5] Of course we can rightly say that many candidate revisions would violate our presently accepted ampliative principles of rational belief revision, but the uk essay writers online preference we have for those rather than the alternatives is itself a matter of gcse biology ocr their position in online, the existing web of belief we have inherited and the role that they themselves play in guiding the revisions we are inclined to make to that web in russia essay, light of ongoing experience. Thus, if we accept Quine's general picture of knowledge, it becomes quite difficult to disentangle normative from descriptive issues, or questions about the uk essay writers online psychology of johnson essay human belief revision from questions about the justifiability or rational defensibility of such revisions. It is in part for this reason that Quine famously suggests (1969, 82; see also p 7576) that epistemology itself “falls into place as a chapter of psychology and hence of natural science”: the uk essay writers online point is not that epistemology should simply be abandoned in favor of psychology, but instead that there is ultimately no way to draw a meaningful distinction between the two. Heroes Book Robert Cormier Essay! (James Woodward, in writers online, comments on an earlier draft of this entry, pointed out that this makes it all the harder to assess the significance of Quinean underdetermination in light of Laudan's complaint or even know the rules for doing so, but in an important way this difficulty was Quine's point all along!) Quine's claim is relationship essay that “[e]ach man is given a scientific heritage plus a continuing barrage of sensory stimulation; and the considerations which guide him in warping his scientific heritage to fit his continuing sensory promptings are, where rational, pragmatic” (1951, 46), but the role of these “pragmatic” considerations or principles in selecting just one of the many possible revisions of the web of belief in response to recalcitrant experience is not to be contrasted with those same principles having a rational or epistemic justification. Far from conflicting with or even being orthogonal to the search for truth and writers online, our efforts to render our beliefs maximally responsive to the evidence, Quine insists, revising our beliefs in research papers, accordance with such pragmatic principles “at bottom, is what evidence is” (1955, 251). Whether or not this strongly naturalistic conception of uk essay writers epistemology can ultimately be defended, it is misleading for Laudan to literature essays, suggest that the thesis of online underdetermination becomes trivial or obviously insupportable the chinese literature moment we inquire into the rational defensibility rather than the mere logical or psychological possibility of alternative revisions to the holist's web of belief. In fact, there is an important connection between this lacuna in Laudan's famous discussion and the further uses made of the thesis of uk essay underdetermination by sociologists of scientific knowledge, feminist epistemologists, and other vocal champions of holist underdetermination. When faced with the essay invocation of further ampliative standards or principles that supposedly rule out some responses to uk essay, disconfirmation as irrational or unreasonable, these thinkers typically respond by insisting that the chinese literature embrace of such further standards or principles (or perhaps their application to particular cases) is itself underdetermined, historically contingent, and/or subject to ongoing social negotiation. Uk Essay Writers Online! For this reason, they suggest, such appeals (and their success or failure in johnson conversation, convincing the members of writers a given community) should be explained by reference to the same broadly social and political interests that they claim are at the root of theory choice and belief change in science more generally (see, e.g., Shapin and Schaffer, 1982). On both accounts, then, our response to recalcitrant evidence or a failed prediction is biology coursework mark scheme ocr constrained in important ways by preexisting features of the existing web of beliefs, but for uk essay Quine the continuing force of these constraints is ultimately imposed by the fundamental principles of macbeth and lady macbeth relationship introduction human psychology (such as our preference for minimal mutilation of the web, or the pragmatic virtues of simplicity, fecundity, etc.), while for uk essay writers interest-driven theorists of conversation essay science the writers continuing force of any such constraints is limited only by the ongoing negotiated agreement of the communities of conversation scientists who respect them. As this last contrast makes clear, however, recognizing the limitations of Laudan's critique of Quine and the fact that we cannot dismiss holist underdetermination with any straightforward appeal to ampliative principles of good reasoning by uk essay online, itself does nothing to establish the further positive claims about book cormier, belief revision advanced by interest-driven theorists of science. Even simply conceding that theory choice or belief revision in science is indeed underdetermined by the evidence in uk essay writers online, just the essay ways that Duhem and/or Quine suggested leaves entirely open whether it is instead the social or political interests of scientists themselves that do the further work of singling out the particular beliefs or responses to falsifying evidence that any particular scientist or scientific community will actually adopt or find compelling.

Even many of uk essay writers online those philosophers of science who are most strongly convinced of the general significance of various forms of underdetermination itself remain deeply skeptical of samuel essay this latter thesis and thoroughly unconvinced by the empirical evidence that has been offered in writers online, support of it (usually in research, the form of online case studies of particular historical episodes in science). 3. Contrastive Underdetermination, Empirical Equivalents, and Unconceived Alternatives. 3.1 Contrastive Underdetermination: Back to Duhem. Although it is also a form of underdetermination, what we described in Section 1 above as contrastive underdetermination raises fundamentally different issues from the holist variety considered in Section 2 (a recent book-length treatment of many of these issues is Bonk 2008). Heroes Book Cormier! This is clearly evident in Duhem's original writings concerning so-called crucial experiments, where he seeks to show that even when we explicitly suspend any concerns about holist underdetermination, the contrastive variety remains an obstacle to our discovery of truth in theoretical science: But let us admit for a moment that in each of these systems [concerning the online nature of light] everything is compelled to be necessary by strict logic, except a single hypothesis; consequently, let us admit that the essay facts, in condemning one of the two systems, condemn once and for all the single doubtful assumption it contains.

Does it follow that we can find in the ‘crucial experiment’ an uk essay writers online, irrefutable procedure for transforming one of the two hypotheses before us into a demonstrated truth? Between two contradictory theorems of johnson essay geometry there is no room for online a third judgment; if one is false, the other is necessarily true. Do two hypotheses in physics ever constitute such a strict dilemma? Shall we ever dare to assert that no other hypothesis is imaginable? Light may be a swarm of projectiles, or it may be a vibratory motion whose waves are propagated in a medium; is it forbidden to samuel johnson conversation, be anything else at all? ([1914] 1954, 189) Contrastive underdetermination is so-called because it questions the ability of the evidence to confirm any given hypothesis against alternatives , and online, the central focus of discussion in this connection (equally often regarded as “the” problem of underdetermination) concerns the essays character of the supposed alternatives. Of course the two problems are not entirely disconnected, because it is writers open to us to consider alternative possible modifications of the web of beliefs as alternative theories or theoretical “systems” between which the empirical evidence alone is powerless to decide. But we have already seen that one need not think of the alternative responses to recalcitrant experience as competing theoretical alternatives to appreciate the character of the holist's challenge, and russia, we will see that one need not embrace any version of uk essay writers online holism about confirmation to appreciate the macbeth macbeth relationship introduction quite distinct problem that the available evidence might support more than one theoretical alternative. It is perhaps most useful here to think of holist underdetermination as starting from a particular theory or body of beliefs and claiming that our revision of those beliefs in response to new evidence may be underdetermined, while contrastive underdetermination instead starts from a given body of online evidence and development, claims that more than one theory may be well-supported by uk essay writers, that very evidence.

Part of research papers development what has contributed to the conflation of these two problems is the holist presuppositions of those who originally made them famous. After all, on Quine's view we simply revise the writers online web of belief in response to recalcitrant experience, and essays, so the suggestion that there are multiple possible revisions of the web available in response to any particular evidential finding just is the claim that there are in fact many different “theories” (i.e. candidate webs of belief) that are equally well-supported by writers online, any given body of research papers economics data. [6] But if we give up such extreme holist views of uk essay writers evidence, meaning, and/or confirmation, the two problems take on conversation essay very different identities, with very different considerations in favor of taking them seriously, very different consequences, and very different candidate solutions. Uk Essay Writers Online! Notice, for instance, that even if we somehow knew that no other hypothesis on book essay a given subject was well-confirmed by a given body of data, that would not tell us where to uk essay writers, place the blame or which of our beliefs to give up if the remaining hypothesis in conjunction with others subsequently resulted in a failed empirical prediction. And as Duhem suggests above, even if we supposed that we somehow knew exactly which of our hypotheses to heroes cormier essay, blame in response to a failed empirical prediction, this would not help us to uk essay, decide whether or not there are other hypotheses available that are equally well-confirmed by the data we actually have. One way to see why not is to essay, consider an analogy that champions of contrastive underdetermination have sometimes used to support their case. Uk Essay Writers Online! If we consider any finite group of data points, an macbeth and lady macbeth essay introduction, elementary proof reveals that there are an infinite number of distinct mathematical functions describing different curves that will pass through all of them. As we add further data to our initial set we will definitively eliminate functions describing curves which no longer capture all of the data points in the new, larger set, but no matter how much data we accumulate, the proof guarantees that there will always be an infinite number of functions remaining that define curves including all the data points in the new set and which would therefore seem to be equally well supported by uk essay, the empirical evidence. Development! No finite amount of data will ever be able to narrow the possibilities down to just a single function or indeed, any finite number of candidate functions, from which the distribution of data points we have might have been generated.

Each new data point we gather eliminates an infinite number of curves that previously fit all the writers online data (so the problem here is not the holist's challenge that we do not know which beliefs to and lady macbeth, give up in response to failed predictions or disconfirming evidence), but also leaves an infinite number still in contention. 3.2 Empirically Equivalent Theories. Of course, generating and testing fundamental scientific hypotheses is rarely if ever a matter of writers online finding curves that fit collections of research papers development data points, so nothing follows directly from uk essay, this mathematical analogy for the significance of contrastive underdetermination in most scientific contexts. But Bas van Fraassen has offered an gcse coursework mark scheme ocr, extremely influential line of argument intended to show that such contrastive underdetermination is writers a serious concern for scientific theorizing more generally. In The Scientific Image (1980), van Fraassen uses a now-classic example to illustrate the possibility that even our best scientific theories might have empirical equivalents : that is, alternative theories making the very same empirical predictions, and which therefore cannot be better or worse supported by any possible body of evidence. Consider Newton's cosmology, with its laws of motion and gravitational attraction. As Newton himself realized, van Fraassen points out, exactly the literature same predictions are made by the theory whether we assume that the entire universe is at rest or assume instead that it is moving with some constant velocity in online, any given direction: from our position within it, we have no way to detect constant, absolute motion by the universe as a whole. Book Robert Essay! Thus, van Fraassen argues, we are here faced with empirically equivalent scientific theories: Newtonian mechanics and gravitation conjoined either with the fundamental assumption that the universe is at absolute rest (as Newton himself believed), or with any one of an infinite variety of alternative assumptions about the constant velocity with which the universe is moving in some particular direction.

All of these theories make all and only the same empirical predictions, so no evidence will ever permit us to decide between them on empirical grounds. [7] Van Fraassen is widely regarded as holding that the prospect of contrastive underdetermination grounded in such empirical equivalents should lead us to restrict our epistemic ambitions for the scientific enterprise. Writers! His constructive empiricism holds that the aim of science is not to find true theories, but only theories that are empirically adequate: that is, theories whose claims about observable phenomena are all true. Since the empirical adequacy of a theory is not threatened by the existence of another that is empirically equivalent to it, fulfilling this aim has nothing to fear from the possibility of biology mark scheme ocr such empirical equivalents. In reply, many critics have suggested that van Fraassen gives no reasons for restricting belief to empirical adequacy that could not also be used to argue for suspending our belief in the future empirical adequacy of our best present theories: of online course there could be empirical equivalents to our best theories, but there could also be theories equally well-supported by all the evidence up to the present which diverge in their predictions about johnson conversation essay, observables in uk essay writers online, future cases not yet tested. This challenge seems to miss the point of russia essay questions Van Fraassen's epistemic voluntarism: his claim is uk essay that we should believe no more but also no less than we need to make sense of and take full advantage of our scientific theories, and a commitment to the empirical adequacy of our theories, he suggests, is the least we can get away with in this regard. Of course it is true that we are running some epistemic risk in believing in even the full empirical adequacy of our present theories, but the robert essay risk is considerably less than what we assume in believing in their truth, it is the minimum we need to writers, take full advantage of the fruits of our scientific labors, and, he suggests, “it is not an epistemic principle that one might as well hang for a sheep as a lamb” (1980, 72). In an influential discussion, Larry Laudan and samuel johnson, Jarrett Leplin (1991) argue that philosophers of science have invested even the uk essay bare possibility that our theories might have empirical equivalents with far too much epistemic significance. Notwithstanding the popularity of the presumption that there are empirically equivalent rivals to every theory, they argue, the conjunction of several familiar and relatively uncontroversial epistemological theses is sufficient to defeat it. Because the boundaries of what is observable change as we develop new experimental methods and instruments, because auxiliary assumptions are always needed to samuel johnson, derive empirical consequences from a theory (cf. Uk Essay Writers Online! confirmational holism, above), and because these auxiliary assumptions are themselves subject to change over conversation time, Laudan and uk essay writers online, Leplin conclude that there simply is no guarantee that any two theories judged to be empirically equivalent at a given time will remain so as the state of our knowledge advances.

Accordingly, any judgment of empirical equivalence is both defeasible and relativized to a particular state of science. So even if two theories are empirically equivalent at a given time this is no guarantee that they will remain so, and thus there is no foundation for a general pessimism about our ability to distinguish theories that are empirically equivalent to each other on empirical grounds. Although they concede that we could have good reason to think that particular theories have empirically equivalent rivals, this must be established case-by-case rather than by any general argument or presumption. A fairly standard reply to and lady relationship essay introduction, this line of uk essay writers argument is to suggest that what Laudan and gcse biology coursework ocr, Leplin really show is that the notion of empirical equivalence must be applied to online, larger collections of beliefs than those traditionally identified as scientific theoriesat least large enough to encompass the samuel johnson conversation auxiliary assumptions needed to derive empirical predictions from writers, them. At the extreme, perhaps this means that the notion of samuel essay empirical equivalents (or at least timeless empirical equivalents) cannot be applied to online, anything less than “systems of the world” (i.e. total Quinean webs of belief), but even that is not fatal: what the champion of contrastive underdetermination asserts is that there are empirically equivalent systems of the world that incorporate different theories of the nature of light, or spacetime, or whatever. On the other hand, it might seem that quick examples like van Fraassen's variants of Newtonian cosmology do not serve to research papers economics, make this thesis as plausible as the more limited claim of empirical equivalence for individual theories.

It seems equally natural, however, to respond to Laudan and Leplin simply by conceding the variability in empirical equivalence but insisting that this is not enough to undermine the problem. Uk Essay Online! Empirical equivalents create a serious obstacle to belief in a theory so long as there is some empirical equivalent to that theory at any given time, but it need not be the same one at each time. On this line of economics thinking, cases like van Fraassen's Newtonian example illustrate how easy it is for theories to admit of empirical equivalents at online any given time, and thus constitute a reason for thinking that there probably are or will be empirical equivalents to any given theory at and lady relationship essay introduction any particular time we consider it, assuring that whenever the question of belief in uk essay, a given theory arises, the challenge posed to it by constrastive underdetermination arises as well. Laudan and Leplin also suggest, however, that even if the universal existence of empirical equivalents were conceded, this would do much less to establish the significance of underdetermination than its champions have supposed, because “theories with exactly the chinese essays same empirical consequences may admit of differing degrees of evidential support” (1991, 465). A theory may be better supported than an uk essay, empirical equivalent, for instance, because the samuel conversation essay former but not the latter is derivable from online, a more general theory whose consequences include a third, well supported, hypothesis. Russia! More generally, the writers belief-worthiness of an hypothesis depends crucially on how it is connected or related to other things we believe and the evidential support we have for those other beliefs. [8] Laudan and Leplin suggest that we have invited the russia specter of rampant underdetermination only by failing to uk essay writers, keep this familiar home truth in mind and cormier essay, instead implausibly identifying the uk essay online evidence bearing on a theory exclusively with the theory's own entailments or empirical consequences (but cf. Tulodziecki 2012). This impoverished view of evidential support, they argue, is in turn the legacy of a failed foundationalist and heroes book robert cormier essay, positivistic approach to the philosophy of science which mistakenly assimilates epistemic questions about how to decide whether or not to believe a theory to semantic questions about how to establish a theory's meaning or truth-conditions.

John Earman (1993) has argued that this dismissive diagnosis does not do justice to the threat posed by underdetermination. He argues that worries about underdetermination are an online, aspect of the more general question of the reliability of our inductive methods for determining beliefs, and notes that we cannot decide how serious a problem underdetermination poses without specifying (as Laudan and Leplin do not) the inductive methods we are considering. Earman regards some version of Bayesianism as our most promising form of inductive methodology, and he proceeds to show that challenges to development, the long-run reliability of writers our Bayesian methods can be motivated by considerations of the empirical indistinguishability (in several different and precisely specified senses) of hypotheses stated in any language richer than that of the macbeth and lady relationship essay introduction evidence itself that do not amount simply to uk essay writers online, general skepticism about those inductive methods. In other words, he shows that there are more reasons to worry about underdetermination concerning inferences to hypotheses about unobservables than to, say, inferences about papers, unobserved observables. He also goes on to argue that at least two genuine cosmological theories have serious, nonskeptical, and nonparasitic empirical equivalents: the first essentially replaces the uk essay writers online gravitational field in Newtonian mechanics with curvature in and lady relationship essay, spacetime itself, [9] while the second recognizes that Einstein's General Theory of writers Relativity permits cosmological models exhibiting different global topological features which cannot be distinguished by any evidence inside the russia essay light cones of even idealized observers who live forever. [10] And he suggests that “the production of a few concrete examples is uk essay enough to generate the worry that only a lack of chinese imagination on our part prevents us from seeing comparable examples of underdetermination all over the map” (1993, 31) even as he concedes that his case leaves open just how far the threat of underdetermination extends (1993, 36). Most philosophers of science, however, have not embraced the idea that it is only lack of imagination which prevents us from finding empirical equivalents to our scientific theories generally. They note that the convincing examples of writers online empirical equivalents we do have are all drawn from a single domain of highly mathematized scientific theorizing in which the background constraints on serious theoretical alternatives are far from clear, and suggest that it is therefore reasonable to ask whether even a small handful of such examples should make us believe that there are probably empirical equivalents to most of our scientific theories most of the time.

They concede that it is always possible that there are empirical equivalents to even our best scientific theories concerning any domain of nature, but insist that we should not be willing to literature essays, suspend belief in any particular theory until some convincing alternative to online, it can actually be produced: as Philip Kitcher puts it, “give us a rival explanation, and we'll consider whether it is sufficiently serious to threaten our confidence” (1993, 154; see also Leplin 1997, Achinstein 2002). That is, these thinkers insist that until we are able to actually construct an research papers development, empirically equivalent alternative to a given theory, the bare possibility that such equivalents exist is insufficient to justify suspending belief in the best theories we do have. And for this same reason most philosophers of science are unwilling to online, follow van Fraassen into what they regard as constructive empiricism's unwarranted epistemic modesty. Even if van Fraassen is right about the coursework scheme ocr most minimal beliefs we must hold in order to take full advantage of our scientific theories, most thinkers do not see why we should believe the uk essay online least we can get away with rather than believing the most we are entitled to by the evidence we have. Philosophers of science have responded in mark scheme, a variety of ways to uk essay writers, the suggestion that a few or even a small handful of serious examples of macbeth and lady macbeth relationship essay empirical equivalents does not suffice to establish that there are probably such equivalents to most scientific theories in most domains of writers inquiry.

One such reaction has been to invite more careful attention to the details of particular examples of putative underdetermination: considerable work has been devoted to assessing the threat of underdetermination in the case of particular scientific theories (for a recent example, see Butterfield (2012)). Another reaction has been to investigate whether particular kinds of theories or domains of chinese literature science (e.g. 'historical' vs. 'experimental' sciences) are more vulnerable to problems of underdetermination than others and, if so, why (see Cleland (2002), Carman (2005), Turner (2005, 2007), Stanford (2010), Forber and Griffith (2011)). But champions of uk essay writers contrastive underdetermination have most frequently responded by seeking to argue that all theories have empirical equivalents, typically by proposing something like an algorithmic procedure for generating such equivalents from any theory whatsoever. Stanford (2001, 2006) suggests that these efforts to prove that all our theories must have empirical equivalents fall roughly but reliably into global and local varieties, and heroes book robert, that neither makes a convincing case for a distinctive scientific problem of uk essay contrastive underdetermination. Global algorithms are well-represented by papers development economics, Andre Kukla's (1996) suggestion that from any theory T we can immediately generate such empirical equivalents as T ′ (the claim that T 's observable consequences are true, but T itself is online false), T ″ (the claim that the world behaves according to T when observed, but some specific incompatible alternative otherwise), and the hypothesis that our experience is being manipulated by powerful beings in such a way as to chinese essays, make it appear that T is uk essay writers online true. But such possibilities, Stanford argues, amount to nothing more than the sort of Evil Deceiver to which Descartes appealed in order to russia essay questions, doubt any of his beliefs that could possibly be doubted (see Section 1, above).

Such radically skeptical scenarios pose an equally powerful (or powerless) challenge to any knowledge claim whatsoever, no matter how it is arrived at or justified, and thus pose no special problem or challenge for beliefs offered to us by theoretical science. If global algorithms like Kukla's are the only reasons we can give for taking underdetermination seriously in a scientific context, then there is no distinctive problem of the writers underdetermination of scientific theories by data, only a salient reminder of the macbeth essay introduction irrefutability of classically Cartesian or radical skepticism. [11] By contrast to such global strategies for generating empirical equivalents, local algorithmic strategies instead begin with some particular scientific theory and proceed to generate alternative versions that are equally well supported by uk essay, all possible evidence. Chinese Literature Essays! This is what van Fraassen does with the example of Newtonian cosmology, showing that an infinite variety of supposed empirical equivalents can be produced by ascribing different constant absolute velocities to the universe as a whole. But Stanford suggests that empirical equivalents generated in this way are also insufficient to uk essay writers online, show that there is a distinctive and genuinely troubling form of underdetermination afflicting scientific theories, because they rely on simply saddling particular scientific theories with further claims for which those theories themselves (together with whatever background beliefs we actually hold) imply that we cannot have any evidence. Such empirical equivalents invite the natural response that they force our theories to undertake commitments that they never should have in the first place. Such claims, it seems, should simply be excised from the theories themselves, leaving over just the cormier claims that sensible defenders would have held were all we were entitled to believe by the evidence in any case.

In van Fraassen's Newtonian example, for instance, this could be done simply by undertaking no commitment concerning the absolute velocity and direction (or lack thereof) of the universe as a whole. To put the point another way, if we believe a given scientific theory when one of the empirical equivalents we could generate from it by uk essay, the local algorithmic strategy is correct instead, most of what we originally believed will nonetheless turn out to be straightforwardly true. 3.3 Unconceived Alternatives and A New Induction. Stanford (2001, 2006) concludes that no convincing general case has been made for the presumption that there are empirically equivalent rivals to all or most scientific theories, or to any theories besides those for which such equivalents can actually be constructed. But he goes on to insist that empirical equivalents are no essential part of the case for a significant problem of constrastive underdetermination. Our efforts to confirm scientific theories, he suggests, are no less threatened by what Larry Sklar (1975, 1981) has called “transient” underdetermination, that is, theories which are not empirically equivalent but are equally (or at least reasonably) well confirmed by essay questions, all the evidence we happen to have in hand at the moment, so long as this transient predicament is also “recurrent”, that is, so long as we think that there is (probably) at least one such (fundamentally distinct) alternative availableand thus the transient predicament re-ariseswhenever we are faced with a decision about whether to uk essay online, believe a given theory at a given time. Stanford argues that a convincing case for contrastive underdetermination of this recurrent, transient variety can indeed be made, and that the evidence for literature it is available in the historical record of uk essay writers scientific inquiry itself. Stanford concedes that present theories are not transiently underdetermined by russia essay questions, the theoretical alternatives we have actually developed and considered to date: we think that our own scientific theories are considerably better confirmed by the evidence than any rivals we have actually produced.

The central question, he argues, is whether we should believe that there are well confirmed alternatives to uk essay online, our best scientific theories that are presently unconceived by us. Essay Introduction! And the primary reason we should believe that there are, he claims, is the long history of repeated transient underdetermination by previously unconceived alternatives across the online course of macbeth scientific inquiry. In the uk essay online progression from gcse biology coursework mark scheme, Aristotelian to Cartesian to writers online, Newtonian to gcse biology coursework mark, contemporary mechanical theories, for instance, the evidence available at the time each earlier theory dominated the writers practice of its day also offered compelling support for each of the later alternatives (unconceived at the time) that would ultimately come to displace it. Stanford's “New Induction” over the history of science claims that this situation is typical; that is, that “we have, throughout the history of scientific inquiry and in virtually every scientific field, repeatedly occupied an epistemic position in which we could conceive of only one or a few theories that were well confirmed by the available evidence, while subsequent inquiry would routinely (if not invariably) reveal further, radically distinct alternatives as well confirmed by the previously available evidence as those we were inclined to accept on the strength of that evidence” (2006, 19). In other words, Stanford claims that in development economics, the past we have repeatedly failed to exhaust the space of fundamentally distinct theoretical possibilities that were well confirmed by uk essay writers, the existing evidence, and that we have every reason to believe that we are probably also failing to exhaust the space of such alternatives that are well confirmed by heroes robert cormier essay, the evidence we have at present. Much of the rest of his case is taken up with discussing historical examples illustrating that earlier scientists did not simply ignore or dismiss, but instead genuinely failed to conceive of the writers online serious, fundamentally distinct theoretical possibilities that would ultimately come to displace the theories they defended, only to be displaced in turn by others that were similarly unconceived at the time. He concludes that “the history of scientific inquiry itself offers a straightforward rationale for thinking that there typically are alternatives to our best theories equally well confirmed by the evidence, even when we are unable to conceive of them at the time” (2006, 20; for reservations and criticisms concerning this line of heroes robert argument, see Magnus 2006, 2010; Godfrey-Smith 2008; Chakravartty 2008; Devitt 2011; Ruhmkorff 2011). Stanford concedes, however, that the historical record can offer only fallible evidence of a distinctive, general problem of uk essay online contrastive scientific underdetermination, rather than the kind of deductive proof that champions of the case from empirical equivalents have typically sought. Development! Thus, claims and arguments about the various forms that underdetermination may take, their causes and consequences, and the further significance they hold for the scientific enterprise as a whole continue to uk essay writers, evolve in the light of development economics ongoing controversy, and the underdetermination of scientific theory by evidence remains very much a live and unresolved issue in the philosophy of science. Achinstein, P., 2002, “Is There A Valid Experimental Argument for Scientific Realism?”, Journal of writers online Philosophy , 99: 470495. And Lady Relationship Introduction! Bonk, T., 2008, Underdetermination: An Essay on Evidence and the Limits of Natural Knowledge , Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Butterfield, J., 2012, “Underdetermination in Cosmology: An Invitation”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (Supplementary Volume), 86: 118. Carman, C., 2005, “The Electrons of the Dinosaurs and the Center of the Earth”, Studies in uk essay, History and Philosophy of Science , 36: 171174. Chakravartty, A., 2008, “What You Don't Know Can't Hurt You: Realism and the Unconceived”, Philosophical Studies , 137: 149158. Cleland, C., 2002, “Methodological and Epistemic Differences Between Historical Science and Experimental Science”, Philosophy of Science , 69: 474496. Descartes, R., [1640] 1996, Meditations on First Philosophy , trans. by John Cottingham, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Devitt, M., 2011, “Are Unconceived Alternatives a Problem for macbeth and lady relationship Scientific Realism”, Journal for General Philosophy of Science , 42: 285293. Duhem, P., [1914] 1954, The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory , trans. from 2 nd ed. by writers online, P. W. Wiener; originally published as La Théorie Physique: Son Objet et sa Structure (Paris: Marcel Riviera Cie.), Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Earman, J., 1993, “Underdetermination, Realism, and Reason”, Midwest Studies in Philosophy , 18: 1938. Feyerabend, P., 1975, Against Method , London: Verso. Forber, P. and Griffith, E., 2011, “Historical Reconstruction: Gaining Epistemic Access to the Deep Past”, Philosophy and Theory in literature essays, Biology , 3. doi:10.3998/ptb.6959004.0003.003 Gilles, D., 1993, “The Duhem Thesis and the Quine Thesis,”, in Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century , Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 98116. Glymour, C., 1970, “Theoretical Equivalence and Theoretical Realism”, Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of uk essay writers Science Association , 1970: 275288. , 1977, “The Epistemology of Geometry”, Noûs , 11: 227251. , 1980, Theory and literature, Evidence , Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press. , 2013, “Theoretical Equivalence and the Semantic View of Theories”, Philosophy of Science , 80: 286297. Godfrey-Smith, P., 2008, “Recurrent, Transient Underdetermination and the Glass Half-Full”, Philosophical Studies , 137: 141148.

Goodman, N., 1955, Fact, Fiction, and Forecast , Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Halvorson, H., 2012, “What Scientific Theories Could Not Be”, Philosophy of Science , 79: 183206. Uk Essay Writers! , 2013, “The Semantic View, If Plausible, Is Syntactic”, Philosophy of Science , 80: 475478. Hesse, M., 1980, Revolutions and Reconstructions in the Philosophy of Science , Brighton: Harvester Press. Kitcher, P., 1993, The Advancement of Science , New York: Oxford University Press. Kuhn, T., [1962] 1996, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 3 rd edition.

Kukla, A., 1996, “Does Every Theory Have Empirically Equivalent Rivals?”, Erkenntnis , 44: 137166. Lakatos, I. 1970, “Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes”, in Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge , I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 91196. Gcse Biology Coursework Scheme Ocr! Laudan, L., 1990, “Demystifying Underdetermination”, in Scientific Theories , C. Wade Savage (ed.), (Series: Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 14), Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 267297. Uk Essay! Laudan, L. and Leplin, J., 1991, “Empirical Equivalence and and lady relationship essay introduction, Underdetermination”, Journal of Philosophy , 88: 449472. Leplin, J., 1997, A Novel Defense of Scientific Realism , New York: Oxford University Press. Magnus, P. 2006, “What's New About the New Induction?”, Synthese , 148: 295301. , 2010, “Inductions, Red Herrings, and the Best Explanation for the Mixed Record of Science”, British Journal for the Philosophy of writers online Science , 61: 803819. Manchak, J. 2009, “Can We Know the Global Structure of Spacetime?”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics , 40: 5356. Heroes Essay! Mill, J. S., [1867] 1900, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and uk essay writers online, Inductive, Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation , New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.

Norton, J. 2008, “Must Evidence Underdetermine Theory?”, in The Challenge of the Social and the Pressure of Practice: Science and Values Revisited , M. Carrier, D. Howard, and J. Russia! Kourany (eds.), Pittsburgh: University of uk essay writers online Pittsburgh Press, 1744. Quine, W. V. O., 1951, “Two Dogmas of russia questions Empiricism”, Reprinted in From a Logical Point of View , 2 nd Ed., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 2046. Writers! , 1955, “Posits and Reality”, Reprinted in The Ways of Paradox and Other Essays , 2 nd Ed., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 246254. , 1969, “Epistemology Naturalized”, in Ontological Relativity and Other Essays , New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 6990. , 1975, “On Empirically Equivalent Systems of the World”, Erkenntnis , 9: 313328. Johnson Conversation! , 1990, “Three Indeterminacies”, in Perspectives on Quine , R. B. Barrett and uk essay writers, R. F. Gibson, (eds.), Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, pp.

116. Ruhmkorff, S., 2011, “Some Difficulties for the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives”, Philosophy of Science , 78: 875886. Shapin, S. and Shaffer, S., 1982, Leviathan and the Air Pump , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Sklar, L., 1975, “Methodological Conservatism”, Philosophical Review , 84: 384400. , 1981, “Do Unborn Hypotheses Have Rights?”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 62: 1729. , 1982, “Saving the essay Noumena”, Philosophical Topics , 13: 4972. Stanford, P. K., 2001, “Refusing the uk essay online Devil's Bargain: What Kind of Underdetermination Should We Take Seriously?”, Philosophy of Science , 68 [Proceedings]: S1-S12. , 2006, Exceeding Our Grasp: Science, History, and the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives , New York: Oxford University Press. , 2010, “Getting Real: The Hypothesis of Organic Fossil Origins”, The Modern Schoolman , 87: 219243 Tulodziecki, D., 2012, “Epistemic Equivalence and macbeth macbeth essay, Epistemic Incapacitation”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 63: 313328. Turner, D., 2005, “Local Underdetermination in Historical Science”, Philosophy of Science , 72: 209230. , 2007, Making Prehistory: Historical Science and the Scientific Realism Debate , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Van Fraassen, B., 1980, The Scientific Image , Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Please contact the writers online author with suggestions.] I have benefited from discussing both the organization and content of book cormier this article with many people including audiences and participants at the 2009 Pittsburgh Workshop on Underdetermination and the 2009 Southern California Philosophers of uk essay writers online Science retreat, as well as the samuel johnson essay participants in graduate seminars both at UC Irvine and Pittsburgh. Special thanks are owed to John Norton, P. D. Uk Essay Online! Magnus, John Manchak, Bennett Holman, Penelope Maddy, Jeff Barrett, David Malament, John Earman, and James Woodward. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support.

Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server: The Stanford Encyclopedia of questions Philosophy is copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of writers Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.

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Essays on Diseases: Top 10 Essays on Diseases. Read this essay to learn about Diseases. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Uk Essay Writers? Infectious Diseases 2. Minamata Disease 3. Plague 4. Insect-Borne Diseases 5. Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) 6. Papers Development Economics? Asthma 7. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis 8. Uk Essay Online? Typhoid 9. Amoebiosis 10. Malaria. Essay on essay introduction Infectious Diseases Essay on Minamata Disease Essay on Plague Essay on Insect-Borne Diseases Essay on Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Essay on Asthma Essay on Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Essay on Typhoid Essay on Amoebiosis Essay on Malaria.

Essay on writers Disease # 1. Infectious Diseases : For most people in the world, the greatest environmental health threat continues to be pathogenic (disease- causing) organisms. Although much of research development our attention is uk essay online focused on toxic synthetic chemicals, we also should be aware of the biological hazards to which we are exposed. In the less developed countries, where nearly 80 per samuel johnson conversation essay cent of the world population live, infectious agents, parasites and uk essay online, nutritional deficiencies still are the main cause of morbidity (illness) and mortality (death). Gastrointestinal infections (diarrhea, dysentery and cholera) probably cause more deaths worldwide than any other group of diseases. Again, malnutrition and diarrhea create a vicious cycle. Poor nutrition makes people more susceptible to infection and infections, in turn, make it more difficult to obtain, absorb and retain food. Improved sanitation and better nutrition could prevent most, if not all.

Similar other infectious diseases like malaria, parasitic worm infections, tuberculosis and allied respiratory hazards, tetanous, etc., took lives of robert essay millions, particularly in poor nations. Essay on Disease # 2. Minamata D isease: It was in the early 1950s that fishermen and their families in the city of Minamata, Japan, first began to show the symptoms of what was to become known as the Minamata Disease. Uk Essay Writers Online? The first signs were loss of johnson essay sensation at the extremities of the online hands and feet and in johnson conversation areas around the writers mouth. These symptoms were followed by difficulty in walking, slurred speech, reduced vision and hearing loss.

Unfortunately, many persons fell prey to eventual paralysis, followed by coma and death. Public Health Department officials were at first unable to research papers economics ascertain the uk essay cause of such new disease. Similar symptoms were also reported from sea birds and cats in essays Minamata. Later it was evidently proved that this is a disease of Industrial Toxicity, more precisely “mercury poisoning”. Online? This poisoning of the food chain was local and quite direct. Research Papers? The Chisso Corporation, a plastic manufacturer, was releasing mercury laden wastes into Minamata Bay. The mercury—in its toxic methyl form—was then concentrated in the predatory fish through food chain of the bay ecosystem. The fisher folk were first to suffer the effect of the disease, for they subsisted largely on fish. By 1976, over 10,000 people were suffering from this disease. Plague is often regarded as a scourge of medieval times, from which the world is now largely free.

But the latest evidence suggests that incidence of the disease is on the increase. During 1995, at least 1,400 cases of uk essay writers online human plague (including at papers, least 50 deaths) were notified to WHO. The disease occurs particularly in rodents. It spreads from rat to rat and from rats to humans mainly by rat fleas biting first a sick rat and then a person, thus transmitting Yersinia perstis, the bacterium of the disease. Plague most commonly has two forms: bubonic and pneumonic. The more frequent form is bubonic, in which there is sudden onset of severe malaise, headache, shaking chills, fever and pain in uk essay writers online the affected regional lymph nodes. Large and painful lumps appear under the skin, called buboes.

The more dangerous form of the russia disease is writers pneumonic or pulmonary plague, which affects the lungs and can be transmitted from person to essay questions person by droplets in uk essay writers online the air from samuel johnson, sputum discharged by the infected individuals. Some countries in Africa, the America and Asia report cases almost every year. Madagascar, United Republic of Tanzania and Zaire in Africa; Bolivia, Brazil, Peru and the United States in the Americas, and China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Myanmar and Vietnam in Asia. However, cases occur in areas that had apparently been free from the disease for many decades. For example, it has reappeared in Botswana, India and uk essay writers, Malawi in recent years after “calm” periods of up to 30 years. Peru experienced a large outbreak of plague in 1984, followed by another in gcse biology coursework 1990 and writers, again 1992. Samuel Johnson Conversation? These outbreaks are linked to cyclical epidemics of plague in rodents. Over the uk essay online last 30 years, the mean annual global plague case fatality rate has been 9 per cent, ranging from just over 14 per cent in Africa to just under 6 per cent in johnson conversation essay the Americas. These high rates persist despite the availability of highly effective drugs against the disease. Other factors are involved in the apparent increase in plague.

In the United States, for example, rapid suburbanization has resulted in increasing numbers of people living in or near areas where plague exists in nature. The number of states of that country reporting plague cases increased from three during 1944- 1953 to uk essay writers online 13 during 1984-1994. Surveillance of plague in rodents indicates that the disease has spread eastwards in the United States to areas believed to have been free of plague during the previous 50 years (up to 1990). Essay on Disease # 4 . Insect-Borne Diseases : The five main diseases spread by mosquitoes—malaria, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and chinese literature essays, filariasis—do not lend themselves to a single, comprehensive approach. Each has to be tackled in its own right. At the uk essay online same time, however, some methods of prevention or control are common to all of them. Vaccines against yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis already exist and book cormier, others are being developed against malaria and dengue, although it will be several years at least before they become available. There is an effective drug against filariasis. The two key measures to prevent the spread of these five diseases are the elimination of mosquito breeding places and the prevention of mosquito bites. The first involves community action, such as covering water storage containers and uk essay writers, removing discarded containers from inside and around houses, house-to-house inspection; and control programmes using insecticide sprays. The second involves people protecting themselves with insecticide-impregnated materials such as curtains and nets, repellents and screens.

Vector and disease surveillance are extremely important, as are rapid intervention and control when an outbreak occurs. Other important measures are health education campaigns and biology coursework ocr, preparations to uk essay guard against outbreaks. Following high-level political commitment for a Global Malaria Control Strategy made in 1992 at macbeth and lady macbeth introduction, a Ministerial Conference in writers Amsterdam, a target was set for achieving a reduction in malaria mortality of at least 20 per cent by the year 2000 in at least 75 per cent affected countries. In 1994, the United Nations General Assembly called upon WHO, as the lead agency for coursework mark health, to promote the international mobilisation of technical, medical and financial assistance to intensify the struggle against malaria. But malaria resurgence in tropical countries were reported in past three decades. Drugs such as mefloquine and halofantrine have been developed and registered and uk essay online, artemisinin derivatives developed and brought close to registration. In Africa, large-scale multi centre trials of the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets have demonstrated a dramatic reduction in mortality of children under the age of 4. These research-based results are now being translated into operational recommendations for national control programmes. Essay on and lady essay introduction Disease # 5 . Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) : Characteristic symptoms of hay fever, induced following exposure of the nasal mucosa to uk essay online the allergen through inhalation, include profuse watery nasal discharge with sneezing, frequently accompanied by research development economics redness, irritated and watery eyes and headache. The inciting allergens are often found in windborne plant structures called aeroallergens.

The spores from uk essay writers, fungi and even certain algae may persist through the year, especially under warm humid conditions; but particularly in temperate regions, wind-pollinated plants elicit symptoms during certain flowering periods. In North America there are three peaks in the pattern of seasonal rhinitis: the first occurs in the spring when trees shed their pollen; the second, during the robert cormier essay summer months, involves pollen from many grasses as well as late flowering trees and weeds; and the last peak, in the autumn, is typified by weed and secondarily by online grass pollen grains. Ragweed pollen (Ambrosia) predominates during this time and is the most allergenic pollen found in North America. In tropical areas both perennial and seasonal patterns can also be observed with this disorder. Fungal spores and grass pollen are common aeroallergens, whereas those from weeds and wind-pollinated trees are of secondary importance. However, the determination of aeroallergens in the more equatorial zones requires further study. Although the majority of plants that induce allergic rhinitis are wind-pollinated, a number of chinese essays plants that are typically pollinated by animals (insects, birds, bats) have also been implicated. For example, old- fashioned roses, which are infrequently found in gardens today, are often heavily scented and their anthers are exposed by uk essay the loose and heroes book, open form of the writers floral bud.

Thus their attractiveness frequently used to lead to sensitization through inhalation of the pollen and the term rose-fever or rose-cold was used to describe plant-associated rhinitis. Attacks of research development economics bronchial asthma are usually precipitated by inhalation of the specific allergen and this form of allergy often has a more chronic course than that seen in allergic rhinitis even though the eliciting agents may be the same. Histamine and, perhaps, serotonin, are involved in symptoms that are characterised by bronchospasm and writers online, accompanied with excessive viscid bronchial secretion, which produces the asthmatic “wheezing”. Extrinsic asthma occurs typically in children and young adults and is often aggravated by emotional factors. It is considered to be an IgE mediated disease caused by the inhalation of aeroallergens such as pollen, spores, feathers and animal dander’s. Although not a common aeroallergen, pollen from the russia questions lodge-pole pine of Colorado (Pinus contorta) has also been known to cause bronchial asthma. The mechanism for induction of intrinsic asthma is somewhat more obscure and uk essay writers online, is generally found in an older age group. Introduction? The likely agents are allergic reactions to infectious materials, such as bacteria or viruses, or the inflammatory processes they elicit.

Unlike extrinsic asthma antigens cannot be demonstrated and thus skin testing is of no value. The separation of purely extrinsic from intrinsic asthma can be diagnostically difficult whenever allergic phenomena are combined with infectious factors. Possibly another IgE-mediated Type I disease is the coffee bean and castor bean workers disease that is online characterised by rhinitis, asthma and dermatitis following inhalation of the hapten, chlorogenic acid. As it is widespread in plants and is concentrated in coffee beans and castor beans, chlorogenic acid may act more as a universal allergen than was first suspected. Essay on Disease # 7 . Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis : Another type of allergic respiratory condition—known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis—is often associated with specific professions. In these instances, animal, vegetable or bacterial enzyme material may induce the disease. For example, inhalation of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris or fungal spores of Microsporum faeni, which can contaminate hay, moldy sugarcane, or mushroom compost, have been causally related to farmer’s (thresher’s) lung, bagassosis and mushroom worker’s lung. In a similar way, Cryptostroma corticale has been associated with maple bark disease of woodworkers, Penicillum caseii to cheese worker’s disease, Aspergillus clavatus and macbeth macbeth relationship essay introduction, A. fumigatus to brewer’s lung disease and Graphium and Aureobasidium pullulans to sequoiosis. By inhalation of the enzyme of Bacillus subtilis, those who work with detergents may also develop an allergic pneumonitis. Diseases produced by inhalation of airborne algae such as Gloecapsa and chlorella, are of more general incidence, however Wood and paper mill workers may also develop bronchial asthma through sawdust inhalation of the uk essay writers online Gymnosperms, redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), western red cedar (Thuja plicata), cedar of Lebanon (cedrus libani) and the Angiosperms, iroko or African oak (Chlorophora excelsa), Nicaragua rosewood (Dalbergia retusa), and other exotic woods.

The immunopathology suggests that a mixture of many types of immune or allergic reactions may be involved in research development extrinsic allergic alveolitis and thus is online classified as Type III. It is also possible that symptoms similar to those of allergic respiratory illness may be elicited by inhalation of airborne leaf hairs. Such a series of cases was recently reported among gardeners who had tended saplings of Oriental sycamores or the chinese literature essays tree of Hippocrates (Platanus orientalis) at a medical school campus. It is interesting that, about 2000 years ago, Dioscorides (40-90 AD) had noted watery eyes, sneezing, an irritating sensation in the nasal passages, soreness of the throat, an uk essay writers irritating dry cough and other similar symptoms. Typhoid fever is samuel johnson caused by Salmonella typhosa bacteria by ingesting contaminated food or water. Symptoms are characterised by headache, nausea and loss of appetite. About 12 million people get affected by typhoid every year. Typhoid can be prevented by providing access to safe drinking water, sanitation and good hygiene. This water borne disease is caused by Entamoeba histolytica and is characterised by liquid stools with mucus and blood, hepatitis or abscess.

Man gets the infection through cut fruits, salads, vegetables, contaminated water. E. histolytica are found as motile trophozoites or cysts. Uk Essay Writers Online? Trophozoites cause ulcer in the large intestine. Some amoebas reach liver through portal vein and may cause hepatitis or abscess. Intestinal and hepatic amoebiasis are the main manifestations of the research development disease. The cysts can survive for 6 to 7 weeks outside the human body, if kept moist and cool.

They do not survive at moderate (50°C) temperature. Diagnosis is based on writers online the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in stool. The antibody of the parasite can be easily detected by Immuno-fluorescence method. (i) Sanitary disposal of human excreta. (ii) Drinking boiled and filtered water, (iii) Protecting food against research papers development, flies. (iv)Washing vegetables with disinfectants by iodine solution (200 ppm) or 5% acetic acid. Cysts can be killed in uk essay writers online milk by pasteurisation.

The drugs usually prescribed by physicians are: i. Russia Essay Questions? Tnnidazole (1-2 g) to be taken one tablet for online 3 days. ii. Metronidazole (Flagyl) (400-800 mg)—one tablet thrice a day for 5 days. iii. Furamide (500 mg)—one tablet thrice a day for gcse biology coursework mark scheme ocr 7 days. iv.

Entrozyme (250 mg)—one tablet thrice a day for 7 days. Malaria is caused by parasite, Plasmodium and is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. The credit of this discovery goes to Ross (Kolkata) in 1903. The symptoms are periodic paroxyms of fever, associated with shivering and terminating with sweating. Fever is intermittent and uk essay, occurs after 3 or 4 days. Control of Malaria: (i) Destruction of mosquito by spraying with DDT and oil dissolved in chinese literature essays freon in writers online houses. (ii) Destruction of mosquito larvae in water bodies by heroes book cormier essay spraying with DDT or malathion.

(iii) Eliminating the online breeding places in stagnant water pools by spraying with pesticides. Antimalarial drugs are quinine, chloroquinine and camoquinine etc. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and macbeth relationship essay introduction, other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the writers online following pages: