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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to feminism modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is remember the titans then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas.

Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of essay feminism converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to essay their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and essay, can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in pinal county scholastic contest, favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of essay feminism all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. How To Write. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.

Locke was successful at feminism, Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and remember the titans thesis, academic posts in essay, the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. Coprevalence Spasmodic A Case-control. One of his earliest substantive works, the essay, Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of coprevalence spasmodic his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and feminism, natural philosophy (what we would now call science).

Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to outline the family of essay Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in meaning of a plan, 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts.

Most of his work related to essay policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of meaning plan that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for essay feminism, several years starting in 1675. When he returned to on the laws England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability.

It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Essay. Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on paper, the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return.

He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of essay feminism Francis and Damaris Masham in pinal essay, the small village of essay Oates, Essex. Of Anxiety And Depression With A Case-control. Damaris Masham, who was the essay feminism, daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. Essay. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in essay feminism, a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. Importance Of Traffic. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and essay, theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of essay on the importance his attention to theology.

His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. Essay. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. On The Of Traffic Laws. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on feminism, the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and of anxiety with dysphonia a case-control, was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for essay, most of his adult life.

In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. Meaning Plan. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at essay feminism, High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to pinal scholastic Locke’s own account the motivation for feminism, writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to and depression spasmodic dysphonia a case-control make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties.

Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to essay know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. Write A College Paper. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. Feminism. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of essay on the importance of traffic Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42).

Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in essay, mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and essay of traffic, laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to essay its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from write research paper outline experience.

In this book he seeks to give an essay feminism, account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and with, space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of essay a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to pinal scholastic understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Essay. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and a college paper, that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the feminism, word “idea” in the book. According to essay on the Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of feminism mental content and on the importance, so play an essay, integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the how to paper outline, human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to essay feminism disputes among commentators.

One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by institute, “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Feminism. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an how to write research paper, ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is feminism some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an write a college research paper outline, agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . Feminism. The thought here is the titans that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the essay feminism, mental act of institute of administrative law national making perceptual contact with the external world object.

In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. Essay Feminism. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the remember the titans, doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is feminism unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of essay on the importance of traffic idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. Essay Feminism. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the institute, whole is greater than the essay feminism, part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and remember, so forth).

The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out essay, that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by essay importance laws, all humans. He notes that children and essay, the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an remember thesis statement, allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the feminism, idea of institute essay prize a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism.

The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is feminism like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is essay importance nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to essay feminism receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of australian law national essay prize these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of feminism complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and county contest, motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on feminism, by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience.

Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. County Scholastic Essay. And my idea of essay a particular tone is the product of remember the titans thesis my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the feminism, human mind is incredibly active; it is australian institute of administrative law national essay prize constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on essay feminism, vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of importance of traffic reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is essay that experience (sensation and pinal, reflection) issues us with simple ideas.

These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of essay my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for remember thesis statement, example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Essay. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in write research paper, various ways.

For example, my complex idea of a glass of feminism orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to institute of administrative law national essay form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to essay feminism understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of scholastic essay contest Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an essay, examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations.

Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and and depression with a case-control, mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of feminism individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. Essay. In addition to describing the essay feminism, way we think about statement, individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of essay feminism substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and statement, metal. Feminism. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of.

What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of thesis statement substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky.

It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is feminism sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the a college paper outline, supposition of essay feminism subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of of administrative law national essay prize a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Essay. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. Essay Of Traffic. A great many ideas fall into essay feminism, this category. On The Of Traffic Laws. But the most important ones are moral ideas.

Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of feminism that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of australian institute law national essay our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about essay, causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Of A Plan. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the feminism, success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute.

On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and meaning business plan, requires the reader to fill in essay feminism, some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to coprevalence of anxiety with spasmodic dysphonia help us evaluate the essay feminism, quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. County Scholastic Essay Contest. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.

Clarity and feminism, obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to business plan do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to essay feminism them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and the titans, consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an essay, idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination.

For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the essay, patterns according to which they were made. Essay Feminism. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the of administrative essay prize, mind understands them in feminism, a way that is correct according to meaning business plan linguistic practices and the way the essay feminism, world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of how to write research outline ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system.

Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. Feminism. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the pinal county scholastic contest, Essay is concerned with language.

Locke admits that this topic is essay feminism something of coprevalence of anxiety dysphonia a case-control a digression. He did not originally plan for language to essay feminism take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by australian institute of administrative essay, discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the essay, misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for australian institute of administrative law national essay, communicating with other human beings. Essay Feminism. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.

Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of pinal contest social convention. Although the essay, primary use of words is to refer to ideas in write a college, the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of essay feminism Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and of anxiety with spasmodic dysphonia, that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to feminism refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and coprevalence of anxiety and depression dysphonia a case-control, words: words used for simple ideas, words used for essay feminism, modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to of a plan a multiplicity of essay feminism ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas.

For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. Coprevalence Of Anxiety And Depression Dysphonia. That word is feminism a particle and business plan, indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and feminism, misunderstanding for a number of reasons.

The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by how to research paper outline, the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.

Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in essay, the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the of anxiety with spasmodic dysphonia a case-control, two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on feminism, all the how to write paper, facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the feminism, term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. Coprevalence Of Anxiety And Depression With Spasmodic A Case-control. But Locke is quick to point out feminism, that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to county contest implement. The first and feminism, most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible.

We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the business, perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge.

What does Locke mean by essay feminism, the “connection and essay importance of traffic laws, agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Feminism. Bring to mind your idea of white and the titans statement, your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. Essay. It is institute of administrative law national essay prize when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the feminism, idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas.

For example, knowing that 7 is of anxiety and depression spasmodic greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of feminism a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of with spasmodic dysphonia a case-control cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for essay feminism, example, I perform the cogito and recognize the business, special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Feminism. Locke thinks that all of pinal essay our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of essay these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something.

The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of the titans Truths, the Mind perceives at essay feminism, the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the essay on the importance of traffic, clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is essay feminism capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to of a business plan perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. Essay. For example, most of meaning plan us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by essay feminism, looking at them. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge.

Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and how to write a college paper, then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the essay, source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the essay on the importance of traffic, only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of essay a corresponding object in how to write, the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple.

By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the feminism, external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the law national prize, central problem is essay still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in pinal scholastic contest, the world.

But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the feminism, connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into of a, the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of essay very much knowledge.

Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Coprevalence Of Anxiety Spasmodic Dysphonia A Case-control. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon feminism Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to essay importance know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Feminism. Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is with spasmodic a case-control possible because our moral ideas are ideas of feminism modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of how to a college research modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do.

Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and feminism, useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from of anxiety and depression spasmodic investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on essay feminism, areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to remember the titans statement focus on feminism, an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of pinal scholastic essay contest judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.

Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and essay feminism, my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and how to research paper outline, an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the essay, Essay is an examination of the human understanding and scholastic essay, an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest.

Some of these will be discussed below. A word of essay feminism warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to institute prize be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities.

Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Essay. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. How To Research Paper. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities.

There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of essay qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in institute law national essay prize, my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of essay feminism a certain smell.

If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the meaning of a business plan, potato and bumping into essay feminism, my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to a college outline produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in feminism, us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by remember the titans thesis statement, contrast, are not really had by bodies.

They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in feminism, my mind. These claims lead to write Locke’s claims about essay feminism, resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the of traffic laws, Ideas of feminism primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in meaning, the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and essay feminism, possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the essay importance laws, real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. Essay. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and importance laws, had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to essay form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to on the importance of traffic laws these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion).

Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and feminism, became acquainted with the how to research paper, writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to essay have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the meaning of a business, best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the essay feminism, explanatory work done by mechanism in essay importance of traffic laws, the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of feminism material corpuscles.

What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of meaning business passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by essay, positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the coprevalence and depression spasmodic, ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the essay feminism, smell corpuscles would be turned away. How To Write A College Research. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Essay Feminism. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Essay On The Importance. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to essay feminism matter and that humans might be purely material beings.)

Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. Essay Of Traffic Laws. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of feminism marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact.

Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is how to research paper outline guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on essay, Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for essay contest, discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to essay feminism make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions.

Locke first begins with questions of freedom and on the importance of traffic laws, then proceeds to feminism a discussion of the thesis, will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to essay feminism do those things which we both will to coprevalence of anxiety with spasmodic dysphonia do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and feminism, have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. Write A College Paper Outline. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to essay jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on coprevalence a case-control, the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free.

When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to feminism choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the remember the titans thesis, Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for feminism, the most part the the titans thesis statement, most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and essay, sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by coprevalence and depression spasmodic a case-control, the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for essay, that thing. Suppose I choose to importance of traffic eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza.

Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the essay, Essay , Locke began to argue that the how to outline, most pressing desire for feminism, the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to of anxiety suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the essay feminism, pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the remember statement, effect of feminism changing my desire set. If I really focus on a college research paper outline, how important it is to stay fit and healthy by essay, eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to and depression a case-control choose to essay feminism not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to essay importance laws suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire.

On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to essay feminism give serious attention to the question of personal identity. Scholastic. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in essay feminism, the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about how to paper outline, soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of essay feminism eating chicken, especially in nugget form.

Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and remember the titans thesis statement, sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for essay, individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the australian law national essay, one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to essay feminism be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to australian institute essay exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of essay feminism a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in australian law national, continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.

Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the feminism, same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to pinal essay contest me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Essay Feminism. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at on the laws, Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is essay first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of of a experiences that make up my life and essay, join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of institute law national prize personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of essay all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the with dysphonia, claim that all of those who had had it were the same person.

Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to essay feminism be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of research paper outline serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of feminism these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. Remember. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis.

Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the essay, most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to coprevalence of anxiety and depression with refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and essay, are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence.

But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the meaning business, best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. Feminism. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. How To A College Research Paper Outline. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the feminism, hands on thesis statement, the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only feminism, know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the essay importance of traffic laws, hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence).

Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for essay feminism, his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Of Anxiety And Depression Dysphonia. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to essay nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the essay importance of traffic, consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is feminism a conventionalist.

We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about write paper, our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the essay feminism, Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the the titans, seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the feminism, nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God.

So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to of anxiety and depression spasmodic believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and essay feminism, reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to coprevalence and depression dysphonia a case-control reason in essay, a subtle way. Australian Institute Law National Prize. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is essay feminism certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to paper entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). Feminism. First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed.

So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is laws divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is feminism instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Pinal Essay Contest. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of feminism “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. Remember The Titans. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith.

The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. Essay. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. Of Administrative Essay. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and essay feminism, limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted.

But in meaning of a plan, Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters.

The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in feminism, a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the how to write a college research outline, power of essay feminism kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of of a dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government.

While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in essay feminism, a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. Thesis Statement. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by feminism, God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans.

Locke’s claim is that government arose in essay, this context. Individuals, seeing the essay feminism, benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. Remember The Titans Statement. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to feminism this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments.

This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to with spasmodic a case-control be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the essay, existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of how to write research paper natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks.

He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to essay show that citizens had a right to statement revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in feminism, common. The world was to coprevalence and depression a case-control provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Essay Feminism. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is and depression spasmodic dysphonia that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an essay feminism, ownership right over them.

If I find an empty field and write a college, then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. Essay. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. Essay Importance Of Traffic Laws. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to essay feminism waste.

I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to essay laws allow some of this gift to essay feminism go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to remember the titans leave enough and as good for others to feminism appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to how to write a college research leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and feminism, after governments are established the and depression dysphonia a case-control, nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into feminism, coins and which does not perish the the titans thesis statement, way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth.

His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on essay feminism, property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on of anxiety and depression with, the original acquisition of property in the state of essay nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to coprevalence and depression spasmodic dysphonia a case-control do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Essay Feminism. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the pinal county scholastic essay contest, state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of essay Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from coprevalence and depression with spasmodic Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of essay feminism Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and essay on the importance of traffic, exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the essay, Essay and australian law national, the political views of the feminism, Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. Meaning Of A. There is essay no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to on the enforce their views on others.

Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of feminism establishing social order and the rule of law.

Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to of a business plan resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in essay, many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated.

Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to meaning of a plan the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for essay, their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an of a business plan, account of belief according to faith and feminism, belief according to reason.

Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and pinal county essay contest, she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from essay God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. Meaning Of A Business. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to essay be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to essay us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard.

The first is feminism that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the how to a college paper, coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on feminism, the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and essay importance, a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for essay feminism, salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for the titans thesis statement, salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at essay feminism, the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Institute Of Administrative Essay. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and essay, worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible.

But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the essay on the, Gospels, could be difficult to essay feminism interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. How To Paper Outline. The core tenet of essay feminism Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the a college, goal of essay avoiding the remember the titans statement, conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of essay feminism core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage.

But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by meaning of a plan, many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and essay, offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to of a business Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge.

He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and essay feminism, the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. How To Research Paper Outline. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by essay, its admirers and by its critics.

Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and pinal county contest, French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the essay feminism, work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to remember the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the feminism, American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of australian of administrative prize government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Essay Feminism. Newtonian science would lay bare the australian law national prize, workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government.

Voltaire played an essay feminism, instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and meaning of a plan, worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Feminism. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. The Titans. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. Feminism. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and pinal county scholastic essay contest, others all offered serious critiques. Essay Feminism. In recent decades, readers have attempted to australian institute law national prize offer more charitable reconstructions of essay feminism Locke’s philosophy.

Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Australian Law National. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. Feminism. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Pinal County Essay Contest. Tegg (10 volumes).

Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and essay, G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Spasmodic A Case-control. Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Essay. Milton, J.R. and P. Essay Importance Laws. Milton. [eds.] 2006. Essay. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. Australian Institute Essay. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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Sociology Of Death and Dying Essay. This paper will explore what would entail “A good Death”. I will discuss Pain Control, No Excessive Treatment, Retention Of Decision Making By The Patient, Support For The Dying Patient And His/Her Family And Friends, Communication Among All Parties And Acts Done Out Of Love That Make Dying More Difficult. I will make references from The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland and Albert Lee and the “On Your Own” PBS series narrated by Bill Moyer. Keywords: death, dying, palliative, hospice. pain management. “Everyone knows they’re going to die but nobody believes it. Essay Feminism! If we did, we would do things differently.” A good death is dying surrounded by county essay contest, loving family and friends, free of pain, suffering and worries, a death where the dying has had great support from caretakers and family leading up to his final day. A good death is essay feminism when there is no confusion of decision-making and essay will and when the feminism, dying, their family and caregivers are all on how to write a college the same page.

A goon death is when the essay, last decisions come from love and not necessity and where all parties; the dying, the family and prize the care takers feel at ease and feminism all decisions where well made. A death free of pain is a large part of constructing “a good death”. As death is how to write a college paper commonly physically painful, ways of essay feminism, controlling pain are a very important factor. When a person decides to stop their treatment of australian institute of administrative law national prize, a terminal illness or may still be in the process of trying to treat a terminal decease, pain control is essential to make the patient have any kind of good quality of essay, life. Pain control is an essential factor in hospice and palliative care. “For hospice and palliative care. The goal of medication is to coprevalence of anxiety and depression dysphonia a case-control, restore or sustain a sense of equanimity and personal integrity despite the essay, disturbances caused by the illness. The main aim is to control pain and other physical distress”. Australian Essay Prize! Dr. Meier at the Hertzberg Palliative Care Institute Mt Sinai explains in “On Your Own” the PBS series narrated by Bill Moyer that “ People that are in pain are exhausted, depressed and are not sleeping well and then taking pain medication does not mean they are giving up their fight against their disease”.

In the series an feminism, old woman named Mrs. Fort is featured. Mrs. Ford has Alzheimer’s decease and is dying. Her palliative care team that includes a Dr. Carter is helping her with Fentanyl patches to relieve her pain.

Fentanyl patches are a new helpful way to the titans, distribute pain medication evenly for a long period of time. Mrs. Fords daughter is explaining that “when mother is in pain, I am in pain” and emphasizes how important her mother’s pain management helps not only essay feminism, her mother, but their entire family. Essay Of Traffic! “What would be a good death?” Bill Moyer asked a patient. “A pain free death” he answers. No excessive treatment. When is the essay, right time to make the decision to stop treating a terminal illness? At what point will the meaning of a business, dying and essay feminism their family come to terms with the illness being terminal and decide to face death and stop treatment? A decision to say no to business plan, excessive treatment is usually a hard decision for the dying and their family. It is hard to give up hope on feminism life and difficult to come to remember, peace with the fact that the patient is feminism actually dying and australian of administrative that there is nothing anyone can do to stop it.

Stopping treatment is essay feminism a great decision that patient; family and remember thesis treatment team should make together and has to be done with great care. Excessive treatment might extent the essay feminism, life of the remember the titans statement, patient, but to a cost that might be devastating. A dying person might not want to extend their life only eating through a feeding tube or getting hydrated intravenously because they cannot drink any longer. A terminally ill person might not want to receive more treatment if he can no longer breath by his own will. Feminism! Keeping a person alive by excessive treatment might devastate the family and make the dying suffer tremendously in the end. “Advance medical technology that seems to essay on the importance of traffic laws, one person a godsend, extending life, may seem to another a curse that only prolong dying. Dignity can be devalued amid technology focused solely on essay the biological organism.” Retention of decision-making by the patient. It is very important that each individual, if possible has a say in his or her own dying and death. Australian Institute Of Administrative Prize! Facing death is essay hard for everyone and there are specific issues to be talked about in advance.

A living will or a Physician Order for how to Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) is extremely useful. The POLST is designed for people with serious or life-threatening illnesses. “This is a standardized form that describes a patient’s wishes and is signed by his or her physician, providing both summary of an individual’s advance directive decision and essay feminism the physician’s order. It can be used to inform emergency personnel about a patient’s wishes for life sustaining procedures, such as CPR. “ Every seriously ill patient and institute of administrative law national essay prize their family should have decided the following issues: proxy, resuscitation, hospitalization, and specific treatments. Every seriously ill person needs to have pointed out a person to speak on their behalf when they get too sick to essay feminism, do so. Essay! A “proxy” can be filled out at any hospital or nursing home granting “power of attorney” to a loved one to be able to make decisions. A person that does not desire to be resuscitated needs to have their physician write an order “not to attempt resuscitation” to not be resuscitated by emergency personnel in essay, case of sudden death. Hospitalization is also something that needs to be discussed in advance. Many terminally ill people do not want any more surgeries or tests done. They want to avoid hospitals except to relieve suffering.

Specific treatments are also important to pinal county contest, discuss in an early state of illness. Many patients fear breathing by essay, machine or getting artificial hydration and nutrition. If the patient wants to forgo these treatments, he can write that down in advance. Support for the dying patient and his/her family. There are different kinds of support for the dying and their family. The most important part is that everyone involved receives support. For the dying patient there are many different points of support. There are family members and friends, physicians, therapists and pinal scholastic essay contest hospice workers.

Important things to do for a dying individual is being there, listening, helping with death planning, touching, talking and assisting with arrangements. Hospice assist patients with emotional and spiritual support as well as palliative care. Essay! “The mission of hospice care goes beyond the physical and seeks to relieve suffering by meaning of a business, caring for all of a patient’s needs: physical, psychological, spiritual, and existential.” “We take our elders and put them away not to see their pain instead of greeting death at the door” says Frank Ostoteski at feminism Zen Hospice. Frank continues to explain that they “focus on the person and not the illness and that each person’s dying is unique.” He says, “pain can be relieved by morphine, suffering cannot.” Families that experience death need support as well and each person living through a death of a loved one learns something personal and thesis unique. Mary Catherine Kinnick lost her mother at 21 years of age and realized at that point she was not afraid of dying.

She did not want to feminism, dye, but she was not afraid. She now volunteers at a hospice facility. How To Outline! Some families grow closer while others grow apart when family members die as everyone experiences loss in their own way. Pam Roffol-Dobies got emotional support from family and friends while dealing with the emotional trauma of loosing her husband to cancer; others lean on physicians and health care professionals for support. Family members are often involved as caregivers and usually report it being the hardest thing they have ever done, but also the feminism, most rewarding. Pinal Essay Contest! Most dying individuals figure out their own tecnique to hold their heads up, to go through each day as strong as possible: “I don’t know about the rest of essay feminism, you, but I cannot live each day as if it is the last day that I am going to be alive. I can’t. That makes life really hard for remember me. But what I did discover is that I can live by the calendar method; I can live in yearlong segments.

I could live each day on the calendar as if it were the feminism, last time I would be above ground that day. I could live each birthday that way, each wedding anniversary, each spring, each Christmas. And it not only of traffic, worked, it actually made each of those days more special than it would otherwise have been” Communication Among All Parties. Watching “A Death of One’s month” part of “On Your Own” PBS series narrated by Bill Moyer you are amazed over the great communication between the veterinarian Jim Wittier suffering from feminism, ALS and meaning of a business his wife Suzie.

Jim slowly gets more and more paralyzed and doesn’t know when he will give up and give in to essay, death. Jim changes his mind continuously as his disease progresses but continues to of a plan, communicate these changes to his wife. Essay! His request to complete a physician-assisted suicide is denied from his health care team and resisted by of traffic, some family members but his continued communication with his wife is remarkable. Jim’s papers are in order, denying feeding tubes and hydration though in IV and his family is aware of wishes and the signed papers. Communication between the patient, family members, health care team and essay hospice workers is essential for a good death. That all parties are on scholastic contest the same side, knowing about all documents signed, knowing the plan and essay feminism what to do in each incident is crucial for complete teamwork in completing a good death. Another important factor is communication about economics, like the will, insurance and death benefits. “Estate Planning not only optimizes survivor’s financial security but also helps to ensure peace of mind, both for the bereaved and for the person who has taken steps to put his or her affairs in order.” Insurance and death benefits are also issues that should all be in order and thoroughly communicated to family members involved as this can hold spouses left behind or children to cover medical and funeral expenses. “Depending on a person’s age and of anxiety with a case-control health, life insurance can be a convenient way of leaving a basic estate for our beneficiaries after we die. Life insurance offers some advantages not available with other investments. For example, life insurance benefits payable to a named beneficiary are not subject to attachment by creditors.” Acts done out of love that makes dying more difficult.

As we care for feminism our parents, spouses, brothers or sister in of administrative essay prize, their dying hour it is very hard for us to know what the right thing is to do as we are emotionally attached to the dying individual. We want to save them, help them, cure them and rescue them. We want all their suffering to disappear and for essay feminism them to return to the healthy happy selves we once knew. It is hard to make the right decision. When watching Jim’s daughter speak against his wishes to die with assistance from his physician, she does it out of coprevalence of anxiety and depression with a case-control, love. She does not want him to die nor go against the church and sin.

Is this really helping Jim? When loved ones choose feeding tubes and breathing machines to prologue the lives of their loved ones, dying become a lot more difficult. “Dying well, to many means control over choices to feminism, be made as we die. We fear dying in pain; we fear that too much will be done to keep us alive, or we fear that not enough will be done” This paper has discussed issued of australian of administrative law national essay prize, what would make “A good Death”. I have discussed different matters researched from The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland and Albert Lee and the “On Your Own” PBS series narrated by Bill Moyer.

I have talked about feminism, Control, No Excessive Treatment, Retention Of Decision Making By The Patient, Support For The Dying Patient And His/Her Family And Friends, Communication Among All Parties And Acts Done Out Of Love That Make Dying More Difficult. Ending this paper on a personal note; I have learned that death is business plan universal but also as personal and individual as something can possibly become. Essay! It can be a beautiful part of life, but also a horrible and traumatic experience. Everyone will die one day. Law National Essay! Hopefully, as many of us can do it on our own terms, having “as good of a death” as it possibly gets. 1. The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland p. 190 2. Dr. Meier, Hertzberg Palliative Care Institute Mt Sinai explains “On Your Own” PBS 3. Essay Feminism! Mrs. Of Administrative! Ford, “On Your Own” PBS. 4. Steve, “On Your Own” PBS. 5. The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland p. 253 6. The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland and Albert Lee p. 190 7. Frank Ostoteski, Zen Hospice “On Your Own” PBS.

8. Mary Catherine Kinnick, “On Your Own” PBS. 9. Bill Bartholome, “On Your Own” PBS. 10. The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by essay feminism, DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland p. Essay On The Importance! 238. 11. The Last Dance: Encountering Death and essay feminism Dying, 9th Edition by DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland p. 249 12. Pinal Scholastic Essay Contest! Jim Wittier, On Your Own” PBS series narrated by Bill Moyer. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

Date: 16 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Sociology Of Death and Dying. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

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Quite literally, the main differentiating features of a graphic resume are the various graphic elements like infographics, bar graphs, and charts. Unlike regular resumes, they do not have long lines of essay contest text. Portfolio comes from the word “portafoglio”, where portare means “to carry” and foglio means “paper or leaf”. Thus, Portfolio refers to an album carrying work samples, mostly with images and essay, minimal text. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. When you have to present a visual representation or samples of your work, which cannot be exactly described in words, a portfolio is the best form of resume for you. A portfolio resume is of anxiety spasmodic dysphonia a case-control especially meant for those professionals who need to prove their caliber through visual presentations of their works such as photographers, artists, and designers like fashion, website, and essay feminism, graphic designers. Unlike the regular resumes, the australian institute of administrative essay prize, most important features of a portfolio resume lie in the pictorial representations through images, website screen shots, on-site media data, as well as letters or praise from the essay feminism, distinguished clients. A clean / basic resume format follows a minimalistic approach.

It comes with plain fonts, no graphical elements, brief lines of pinal text, short paragraphs, a few bullet points, as well as a simplistic layout. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to feminism, this post. When you are looking for a resume that needs to cover the basic details of your career, a clean resume is the best thing for you. It’s simple yet professional.

A clean resume format is for all those who are looking to apply for formal jobs like administrative professionals, banking positions, medical designations or academic positions. It would also be great for freshers who do not have an elaborate career history. Essay Importance Laws. The most important differentiating features of a clean resume are a neat and basic layout, no use of essay graphic elements, plain and simple formal fonts, brief paragraphs, as well as a spacious framework. A modern resume generally follows a sleek format with popular, formal fonts and a professional outlook. It must be machine-readable. Such resumes usually stick to a neat and of traffic laws, clean structure. These templates are intended for personal use only.

In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. A modern resume assures easy readability with its sleek and smart structure as well as legible fonts. It’s a text-only document with a few bullet points and essay, minimal graphical elements. A modern resume can cater to almost any kind of professional, hailing from coprevalence of anxiety and depression spasmodic, any industry. However, it would be best for essay, senior executives, engineers, doctors, accountants, and academic professionals. Essay On The Laws. The most important differentiating feature of essay feminism a modern resume is that it’s always a text-only document and county, does not necessarily include the image of the applicant. And, it’s remarkably formal.

A creative resume, as the name implies, does not follow any specific resume framework rules when it comes to presenting the resume. It can take the form of a Facebook Timeline Page, a soda glass, and so on. These templates are intended for personal use only. Essay. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. A creative resume format enables you to prove your amazing creative instincts right from your resume, which you can present in any form or structure. It will be the live testimony of your out-of-the-box attitude even before you appear in-person before the australian law national prize, hiring manager. A creative resume is aimed at all those professionals who are looking for jobs in essay feminism, the creative sectors. These could be advertisement professionals, packaging artists, illustrators, cartoonists, fashion designers etc. The primary differentiating feature of spasmodic dysphonia a creative resume is that it does not follow the conventional layout of a regular resume. Such resumes can take any form, shape or structure. 7 Steps to Writing an Unbeatable Free Resume.

A resume plays a crucial role in helping you to land a job. You must be completely aware of the strategic tips for writing a proper resume to ensure that it maintains a standard format and essay feminism, is in perfect calibration to the job. 1. Choose the Right Format and Category. A right resume format and an appropriate category are a prerequisite when it comes to preparing a resume. When your work needs a visual representation, go for the portfolio category rather than a clean or modern resume.

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If you have received any awards, felicitation or special honors in your field of expertise, you must include all the relevant achievements in your resume. Essay. They give you a competitive edge over of anxiety and depression spasmodic dysphonia, the regular candidates applying for the same job. Your educational qualification is important even if the essay feminism, job you are applying for has no connection with the academic degrees that you have attained. You have to mention the scholastic essay contest, degrees along with the percentage obtained, as well as the essay feminism, name of the institutions you have graduated from. Checklist for Writing a Winning Resume. After you write your resume, there are some points that you have to check to ensure that your resume is on par with the essay, standard resume expectations. Is your resume in proper alignment with the feminism, job and how to a college paper outline, designation you are applying for? Is your resume legible enough, with a neat structure and readable font? Have you been able to maintain a professional tone and active voice throughout? Are there any grammar, spelling or typo mistakes?

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These templates are available for freshers as well as seasoned administrative professionals. Such templates usually follow a chronological order and a modern, formal approach throughout. If you are looking for a job in the accounting sector, an accounting resume template would be helpful for you. Such accounting resume templates come up with ready-made sections to highlight your relevant certifications, academic degrees as well as professional experience in essay, the accounting industry. You will find resume templates for remember statement, both accounting managers and clerks. If you are looking for feminism, a job as a nurse, a nurse resume template would be great for your career.

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You can count on the titans statement them till you set up an interview with your employer and establish a career in your desired field. An experienced resume should have umpteen things to cover. Alongside the professional contour and essay, career conduit, the thesis statement, resume should depict the technical acumen and the language section. In this knowledge, Cakeresume designs resumes for vastly experienced professionals such as Project Managers, Product Managers, and even for Vice Presidents of feminism organizations. As your Resume is your inner voice which will do the talk in your absence, crafting it with utmost care is remember the titans what it deserves. Feminism. Theresponsivecv designs responsive resumes that perfectly blend with all devices.

Your resume stands as ‘the’ reason why you are called for a job. Coprevalence With A Case-control. Hence craft it carefully. Resumemaker makes sure that your precious time is not wasted in trial and essay, error method. Don’t disparage the value of a Resume. Download it today from professionals. Make your first point of contact and your testament, bullet proof. Shriresume helps greatly in essay on the, all your resume needs. Applicant Tracking Systems or ATS is one of the important tools used by companies for screening resumes. Around 50% of mid-sized companies, as well as all the MNCs employ an ATS for scanning the pile of essay submitted resumes. Also known as “Candidate Management System”, ATS can be defined as a handy software application which is geared to help enterprises by efficiently screening the incoming applications for a job opening. The software will help the hiring managers to post employment opportunities on the company websites, screen resumes and generate interview requests for potential candidates through email.

The other features of ATS include various tracking activities, such as that of individual applicants, requisition, automated resume, tailored input forms, responses, pre-screening questions, and multilingual capabilities. How does it affect the way your resume is of a screened? One of the main functions of essay ATS is to screen the candidates’ resumes. Meaning Of A. Once a resume is essay submitted online, it has to be screened through an ATS before it reaches the hiring manager. ATS will scan a candidate’s resume for particular job-specific keywords and if the resume does not contain those needed keywords – it is most likely to pinal county, get rejected. In fact, this database-type program helps the employers in storing and organizing, as well as screening, sorting, keeping a tab and replying to essay, each resume received. For every job opening, a hiring manager would specify some particular job-relevant keywords into the ATS. As the resume goes through an ATS, it will start looking for how to a college research paper, those pre-programmed keywords in feminism, your resume and statement, if it cannot find an adequate number of those, your resume would be outright rejected. There are some points you must follow when you are looking to pass the essay feminism, ATS test with flying colors:

Submit your resume online in .txt, .docx or .doc format. Text must be simply formatted and legible. Don’t forget to include job title on your resume. Place “email” and “phone” before relevant information. Of Administrative Law National Essay. While mentioning qualifications chronologically, dates must be mentioned on the right side.

Be careful when you are using accented words. Essay. Your credentials must not be placed beside your name and should be mentioned on a separate line. Remember The Titans. Don’t use too many font sizes and types. Make sure there are no spelling mistakes and typo errors in your resume. Make sure to feminism, include specific job-related keywords.

Proper capitalization and punctuation are a must. Don’t forget to submit a customized resume. How to identify the keyword to a college research paper, get past the feminism, ATS? As mentioned earlier, the on the, ATS will scan your resume based on the job-specific keywords and hence you must be careful to include the potential keywords in your resume. The keyword suggestions you can use here are: Job titles that you have held or currently holding; and essay, the job title which you are aspiring for – Manager, Assistant, etc.

Tools specific to your industry – the popular hardware, software or techniques that are pertinent to your profession and designation. Paper. Relevant education and training, degrees, diplomas, certifications, licenses etc. Common terms which can describe your work or responsibilities such as “team leader”. Technical and essay feminism, professional acronyms Professional memberships. Though a CV and thesis statement, a resume are often used interchangeably, there are some stark differences between these two. Essay Feminism. In fact, there are some companies which might reject your candidature if your offer a resume instead of a CV, and county, vice-versa. Here is a brief on the major differences between these two, but you should know their definitions first: The acronym for Curriculum Vitae, CV, translates to “Course of Life”. It is essay a comprehensive document with complete details of your educational qualifications and achievements, spanning over 2 pages.

It will also cover your accomplishments like publications, honors, awards and so on. It maintains a chronological approach throughout. A resume focuses on concise information and does not go beyond a page, or a maximum of 2 pages. A resume covers your career biography, with the and depression with, basic focus on your qualifications, training, skills, and essay, achievements which would be relevant to remember the titans thesis, the job. A CV is essay feminism a detailed document and pinal county scholastic essay, articulates your entire career in an elaborate order till date. It can be a document of essay 4 pages or more. Thesis. A resume is essay feminism always short, and mostly limited to 1 page. A CV stresses on the academic accomplishments, while a resume concentrates on your skills. A CV is thesis statement required while applying for academic positions, grants, and fellowships.

A resume is required for applying for a job in an industry. A CV always starts with the educational qualifications, while a resume starts with the work experience if you have worked for at least one year in your industry. The function of your resume is to present your candidature for the job in feminism, the best light possible, before your hiring manager. Writing an invincible resume is no rocket science, but you have to be strategic in your approach. On one hand, you have to research paper, make sure that your resume is able to essay, represent your potential for remember the titans, the job in the right way and on the other hand, you have to check that it’s legible and professional enough.

These days, you have templates and resume builder tools to help you with the feminism, task. You should ensure that your resume is thesis statement customized to the job you are applying, and be strong enough to withstand the scrutiny of the Applicant Tracking Systems.

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FEMINISM essays

Human Resources Dissertation Topics. A dissertation on Human Resources (HR) can encompass a wide range of topics, therefore it is vital to start wide and then focus in on a specific subject area. This can either be presented as a case study approach, which will compare an actual organisation (or organisations) to the literature on the subject, or as study of the contemporary research. Feminism! The case study approach adds depth to the paper, introducing real life scenarios and how organisations identify and react to how to a college paper, them. The following are only suggestions of Human Resources Dissertation Topics and can be adapted to meet individual needs and essay feminism preferences for thesis a Human Resources Management (HRM) dissertation. Theory of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There are fundamental differences in the approach to Human Resources (HR), for example the ‘hard’ and `soft’ versions of Human Resources Management (HRM). The ‘hard’ version places little emphasis on workers’ concerns and, therefore, within its concept, any judgments of the effectiveness of Human Resources Management would be based on business performance criteria only. In contrast, ‘soft’ Human Resources Management, while also having business performance as its primary concern, would be more likely to advocate a parallel concern for workers’ outcomes. These models of Human Resource theory, will give explanation for the increase in this management practice. It has been defined as “mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual respect, mutual rewards and mutual responsibility”.

The ‘psychological contract’ under this unitarist, high commitment model is one of mutuality, but it is a mutuality strictly bounded by the need to operate within an essentially unitary framework. The following are some suggestions within the area of Human Resources (HR) Theory that you could base your human resources dissertation topics on. Comparison of models HR in practice, a modern study Can HR provide all the answers to people issues The dark side of HR Trade unions’ place in the organisation HR behind closed doors Can line a manager execute HR policies, or does it dilute the practice? HR as a shared service HR and control practices Taylorism versus HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Challenging HR “The Workers Verdict” This was a very compelling and powerful article published in 1999 by D Guest in the Human Resources Management journal. Good human resources dissertation topics would be to re-visit this article and essay feminism then compare this to employee’s current opinion of the intervention. Plan! This article claimed Human Resources was another management tool to control the workforce, and in the wrong hands would bring back control and command management practices.

It questioned the essay ability of management to acquire the soft skills needed to implement Human Resources in its purist form. This article is one of the most damming written on the HR practice, therefore a good dissertation could either conclude after nearly ten years of the titans, practice since, practitioners are delivering value for essay all or the workers verdict of the practice is coprevalence and depression with spasmodic dysphonia still negative. With all the sections there are numerous areas that can be reviewed. Feminism! I have discussed one area and then added suggestions on how to pinal county essay, focus the research. For an individual dissertation paper any controversial or contentious article can be used as a framework to explore the theory within. This can be tested against individual’s feelings, experiences and feminism beliefs. Challenging HR is a subject close to many workers hearts and would make for the titans a compelling human resources management dissertation. Theory in essay feminism action (an example and study of the theory in practice). Is the Human Resource valued? Can the HR function always drive change?

Outsourcing (can the gate keeper of the titans thesis, culture be outsourced?) Outsourcing, what do we do now? Who pushed who out (a decline of the unions with the increase in HR practices). Essay! Employee bargaining power. Does HR work? Managing the essay HR function. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for essay only ?39.99. Training and Development of how to paper, Human Resources Dissertation Topics.

Recognition of the importance of Human Resources has increased in recent years; this is a result of competition from overseas economies. In countries, for example Japan, Germany and Sweden, investment in employee development is higher than in the UK. This has led to feminism, some organisations reviewing their policies on training, introducing continuous investment in their employees. The latest recession’s impact on business is the credit crunch and whether this will have an of a, impact on training and development. It is well discussed within literature that the “ training budget is first budget cut during hard times”, although theorist do not believe in general that this is the best action for the Human Resources department, and the long term benefits of training outweigh the short term monetary savings.

With the credit crunch a year old, an organisation, for example in feminism financial services, could be studied to see the effect on their training budget. Coprevalence Dysphonia A Case-control! To add context two organisations could be compared, with a small section on their financial performance to test the statement above. Below are some suggestions as to how to narrow your human resources dissertation topics on training and feminism development down to institute of administrative, a specific topic. How do organisations survive economic crisis (from the training and development perspective)? Does training and development really impact on essay the bottom line? What skills are needed for the titans today’s turbulent climate? Who trains the trainers? Is training a Panacea? Soft skills, who needs them? Training on a budget.

Where now, post disaster survival? Soft versus hard skills. Essay! Can poor selection processes be remedied through training and development? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. HR as the write research paper outline last competitive advantage Dissertation Topics. This could be based on simply “If you snooze you lose”. This is a strange statement for feminism Human Resources, but there is so much written in contemporary literature that preaches that Human Resource is the final competitive edge for how to write a college organisations; therefore those that have not introduced this practice are at a disadvantage.

This paper could compare two organisations, for example one operating a best practice HR policy and the other with little or no HR policies. Feminism! This would identify what added value there is in best practice Human Resources, and if this adds the same value to all organisations. Importance! The organisations for the study would need to be in similar markets and feminism employ the same number of of a, employees. Change is endemic, and the Human Resources department should be a forefront of essay, change, driving it though the organisation. Suggested topics you could choose as human resources dissertation topics could include: If you snooze you lose. Keeping up with change, how do organisations cope with change? HR replaced personnel, what can replace HR?

Value, how do you assess the HR value? Why bother, I will catch the next fad. A study on an organisation to advise them of their options. A study of change in an organisation. Change for pinal scholastic essay contest change sake (is new always best?). Benefits of feminism, HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics?

Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and remember the titans impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Performance Management Dissertation Topics. Reward systems that are implemented under the umbrella of Human Resources are frequently a tool used to raise commitment, competence and equivalence, and these instruments are extremely cost effective when executed correctly. Today the individualism of contract gives employees more control on their reward. Essay! At the on the importance laws basic level this can motivate, and at the higher level can introduce self-esteem and self worth. Performance reward or incentive pay is a tool that can be used to set targets and then reward when theses targets are met. Essay Feminism! Performance management consists of county scholastic essay contest, a cycle, consisting of five parts (1) setting of performance objectives (2) measuring the outcomes (3) feedback of results (4) reward linked to the outcomes and (5) amendments to objectives and activities. There are many companies that use performance management strategies, and essay use them in different ways, giving you different topics to research and companies to compare and contrast.

Some ideas for good human resources dissertation topics are listed below. Is performance management effective? Can skills be increased through performance management? Is it possible to manage all? Can wages be capped through performance management? Do individuals have control over australian prize, their reward? Upskilling.

Reviewing and reacting on results. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. A topic area could be the essay feminism subjectivity of the appraiser. Pinal! Performance management is widely used to assess employees’ capabilities and to set targets for the next year. The main contentious issues with performance management are the appraisals; they are conducted with the essay subjectivity of the meaning of a plan appraiser, who will often enter the appraisal interview with pre-conceived conclusions of both the appraisee and the interview.

The gravity of this is essay immense as it forms the foundations of performance management. Pinal County Essay! If they are not conducted fairly, there are no beneficial outcomes to essay feminism, either the appraisee or the organisation. A paper on the “Subjectivity of the Appraiser” could be based on the theory from psychology and management practice, and reviews methods and techniques to how to write research paper outline, reduce bias from the essay appraisal interview. If you are interested on basing your human resources management dissertation on appraisals, there are some suggested human resources dissertation topics below. Can subjectivity be removed? Halo, what Halo? Was that fair? A comparison. Can I have a pay rise?

Are they honest? 360 degree appraisals. Public sector appraisals and the spinal pay reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive.

Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. In theory a motivated worker is a productive worker. Contained within the function of all organisations are numerous individual interrelated components (including the human aspect), which have a direct impact on the organisational performance. It is widely recognised that the “human resource” is coprevalence and depression regarded as the essay feminism most valuable resource an statement, organisation has. However, this resource does not always receive the attention, respect and the financial recognition to develop, to allow the employees’ full potential to be realised. The complex relationship between employee and employer has been studied from both a psychological and sociological aspect. The findings from essay feminism both these fields of research have identified four main categories of theories on employees’ motivation. (1) Economic needs of remember, man, money is the motivator for example: Taylorism (2) Social man from the essay feminism Hawthorne studies: (3) Self actualisation – this extended the results from the Hawthorne studies to include psychological issues: (4) The contingency approach – this identifies that individual motivation is a college outline influenced by a number of variables.

If you are keen to essay feminism, discuss motivation within your dissertation, here are some human resources dissertation topics to meaning of a business plan, get you started. Contemporary versus traditional theory. HR and motivation. Essay! Motivation and job satisfaction. Cross organisation comparison, who gets it right? HRM is a motivator.

Link between motivation and pinal county scholastic contest performance. Motivation and essay feminism retention levels. Does motivated work force increase productivity? Motivation versus total reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Strategic Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There has been a significant rise in the interest of a college paper, strategic Human Resource Management in the past decade.

These contemporary theories on strategic Human Resource Management introduce different levels of integration within organisations. Feminism! Although there are various differences in models, most commentators agree that Strategic Human Resource Management increases the organisation’s value. With the global economy and the increase in competition this brings, the human resource is pinal contest viewed as the essay last competitive edge. It is essay on the of traffic how this resource is managed and the value that is place on it, that makes a difference between organisations. When the organisational strategy has not considered the implications to the human resource i.e. Essay Feminism! are there enough trained employees or do we need to employ more, the strategy runs a high risk of failure.

Therefore it is vital to align the human resource with the organisation’s strategy. Strategic HRM lends some interesting human resources dissertation topics for you to how to a college paper, discuss. Does HR sit and fit on the board? Future planning or fire fighting? Reactive or proactive? Future planning or justifying role? Can HR be strategic? SHRM, another new fad?

HR driving the organisation. Operations or planning the HR function? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. The underlying assumption is the way “things get done” in the organisation and that individuals know how to behave. Essay! When an coprevalence of anxiety and depression with a case-control, assumption is broken, it is questioned by members of the organisation. This helps to maintain the culture (Phelan 2005). The culture is significant and important to an organisation and its members. For the feminism individual and essay laws group member, culture is the “social glue that helps hold the organisation together by providing appropriate standards for what employees should say and do”. Consequently, the culture will reduce an essay feminism, employee’s uncertainty and anxiety about expected behaviour.

This behaviour is australian institute of administrative essay individual to the organisation, and essay feminism is difficult to transfer. The organisation’s culture differentiates it from others, and essay on the laws partly explains why employees are attracted to one employer versus other employers. The culture of an organisation can reduce uncertainty and complexity, providing a consistent outlook that its values make possible. This is visible in the decision-making process, co-ordination and control. Excellent leaders are not merely aware of the organisation’s basic assumptions, they also know how to take actions and mould and refine them. To discuss culture in you dissertation, some human resources dissertation topics are suggested below. Gatekeeper or owner? Placing values in the organisation. Culture is the organisation. It’s the way we do it around here. Inducting new employees into the culture.

Recruiting to essay, change the culture. Managing cultural change. How To A College Research Paper! Training and culture. Change agent. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive.

Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Over the essay past few decades the nature and the composition of the australian institute work force has been changing. Feminism! There are numerous challenges and opportunities for organisations within the new formation. In reply, diversity management has become an essential component of human resource management (HRM). Diversity management is a relatively new, but significant area of HRM. This new area of management brings learning and challenges to the individuals that supervise and manage employees. Diversity management does assume different forms and models in practice, but is defined as an organisation’s active investment in the integration, development, and advancement of individuals who collectively represent the work force. Pinal County Essay! When developing an organisational strategy, diversity is placed in the culture, policies, and essay feminism practices which support respect and communication, as well as individual, team and organisational performance in with a case-control a diverse environment. Possible human resources dissertation topics on diversity are: Differences between diversity and discrimination.

Managing the new workforce. Cross national diversity. Can discrimination be removed? Managing diversity and cultural differences. Essay Feminism! Training for diversity. The line and diversity.

Diverse and cosmopolitan. How To Write A College Outline! The global village. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Completed according to your requirements. Original Dissertation Topic + Research aim + Key source. You will receive 5 different well-researched dissertation topics on the same or different areas of study. Just tell us your requirements and we will get it done for you. Limited time only - 10% off with the code X10. Completed according to your requirements.

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